National Academies Press: OpenBook

Airport Operations Training at Small Airports (2020)

Chapter: Front Matter

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Below is the uncorrected machine-read text of this chapter, intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text of each book. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

Airport Operations Training at Small Airports A Synthesis of Airport Practice C. Daniel Prather DPrather aviation SolutionS, llC, anD California BaPtiSt univerSity Riverside, CA 2020 Research sponsored by the Federal Aviation Administration Subscriber Categories Aviation • Administration and Management • Education and Training A I R P O R T C O O P E R A T I V E R E S E A R C H P R O G R A M ACRP SYNTHESIS 112

ACRP SYNTHESIS 112 Project 11-03, Topic S10-16 ISSN 1935-9187 ISBN 978-0-309-67342-6 Library of Congress Control Number 2020944755 © 2020 National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. COPYRIGHT INFORMATION Authors herein are responsible for the authenticity of their materials and for obtaining written permissions from publishers or persons who own the copyright to any previously published or copyrighted material used herein. Cooperative Research Programs (CRP) grants permission to reproduce material in this publication for classroom and not-for-profit purposes. Permission is given with the understanding that none of the material will be used to imply TRB, AASHTO, FAA, FHWA, FTA, GHSA, NHTSA, or TDC endorsement of a particular product, method, or practice. It is expected that those reproducing the material in this document for educational and not-for-profit uses will give appropriate acknowledgment of the source of any reprinted or reproduced material. For other uses of the material, request permission from CRP. Cover photo: Airfield scavenger hunt in progress; source: J. Goetz, Crater Lake–Klamath Regional Airport. NOTICE The report was reviewed by the technical panel and accepted for publication according to procedures established and overseen by the Transportation Research Board and approved by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. The opinions and conclusions expressed or implied in this report are those of the researchers who performed the research and are not necessarily those of the Transportation Research Board; the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine; or the program sponsors. The Transportation Research Board; the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine; and the sponsors of the Airport Cooperative Research Program do not endorse products or manufacturers. Trade or manufacturers’ names appear herein solely because they are considered essential to the object of the report. Published reports of the AIRPORT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM are available from Transportation Research Board Business Office 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 and can be ordered through the Internet by going to https://www.nationalacademies.org and then searching for TRB Printed in the United States of America AIRPORT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM Airports are vital national resources. They serve a key role in trans- portation of people and goods and in regional, national, and interna- tional commerce. They are where the nation’s aviation system connects with other modes of transportation and where federal responsibility for managing and regulating air traffic operations intersects with the role of state and local governments that own and operate most airports. Research is necessary to solve common operating problems, to adapt appropriate new technologies from other industries, and to introduce innovations into the airport industry. The Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) serves as one of the principal means by which the airport industry can develop innovative near-term solutions to meet demands placed on it. The need for ACRP was identified in TRB Special Report 272: Airport Research Needs: Cooperative Solutions in 2003, based on a study spon- sored by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). ACRP carries out applied research on problems that are shared by airport operating agen- cies and not being adequately addressed by existing federal research programs. ACRP is modeled after the successful National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP) and Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP). ACRP undertakes research and other technical activi- ties in various airport subject areas, including design, construction, legal, maintenance, operations, safety, policy, planning, human resources, and administration. ACRP provides a forum where airport operators can cooperatively address common operational problems. ACRP was authorized in December 2003 as part of the Vision 100— Century of Aviation Reauthorization Act. The primary participants in the ACRP are (1) an independent governing board, the ACRP Oversight Committee (AOC), appointed by the Secretary of the U.S. Department of Transportation with representation from airport operating agencies, other stakeholders, and relevant industry organizations such as the Airports Council International-North America (ACI-NA), the American Associa- tion of Airport Executives (AAAE), the National Association of State Aviation Officials (NASAO), Airlines for America (A4A), and the Airport Consultants Council (ACC) as vital links to the airport community; (2) TRB as program manager and secretariat for the governing board; and (3) the FAA as program sponsor. In October 2005, the FAA executed a contract with the National Academy of Sciences formally initiating the program. ACRP benefits from the cooperation and participation of airport professionals, air carriers, shippers, state and local government officials, equipment and service suppliers, other airport users, and research organi- zations. Each of these participants has different interests and responsibili- ties, and each is an integral part of this cooperative research effort. Research problem statements for ACRP are solicited periodically but may be submitted to TRB by anyone at any time. It is the responsibility of the AOC to formulate the research program by identifying the highest priority projects and defining funding levels and expected products. Once selected, each ACRP project is assigned to an expert panel appointed by TRB. Panels include experienced practitioners and research specialists; heavy emphasis is placed on including airport professionals, the intended users of the research products. The panels prepare project statements (requests for proposals), select contractors, and provide technical guidance and counsel throughout the life of the project. The process for developing research problem statements and selecting research agencies has been used by TRB in managing coop- erative research programs since 1962. As in other TRB activities, ACRP project panels serve voluntarily without compensation. Primary emphasis is placed on disseminating ACRP results to the intended users of the research: airport operating agencies, service pro- viders, and academic institutions. ACRP produces a series of research reports for use by airport operators, local agencies, the FAA, and other interested parties; industry associations may arrange for workshops, training aids, field visits, webinars, and other activities to ensure that results are implemented by airport industry practitioners.

