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Business Models to Facilitate Deployment of Connected Vehicle Infrastructure to Support Automated Vehicle Operations (2020)

Chapter: Appendix B: Connected Vehicle Infrastructure Cost Data Collected from Current Deployments

« Previous: Appendix A. Connected Vehicle Deployments as of 2019
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Connected Vehicle Infrastructure Cost Data Collected from Current Deployments." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Business Models to Facilitate Deployment of Connected Vehicle Infrastructure to Support Automated Vehicle Operations. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25946.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Connected Vehicle Infrastructure Cost Data Collected from Current Deployments." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Business Models to Facilitate Deployment of Connected Vehicle Infrastructure to Support Automated Vehicle Operations. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25946.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Connected Vehicle Infrastructure Cost Data Collected from Current Deployments." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Business Models to Facilitate Deployment of Connected Vehicle Infrastructure to Support Automated Vehicle Operations. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25946.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Connected Vehicle Infrastructure Cost Data Collected from Current Deployments." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Business Models to Facilitate Deployment of Connected Vehicle Infrastructure to Support Automated Vehicle Operations. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25946.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Connected Vehicle Infrastructure Cost Data Collected from Current Deployments." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Business Models to Facilitate Deployment of Connected Vehicle Infrastructure to Support Automated Vehicle Operations. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25946.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Connected Vehicle Infrastructure Cost Data Collected from Current Deployments." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Business Models to Facilitate Deployment of Connected Vehicle Infrastructure to Support Automated Vehicle Operations. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25946.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Connected Vehicle Infrastructure Cost Data Collected from Current Deployments." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Business Models to Facilitate Deployment of Connected Vehicle Infrastructure to Support Automated Vehicle Operations. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25946.
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121 APPENDIX B: CONNECTED VEHICLE INFRASTRUCTURE COST DATA COLLECTED FROM CURRENT DEPLOYMENTS Cost Component Cost Data Reported by DOTs Roadside Units Hardware • MnDOT cites $100,000 for 22 RSUs for its Connected Corridor project along Hwy 55 in the Twin Cities region. • The City of Marysville, OH quotes $2,000-$4,000 per RSU depending on manufacturer in relation to its Connected Marysville project outfitting 27 traffic signals. • WYDOT cites $1,400 per RSU for its I-80 pilot deployment involving 78 units. • WSDOT lists the per RSU cost of 10 RSU kits (DSRC unit, PoE injector, mount, antenna, cabling) as $5,250 for its SR 522 Corridor SPaT deployment. • UMTRI's total budget to deploy 74 RSUs across 27 square miles of Ann Arbor for the Ann Arbor Connected Vehicle Test Environment (3 CSW sites, 4 crosswalks, 8 freeway sites, 1 roundabout, 49 intersections, and five test sites--in total 73 lane-miles of instrumented roadway) was $608,698, equivalent to $8,226 per RSU. • UDOT quotes $1,200 per RSU for the 47 RSUs installed to enable TSP for its joint project with Utah Transit Authority to implement the 11-mile Provo-Orem UVX (BRT) service. • The City of Columbus estimates the per RSU hardware cost at $3,500 for 100 RSUs for its Smart Columbus project (see below). • VDOT/VTTI reports the cost for 65 RSU kits used in the Virginia Connected Corridors Test Beds to be $77,400 (roughly $1,200 per RSU). • GDOT reports the cost of 654 RSUs for its partial deployment of planned CV infrastructure at 1,700 intersections in metro Atlanta to be $588,600, equivalent to $900 per RSU. Design, Deployment, Integration, Testing • MnDOT cites $175,000 for 22 RSUs for its Connected Corridor project along Hwy 55 in the Twin Cities region. • UDOT estimates the installation of 47 RSUs (mounting on signal mast arm, running cable) at $1,000 per location that enable TSP for its joint project with Utah Transit Authority to implement the 11-mile Provo-Orem UVX (BRT) service. It also estimates $101,000 to verify proper RSU installation, configure channels, update firmware, configure network, perform final system testing and verification, and provide deployment support and system burn-in. • The City of Columbus estimates the cost of planning and design (preparation of an approved engineering plan sheet that goes through a three-phase process) for 100 RSUs at $486,000. It also estimates $1.75 million for equipment and installation, including approximately $3,500 per RSU; the cost of an electrical contractor to terminate existing fiber in roadside cabinets, install network switches and routers, install brackets

