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Scanning for New Evidence on the Nutrient Content of Human Milk: A Process Model for Determining Age-Specific Nutrient Requirements Kathleen Rasmussen, Ann L. Yaktine, and Alice Vorosmarti, Editors Committee on Scanning for New Evidence on the Nutrient Content of Human Milk Food and Nutrition Board Health and Medicine Division A Consensus Study Report of
THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 This activity was supported by contracts between the National Academy of Sciences and the U.S. Department of Agriculture (Contract 59-0204-9-207) and the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (Contract 75F40120P000019). Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect the views of any organization or agency that provided support for the project. International Standard Book Number-13: 978-0-309-68344-9 International Standard Book Number-10: 0-309-68344-0 Digital Object Identifier: https://doi.org/10.17226/25943 Additional copies of this publication are available from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, NW, Keck 360, Washington, DC 20001; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313; http://www.nap.edu. Copyright 2020 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America Suggested citation: National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Scanning for new evidence on the nutrient content of human milk: A process model for determining age- specific nutrient requirements. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. https://doi.org/10.17226/25943.
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COMMITTEE ON SCANNING FOR NEW EVIDENCE ON THE NUTRIENT CONTENT OF HUMAN MILK KATHLEEN M. RASMUSSEN (Chair), Cornell University, Ithaca, New York MEGHAN AZAD, University of Manitoba, Canada LARS BODE, University of California, San Diego MICHELLE MCGUIRE, University of Idaho, Moscow LAURIE NOMMSEN-RIVERS, University of Cincinnati, Ohio IAN J. SALDANHA, Brown University School of Public Health, Rhode Island Health and Medicine Division Staff ANN L. YAKTINE, Director, Food and Nutrition Board ALICE VOROSMARTI, Associate Program Officer ZARIA FYFFE, Senior Program Assistant v
Reviewers This Consensus Study Report was reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine in making each published report as sound as possible and to ensure that it meets the institutional standards for quality, objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We thank the following individuals for their review of this report: LINDSAY H. ALLEN, U.S. Department of Agriculture; University of California, Davis PATSY BRANNON, Cornell University SHARON M. DONOVAN, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign DONNA GEDDES, The University of Western Australia JOSEPH LAU, Brown University MARGARET NEVILLE, University of Colorado RACHEL NOVOTNY, University of Hawaiâi at MÄnoa RAFAEL PÃREZ-ESCAMILLA, Yale University XIAOBIN WANG, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine and Childrenâs Center Although the reviewers listed above provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the content of the proceedings nor did they see the final draft before its release. The review of this proceedings was overseen by JOHN W. ERDMAN, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, and SUZANNE P. MURPHY, University of Hawaiâi at MÄnoa. They were responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this proceedings was carried out in accordance with standards of the National Academies and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content rests entirely with the authoring committee and the National Academies. vii
Contents SUMMARY 1 1 INTRODUCTION 5 Background for the Study, 5 Committeeâs Task and Approach, 6 Organization of the Report, 8 References, 8 2 METHODOLOGICAL APPROACH TO EVIDENCE SCANNING 9 Justification, 9 Approach, 9 Screening and Data Abstraction, 15 References, 16 3 RESULTS 17 Literature Search Results, 17 References , 56 4 DISCUSSION AND FUTURE DIRECTIONS 63 Approach to the Evidence-Scanning Process, 63 Findings, 64 Future Directions, 66 APPENDIXES A ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS 67 B OPEN SESSION AGENDA 69 C LITERATURE SEARCH RESULTS 71 D REVISED SEARCH CRITERIA 85 E DATA ABSTRACTION SPREADSHEET 93 F COMMITTEE MEMBER BIOGRAPHIES 97 ix