The National Academy of Sciences was established in 1863 by an Act of Congress, signed by President Lincoln, as a private, non- governmental institution to advise the nation on issues related to science and technology. Members are elected by their peers for outstanding contributions to research. Dr. Marcia McNutt is president. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to bring the practices of engineering to advising the nation. Members are elected by their peers for extraordinary contributions to engineering. Dr. John L. Anderson is president. The National Academy of Medicine (formerly the Institute of Medicine) was established in 1970 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to advise the nation on medical and health issues. Members are elected by their peers for distinguished contributions to medicine and health. Dr. Victor J. Dzau is president. The three Academies work together as the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine to provide independent, objective analysis and advice to the nation and conduct other activities to solve complex problems and inform public policy decisions. The National Academies also encourage education and research, recognize outstanding contributions to knowledge, and increase public understanding in matters of science, engineering, and medicine. Learn more about the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine at www.nationalacademies.org. The Transportation Research Board is one of seven major programs of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. The mission of the Transportation Research Board is to provide leadership in transportation improvements and innovation through trusted, timely, impartial, and evidence-based information exchange, research, and advice regarding all modes of transportation. The Board’s varied activities annually engage about 8,000 engineers, scientists, and other transportation researchers and practitioners from the public and private sectors and academia, all of whom contribute their expertise in the public interest. The program is supported by state transportation departments, federal agencies including the component administrations of the U.S. Department of Transportation, and other organizations and individuals interested in the development of transportation. Learn more about the Transportation Research Board at www.TRB.org.