122 Cost Component Cost Data Reported by DOTs on utility poles, run cabling, and install the units; and the cost of vendor support, network configuration, and testing. • FDOT quotes $268,000 for design and deployment of 35 RSUs for its US 90 SPaT project (Tallahassee), including hardware. In addition, it quotes another $30,000 for RSU antenna attachment cable, power and communication cable, cable connectors, and specialized tools. FDOT quotes $251,250 for design and deployment of 50 RSUs for its Gainesville SPaT Trapezium. • GDOT reports the cost of planning and designing the ultimate deployment of 1,700 RSUs in metro Atlanta to be $1.11 million. The cost of procuring, configuring, deploying, and testing the first 654 RSUs is estimated to be about $756,000. • UMTRI's total construction budget to install 74 RSUs across 27 square miles of Ann Arbor for the Ann Arbor Connected Vehicle Test Environment (3 CSW sites, 4 crosswalks, 8 freeway sites, 1 roundabout, 49 intersections, and five test sites--in total 73 lane-miles of instrumented roadway) was $1,129,000. This sum included traffic signal controller upgrade construction-related costs. Configuration and testing costs were approximately $147,550. Signal Controller Upgrade Signal Controller Upgrade • The City of Marysville, OH cites $2,200 per signal to enable SPaT for its Connected Marysville project encompassing 27 traffic signals. • MnDOT quotes $285,000 to upgrade 22 signals for its Connected Corridor project along Hwy 55 in the Twin Cities region. • The City of Columbus cites $390,775 for signal controller upgrades and CV modules associated with Smart Columbus's 100 RSUs (installation, licensing, and software). • UDOT estimates about $50,000 to install Linux processors in each signal cabinet (including power supplies, power convertors, cables, software installation, loading MAP data, network configuration, etc.) for the 47 RSUs installed to enable TSP for its joint project with Utah Transit Authority to implement the 11-mile Provo-Orem UVX (BRT) service. • VDOT/VTTI reports that a custom interface to send SPaT data to the RSU, which formulates the SPaT message cost $13,500 (there was no option at the time for direct output of the SPaT message from the controller) for its VA Connected Corridors Test Beds. • UMTRI estimates the cost of signal controller upgrade equipment for the 49 intersections across 27 square miles of Ann Arbor for the Ann Arbor Connected Vehicle Test Environment to be $203,400. The cost of installation is included in the RSU deployment cost described above. On-Board Units Hardware • MnDOT cites $25,000 for 6 OBUs for its Connected Corridor project along Hwy 55 in the Twin Cities region.

123 Cost Component Cost Data Reported by DOTs • The City of Marysville, OH quotes $1,200-$2,800 per OBU depending on manufacturer in relation to its Connected Marysville project with a planned purchase of 500 units. • WYDOT cites $730-$1,375 per unit for an OBU capable of DSRC and satellite communication (including environmental sensor support, CAN bus support, HMI, antenna, cabling, software, installation, and support) for its I-80 pilot deployment (409 units total, some without environmental sensor and CAN bus support). • UMTRI's expenditures for the Ann Arbor Connected Vehicle Test Environment on 2,650 OBUs installed in volunteer participants' cars was $1,611,847, equivalent to $608 per OBU (cost does not include fees paid to the volunteers, management of their participation, or Internal Review Board activity). In addition, $23,200 was budgeted for configuration and testing costs. • The City of Columbus spent $1,841,500 on 1,800 OBUs for the Smart Columbus project, equivalent to $1,023 per OBU. • UDOT quotes $900 per OBU for the 25 OBUs installed to enable TSP for its joint project with Utah Transit Authority to implement the 11-mile Provo-Orem UVX (BRT) service. In addition, it estimates $7,500 for antennas and cabling, $58,000 for OBU installation, verification, configuration, and testing, and $12,000 for Linux processors and supporting equipment installed and tested in each vehicle. • FDOT quotes a per unit cost of $8,300 for 4 OBUs for its US 90 SPaT project (Tallahassee) and $1,800 for 71 OBUs for its Gainesville SPaT Trapezium project. • VDOT/VTTI reports the cost for 72 OBUs used in the Virginia Connected Corridors Test Beds to be $78,600 (roughly $1,100 per OBU). • GDOT reports the cost of 53 OBUs to support the partial deployment of planned CV infrastructure at 1,700 intersections in metro Atlanta to be $50,350, equivalent to $950 per OBU. Design, Deployment, Integration, Testing • MnDOT cites $60,000 for 6 OBUs for its Connected Corridor project along Hwy 55 in the Twin Cities region. • The City of Columbus, for Smart Columbus's 1,800 OBUs, cites $216,000 for project management, $1.2 million for installation, and $99,000 for testing and acceptance. Backhaul Network Fiber Optic Cable (design, ROW, install) • MnDOT spent approximately $100,000 on back office communication and backhaul upgrade for its 22-signal Connected Corridor project along Hwy 55 in the Twin Cities region. • CDOT estimated the cost of 204 miles of fiber optic cable in rural regions along I-70 and I-76 at $36.3 million total - $29 million for construction capital and $7.3 million for professional services (no ROW was required) - for its planned Internet of Roads CV services deployment.

