National Academies Press: OpenBook
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Design and Access Management Guidelines for Truck Routes: Planning and Design Guide. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25950.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Design and Access Management Guidelines for Truck Routes: Planning and Design Guide. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25950.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Design and Access Management Guidelines for Truck Routes: Planning and Design Guide. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25950.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Design and Access Management Guidelines for Truck Routes: Planning and Design Guide. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25950.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Design and Access Management Guidelines for Truck Routes: Planning and Design Guide. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25950.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Design and Access Management Guidelines for Truck Routes: Planning and Design Guide. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25950.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Design and Access Management Guidelines for Truck Routes: Planning and Design Guide. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25950.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Design and Access Management Guidelines for Truck Routes: Planning and Design Guide. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25950.
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2020 N A T I O N A L C O O P E R A T I V E H I G H W A Y R E S E A R C H P R O G R A M NCHRP RESEARCH REPORT 943 Design and Access Management Guidelines for Truck Routes: Planning and Design Guide Ingrid B. Potts Daniel J. Cook Douglas W. Harwood MRIGlobal Kansas City, MO Jerome S. Gluck aECoM New York, NY Subscriber Categories Design • Motor Carriers • Operations and Traffic Management Research sponsored by the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials in cooperation with the Federal Highway Administration

NATIONAL COOPERATIVE HIGHWAY RESEARCH PROGRAM Systematic, well-designed, and implementable research is the most effective way to solve many problems facing state departments of transportation (DOTs) administrators and engineers. Often, highway problems are of local or regional interest and can best be studied by state DOTs individually or in cooperation with their state universities and others. However, the accelerating growth of highway transporta- tion results in increasingly complex problems of wide interest to high- way authorities. These problems are best studied through a coordinated program of cooperative research. Recognizing this need, the leadership of the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO) in 1962 ini- tiated an objective national highway research program using modern scientific techniques—the National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP). NCHRP is supported on a continuing basis by funds from participating member states of AASHTO and receives the full cooperation and support of the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), United States Department of Transportation, under Agree- ment No. 693JJ31950003. The Transportation Research Board (TRB) of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine was requested by AASHTO to administer the research program because of TRB’s recognized objectivity and understanding of modern research practices. TRB is uniquely suited for this purpose for many reasons: TRB maintains an extensive com- mittee structure from which authorities on any highway transportation subject may be drawn; TRB possesses avenues of communications and cooperation with federal, state, and local governmental agencies, univer- sities, and industry; TRB’s relationship to the National Academies is an insurance of objectivity; and TRB maintains a full-time staff of special- ists in highway transportation matters to bring the findings of research directly to those in a position to use them. The program is developed on the basis of research needs iden- tified by chief administrators and other staff of the highway and transportation departments, by committees of AASHTO, and by the FHWA. Topics of the highest merit are selected by the AASHTO Special Committee on Research and Innovation (R&I), and each year R&I’s recommendations are proposed to the AASHTO Board of Direc- tors and the National Academies. Research projects to address these top- ics are defined by NCHRP, and qualified research agencies are selected from submitted proposals. Administration and surveillance of research contracts are the responsibilities of the National Academies and TRB. The needs for highway research are many, and NCHRP can make significant contributions to solving highway transportation problems of mutual concern to many responsible groups. The program, however, is intended to complement, rather than to substitute for or duplicate, other highway research programs. Published research reports of the NATIONAL COOPERATIVE HIGHWAY RESEARCH PROGRAM are available from Transportation Research Board Business Office 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 and can be ordered through the Internet by going to https://www.nationalacademies.org and then searching for TRB Printed in the United States of America NCHRP RESEARCH REPORT 943 Project 15-62 ISSN 2572-3766 (Print) ISSN 2572-3774 (Online) ISBN 978-0-309-48179-3 Library of Congress Control Number 2020942661 © 2020 National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. COPYRIGHT INFORMATION Authors herein are responsible for the authenticity of their materials and for obtaining written permissions from publishers or persons who own the copyright to any previously published or copyrighted material used herein. Cooperative Research Programs (CRP) grants permission to reproduce material in this publication for classroom and not-for-profit purposes. Permission is given with the understanding that none of the material will be used to imply TRB, AASHTO, FAA, FHWA, FTA, GHSA, NHTSA, or TDC endorsement of a particular product, method, or practice. It is expected that those reproducing the material in this document for educational and not-for-profit uses will give appropriate acknowledgment of the source of any reprinted or reproduced material. For other uses of the material, request permission from CRP. NOTICE The research report was reviewed by the technical panel and accepted for publication according to procedures established and overseen by the Transportation Research Board and approved by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. The opinions and conclusions expressed or implied in this report are those of the researchers who performed the research and are not necessarily those of the Transportation Research Board; the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine; the FHWA; or the program sponsors. The Transportation Research Board; the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine; and the sponsors of the National Cooperative Highway Research Program do not endorse products or manufacturers. Trade or manufacturers’ names appear herein solely because they are considered essential to the object of the report.