C O O P E R A T I V E R E S E A R C H P R O G R A M S AUTHOR ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I thank the representatives of the 182 airports that participated in this study. Without your support of this project, it would not have been possible. A big thank you goes to the airport professionals who dedicated additional time on the telephone in support of the 14 case examples developed for this project. Mr. Thomas Ortiz, Senior Associate of DPrather Aviation Solutions, was instrumental in performing literature review and data analysis in support of this synthesis. Now a graduate of California Baptist Uni- versity with a degree in aviation management, Mr. Ortiz successfully juggled a busy course load with the requirements of this project. CRP STAFF FOR ACRP SYNTHESIS 112 Christopher J. Hedges, Director, Cooperative Research Programs Lori L. Sundstrom, Deputy Director, Cooperative Research Programs Marci A. Greenberger, Manager, Airport Cooperative Research Program Tanya M. Zwahlen, Senior Program Officer Stephanie L. Campbell, Senior Program Assistant Eileen P. Delaney, Director of Publications Natalie Barnes, Associate Director of Publications ACRP PROJECT 11-03 PANEL Joshua D. Abramson, Tupelo Regional Airport, Tupelo, MS (Chair) Debbie K. Alke, Helena, MT Gloria G. Bender, TransSolutions, LLC, Fort Worth, TX David A. Byers, Quadrex Aviation LLC, Melbourne, FL Traci Clark, Allegheny County Airport Authority, West Mifflin, PA David N. Edwards, Jr., Greenville–Spartanburg Airport Commission, Greer, SC Brenda L. Enos, Burns & McDonnell, Newton, MA Patrick Magnotta, FAA Liaison Liying Gu, Airports Council International–North America Liaison Adam Williams, Aircraft Owners and Pilots Association Liaison Christine L. Gerencher, TRB Liaison TOPIC S10-16 PANEL Scott Ayers, City of Atlanta Department of Aviation, Atlanta, GA Kimberly A. Kenville, University of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND Harleen Smith, City of Houston–Houston Airport System, Houston, TX Lauren Tapia, Truckee Tahoe Airport, Truckee, CA Ashly “Jerry” Tissera, JTA Consulting LLC, Aston, PA Adam Wolf, Ohio State University Airport, Columbus, OH Dale A. Williams, FAA Liaison Christopher J. Oswald, Airports Council International–North America Liaison

ABOUT THE ACRP SYNTHESIS PROGRAM Airport administrators, engineers, and researchers often face problems for which information already exists, either in documented form or as undocumented experience and practice. This infor- mation may be fragmented, scattered, and unevaluated. As a consequence, full knowledge of what has been learned about a problem may not be brought to bear on its solution. Costly research findings may go unused, valuable experience may be overlooked, and due consideration may not be given to recommended practices for solving or alleviating the problem. There is information on nearly every subject of concern to the airport industry. Much of it derives from research or from the work of practitioners faced with problems in their day-to-day work. To provide a systematic means for assembling and evaluating such useful information and to make it available to the entire airport community, the Airport Cooperative Research Program authorized the Transportation Research Board to undertake a continuing project. This project, ACRP Project 11-03, “Synthesis of Information Related to Airport Practices,” searches out and synthesizes useful knowl- edge from all available sources and prepares concise, documented reports on specific topics. Reports from this endeavor constitute an ACRP report series, Synthesis of Airport Practice. This synthesis series reports on current knowledge and practice, in a compact format, without the detailed directions usually found in handbooks or design manuals. Each report in the series provides a compendium of the best knowledge available on those measures found to be the most successful in resolving specific problems. FOREWORD By Tanya M. Zwahlen Staff Officer Transportation Research Board The objective of ACRP Synthesis 112: Airport Operations Training at Small Airports was to gather information about the existing options for training airport operations personnel, with an emphasis on the training of new hires, the training of entry-level staff, and recurrent training. The audience for this resource is airport operations staff, airport training managers, and airport managers. The synthesis documents current training practices and programs for personnel carrying out the duties outlined in the Airport Certification Manual. The information contained in this synthesis was obtained using three sources. First, a litera- ture review compiled relevant existing research about the topic. Second, the consultant surveyed 182 airports. Finally, the consultant conducted interviews with 14 airports to better understand innovative training methods at select airports for the purpose of developing case examples. The checklists in Appendices H through L are also available as Word files that can be found by searching for “ACRP Synthesis 112” at www.TRB.org. Dr. Daniel Prather of DPrather Aviation Solutions collected and synthesized the information and wrote the report. The members of the topic panel are acknowledged on page iv. This synthesis is an immediately useful document that records the practices that were acceptable within the limita- tions of the knowledge available at the time of its preparation.