124 Cost Component Cost Data Reported by DOTs • UMTRI cites the cost to perform minor back office communications upgrades for the Ann Arbor Connected Vehicle Test Environment to include approximately $287,000 in equipment and $1.81 million in planning and design. IPv6 Upgrade • MnDOT spent approximately $43,000 on an upgrade to IPv6 for its 22- signal Connected Corridor project along Hwy 55 in the Twin Cities region. Security Credential Management System • MnDOT spent about $100,000 on an SCMS (major new investment) for its 22-signal Connected Corridor project along Hwy 55 in the Twin Cities region. It estimates ongoing consultant support at $15,000 per year. • UMTRI's cites the cost for a third-party production SCMS as $150,000 for 3 years, for the Ann Arbor Connected Vehicle Test Environment. • GDOT roughly estimates the cost of implementing a SCMS for the full deployment of planned CV infrastructure at 1,700 intersections in metro Atlanta to be $240,000. Back Office / TMC Servers, data storage, device/system monitoring • N.A. Data (e.g. 3rd party purchase) • MnDOT cites about $131,000 for upfront purchase and integration of 3rd party data for its 22-signal Connected Corridor project along Hwy 55 in the Twin Cities region. • UDOT estimates $16,000 for corridor data collection and development of corridor image tiles to support TSP for its joint project with Utah Transit Authority to implement the 11-mile Provo-Orem UVX (BRT) service. CV Platform and Application Development CV Application Systems Engineering and Development • WYDOT budgeted about $901,000 for application development for its I-80 pilot (INC-ZONE, RW alert, SWIW, ATIS, in-vehicle signage, DNPW, VSL). • MnDOT cites about $412,000 for its 22-signal Connected Corridor project along Hwy 55 in the Twin Cities region (SPaT, Eco-Traffic Signal Timing, RSZW, snow plow signal priority, PED-SIG). • The City of Columbus reports a $210,980 contract for application systems engineering and development related to the 1,800 OBUs installed on private, emergency, transit, and freight vehicles used in the Smart Columbus project. • UDOT estimates the cost for modifying the existing MMITSS software developed at the University of Arizona for use on its initial TSP deployment along the Utah Transit Authority's 11-mile Redwood Road corridor at more than $500,000. For its second TSP deployment along the 11-mile Provo-Orem UVX (BRT) corridor, incremental development costs

125 Cost Component Cost Data Reported by DOTs are estimated to be $9,000 to adjust the algorithms for non-orthogonal intersection approaches. • FDOT estimates approximately $336,200 for its 50-RSU Gainesville SPaT Trapezium project. • VDOT/VTTI estimates the labor cost for client and server development for its VA Connected Corridors Test Beds to be $497,700. • GDOT estimates the cost of CV application systems engineering and development for the partial deployment (roughly 650 of 1,700 intersections) of CV applications in metro Atlanta to be $619,500. There is little additional cost to implement the apps at the remaining 1,050 intersections. CV Platform / Analytics Systems Engineering and Development • MnDOT cites about $367,000 for an analytics platform/back office technology for its 22-signal Connected Corridor project along Hwy 55 in the Twin Cities region. • UDOT estimates $7,000 to conduct simulation runs to verify software operations and to perform MAP verification to support TSP for its joint project with Utah Transit Authority to implement the 11-mile Provo-Orem UVX (BRT) service. • FDOT estimates $59,500 for an RSU central management systems for its 50-RSU Gainesville SPaT Trapezium project. It also estimates $156,300 for implementation plans, system integration, testing, validation, and verification for the complete project system (50 RSUs, 27 signal locations, and 71 OBUs). • VDOT/VTTI estimates the cost of all hardware and software integration (engineering labor) for its VA Connected Corridor Test Beds to be $306,500. • GDOT estimates the cost of planning and designing the back office analytics for the partial deployment (roughly 650 of 1,700 intersections) of CV applications in metro Atlanta to be $85,000. There is little additional cost to implement the apps at the remaining 1,050 intersections. • UMTRI estimates the cost upgrading its CV platform/analytics to manage the Ann Arbor Connected Vehicle Test Environment to be $762,000. The upgrade builds on investment made under the prior 3-year Safety Pilot Model Deployment. Back Office Provisioning of J2735 Messages to Application • WSDOT lists the per RSU/signal cost of MAP file configuration as $220 for its SR 522 Corridor SPaT deployment. • The City of Marysville, OH quotes $1,600 per intersection (27 traffic signals) for its Connected Marysville project. • FDOT estimates $11,700 for SPaT and MAP data for 27 project signal locations for its 50-RSU Gainesville SPaT Trapezium project. • GDOT estimates the cost for the partial deployment (roughly 650 of 1,700 intersections) of CV applications in metro Atlanta to be $130,800. There is little additional cost to implement the apps at the remaining 1,050 intersections.

126 Cost Component Cost Data Reported by DOTs Other Costs ITS Architecture Update • WYDOT budgeted about $574,000 for system architecture and design for its I-80 pilot. ITS Standards Update • NA Workforce Addition / Training • MnDOT states it is spending about $90,000 for workforce development and training related to deployment, configuration, and testing for its 22- signal Connected Corridor project along Hwy 55 in the Twin Cities region. • WYDOT budgeted about $187,000 for participant and staff training for its I-80 pilot. • The City of Columbus spent $65,000 on identifying, hiring, and training local staff to support OBU installation (1,800 OBUs installed on private, emergency, transit, and freight vehicles used in the Smart Columbus project.). In addition, Siemens estimated $110,200 in staff time for the installation. • FDOT quotes $1,250 for 25 hours of telephone support, $8,000 for 16 hours of training support, and $20,000 for 160 hours of onsite and configuration support for its 35-RSU US 90 SPaT project (Tallahassee). FDOT quotes $7,800 for hardware and software training support for its 50-RSU Gainesville SPaT Trapezium project. Industry-wide CV Standards Committee Participation • MnDOT states it is spending about $12,000 for its 22-signal Connected Corridor project along Hwy 55 in the Twin Cities region. • WYDOT budgeted about $51,000 for its I-80 pilot. Program Management • UDOT estimates $17,000 for project management efforts by a consultant (not including in-house efforts) for its joint project with Utah Transit Authority to implement TSP on the 11-mile Provo-Orem UVX (BRT) service. • VDOT/VTTI incurred $329,500 in research faculty / project management cost for its VA Connected Corridors Test Beds development. Ongoing System Operations and Maintenance Ongoing System Operations and Maintenance • WSDOT lists the ongoing O&M for its 10 RSU/signal deployment along SR 522 as $2,000-$3,000 per year per intersection. • WYDOT budgeted about $448,000 for system operations and maintenance for the 18-month operational phase of its I-80 pilot. • UMTRI estimates the O&M costs for the Ann Arbor Connected Vehicle Test Environment (27 square miles/73 lane-miles of instrumented roadway: 3 CSW sites, 4 crosswalks, 8 freeway sites, 1 roundabout, 49 intersections, and five test sites) at $1.2 million per year. • VDOT/VTTI reports the O&M cost for 65 RSUs used in the Virginia Connected Corridors Test Beds to be a $733/month third-party contract for power cycles and physical maintenance, $150/year per RSU

127 Cost Component Cost Data Reported by DOTs maintenance charge from the supplier plus $430/year for software development kit maintenance. In addition, there is a $150/year per OBU software maintenance charge from the supplier and a $676/month telecommunication charge for 50 phones serving as the HMI in equipped vehicles.

Next: Appendix C: Connected Vehicle Infrastructure Component Cost Shares from Select Pilots and Projects »
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State Departments of Transportation (DOTs) and other government agencies recognize the value of connected vehicle (CV) technologies in helping achieve the strategic objectives of saving lives and relieving congestion. Several agencies are currently planning and preparing for a future where CV technologies could become a part of their routine business operations. A core consideration in any such planning effort is an assessment of the need for and the nature of public CV infrastructure investments to support applications based on CV technologies.

The TRB National Cooperative Highway Research Program's NCHRP Web-Only Document 289: Business Models to Facilitate Deployment of Connected Vehicle Infrastructure to Support Automated Vehicle Operations presents methods to identify the most plausible CV infrastructure investments, shows how to build effective business case arguments, and details specific business model options during project procurement and delivery.

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