1 Summary 4 Chapter 1 Introduction 4 Overview 5 Differences Between Training and Education 6 Definition of Airport Operations 6 Review of 14 CFR Part 139 Requirements 8 Titles for Airport Operations Personnel 8 Duties and Responsibilities of Airport Operations Personnel 12 Training Delivery Options 14 Chapter 2 Synthesis Methodology 14 Literature Review 14 Recipients and Participants 15 Survey and Interview Methodology 16 Data Analysis 17 Chapter 3 Literature Review 17 Adult Learning Styles 17 Learner Motivation 18 Generational Learning Preferences 18 Initial Training, Recurrent Training, and Professional Development 21 Training Needs Assessment 22 Training Curriculum Design 22 Training Materials 23 Training Manual 24 Training Budgets 25 Training Timelines 26 Benefits and Disadvantages of Training 27 Training Methods 28 Training Records 29 Trainer Qualifications 30 Training Assessment 30 Proof of Training Competency and Completion 31 Chapter 4 Survey Results 31 Introduction 31 Participating Airports 31 Personnel and Budgets 35 Areas of Operations Responsibility 36 Training Methods 38 Training Topics C O N T E N T S

42 Initial Training 42 Recurrent Training 47 Effective Training Strategies 48 Innovative Training Practices 49 Chapter 5 Case Examples 49 Case Example 1: John Glenn Columbus International Airport, Columbus, Ohio 51 Case Example 2: Wichita Dwight D. Eisenhower National Airport, Wichita, Kansas 51 Case Example 3: Fort Lauderdale–Hollywood International Airport, Fort Lauderdale, Florida 52 Case Example 4: Greenville–Spartanburg International Airport, Greer, South Carolina 52 Case Example 5: Gainesville Regional Airport, Gainesville, Florida 53 Case Example 6: Crater Lake–Klamath Regional Airport, Klamath Falls, Oregon 54 Case Example 7: Dallas–Fort Worth International Airport, DFW Airport, Texas 54 Case Example 8: Charles B. Wheeler Downtown Airport, Kansas City, Missouri 55 Case Example 9: Oregon Department of Aviation, Salem, Oregon 56 Case Example 10: Brooksville–Tampa Bay Regional Airport, Brooksville, Florida 56 Case Example 11: South Bend International Airport, South Bend, Indiana 57 Case Example 12: Aspen–Pitkin County Airport, Aspen, Colorado 58 Case Example 13: Green Bay–Austin Straubel International Airport, Green Bay, Wisconsin 58 Case Example 14: Ohio State University Airport, Columbus, Ohio 59 Summary 60 Chapter 6 Conclusions and Future Research 60 Conclusion 1 60 Conclusion 2 60 Conclusion 3 60 Conclusion 4 60 Conclusion 5 61 Conclusion 6 61 Conclusion 7 61 Conclusion 8 61 Conclusion 9 61 Conclusion 10 61 Conclusion 11 61 Conclusion 12 61 Conclusion 13 61 Conclusion 14 62 Conclusion 15 62 Conclusion 16 62 Summary 62 Further Research

63 Appendix A References 65 Appendix B Additional Literature Review 75 Appendix C Learning Styles Inventory 77 Appendix D Training Needs Assessment 78 Appendix E Airport Operations Training Survey 92 Appendix F Interview Protocol 93 Appendix G Verbatim Open-Ended Survey Responses 97 Appendix H Sample Operations Employee Training Checklist 108 Appendix I Sample Operations Employee Training Checklist 112 Appendix J Sample Airport Operations Center Training Checklist 123 Appendix K Sample Badging Training Checklist 127 Appendix L Sample Airport Operations Training Checklist Note: Photographs, figures, and tables in this report may have been converted from color to grayscale for printing. The electronic version of the report (posted on the web at www.trb.org) retains the color versions.

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Managers of airports of all sizes face a perennial dilemma: how to efficiently train operations personnel to meet Title 14 Code of Federal Regulations Part 139 requirements and ensure a safe and secure airport environment.

The TRB Airport Cooperative Research Program's ACRP Synthesis 112: Airport Operations Training at Small Airports focuses on airport operations employees and aims to better understand current training methods and programs in use by small airports in the United States (including nonhub, nonprimary commercial service, reliever, and general aviation) to initially and recurrently train airport operations employees.

Supplemental material to the report includes several appendices, including Appendix H, Appendix I, Appendix J, Appendix K, and Appendix L.

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