The National Academy of Sciences was established in 1863 by an Act of Congress, signed by President Lincoln, as a private, non- governmental institution to advise the nation on issues related to science and technology. Members are elected by their peers for outstanding contributions to research. Dr. Marcia McNutt is president. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to bring the practices of engineering to advising the nation. Members are elected by their peers for extraordinary contributions to engineering. Dr. John L. Anderson is president. The National Academy of Medicine (formerly the Institute of Medicine) was established in 1970 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to advise the nation on medical and health issues. Members are elected by their peers for distinguished contributions to medicine and health. Dr. Victor J. Dzau is president. The three Academies work together as the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine to provide independent, objective analysis and advice to the nation and conduct other activities to solve complex problems and inform public policy decisions. The National Academies also encourage education and research, recognize outstanding contributions to knowledge, and increase public understanding in matters of science, engineering, and medicine. Learn more about the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine at www.nationalacademies.org. The Transportation Research Board is one of seven major programs of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. The mission of the Transportation Research Board is to provide leadership in transportation improvements and innovation through trusted, timely, impartial, and evidence-based information exchange, research, and advice regarding all modes of transportation. The Board’s varied activities annually engage about 8,000 engineers, scientists, and other transportation researchers and practitioners from the public and private sectors and academia, all of whom contribute their expertise in the public interest. The program is supported by state transportation departments, federal agencies including the component administrations of the U.S. Department of Transportation, and other organizations and individuals interested in the development of transportation. Learn more about the Transportation Research Board at www.TRB.org.

C O O P E R A T I V E R E S E A R C H P R O G R A M S CRP STAFF FOR NCHRP RESEARCH REPORT 943 Christopher J. Hedges, Director, Cooperative Research Programs Lori L. Sundstrom, Deputy Director, Cooperative Research Programs William C. Rogers, Senior Program Officer Jarrel McAfee, Senior Program Assistant Eileen P. Delaney, Director of Publications Natalie Barnes, Associate Director of Publications Kami Cabral, Editor NCHRP PROJECT 15-62 PANEL Field of Design—Area of General Design Michael J. Dzurko, Pennsylvania Department of Transportation, Harrisburg, PA (Chair) Antonette C. Clark, California Department of Transportation, Sacramento, CA Brian Keith Gage, Minnesota Department of Transportation, St. Paul, MN Jeffrey A. Horne, Michigan Department of Transportation, Taylor, MI Roxane Y. Mukai, Maryland Transportation Authority, Baltimore, MD Daniel G. Pass, Georgia Department of Transportation, Atlanta, GA Suzan M. Stickle, Whiteside County, Morrison, IL Jeffrey M. Wojtowicz, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY Kirk M. Zeringue, Louisiana Department of Transportation and Development, Baton Rouge, LA Tamiko Brim-Burnell, FHWA Liaison Scott Babcock, TRB Liaison

NCHRP Research Report 943: Design and Access Management Guidelines for Truck Routes: Planning and Design Guide (referred to herein as the Guide) provides access management and geometric design approaches for truck routes, whether formally designated by a transportation agency to serve trucks or for any other routes that carry a substantial volume of trucks, while improving traffic operations and safety for all road users. Trucks are an important consideration in the design and access management of roadways. Trucks are substantially larger than passenger cars and have very different operating characteristics. Trucks take longer to accelerate, make much wider turns at intersections, and often require oversize/overweight (OSOW) permits. For the most part, trucks are only a limited portion of the motor vehicle traffic stream. As a result, except for industrial and port locations, most roadways and intersections are not designed for trucks; rather they accommodate trucks, while also serving other travel modes. Under NCHRP Project 15-62, MRIGlobal was asked to develop guidelines for transpor- tation practitioners on access management and design for truck routes and site layout to facilitate truck movement for direct incorporation into planning processes, and to design specifications for local governments and state transportation agencies to improve truck safety and operations. The guidelines address a broad range of issues related to access manage- ment and design for truck routes and site layout, such as (1) land use and zoning impacts on truck movement; (2) strategies for efficient movement and delivery of goods; (3) strategies for assessing benefit-cost differentials in providing truck accommodations; (4) model access management guidelines, policies, and strategies for designating and developing truck routes and networks; (5) geometric design and operations policies and practices to accommodate trucks at access points and along corridors, including innovative inter sections and inter- changes; (6) balancing truck needs with other modes; (7) recommendations for revisions or supplements to the TRB Access Management Manual; and (8) model language for incorpo- rating findings into local land use decisionmaking processes. F O R E W O R D By William C. Rogers Staff Officer Transportation Research Board

1 Summary 3 Chapter 1 Introduction 5 Chapter 2 Overview of Truck Operational Challenges and Needs 5 2.1 Introduction 5 2.2 Trucks as a Design Vehicle 5 2.3 Turning Characteristics of Trucks 6 2.4 Storage Length for Trucks 7 2.5 Truck Acceleration and Deceleration 7 2.6 Truck Deliveries and Parking 7 2.7 Balancing Truck Needs with Other Modes 8 Chapter 3 Planning for Truck Routes and Other Related Considerations 8 3.1 Planning 13 3.2 Truck Routing 19 3.3 Enforcement 21 3.4 Roadway Maintenance 23 3.5 Driveway Permits 24 3.6 Oversize/Overweight Permits 26 3.7 Truck Parking 29 Chapter 4 Geometric Design and Access Management to Accommodate Trucks 29 4.1 Introduction 29 4.2 Design Vehicles 38 4.3 Intersections 64 4.4 Crossroad and Ramp Terminal Design as Affected by Interchange Configuration 73 4.5 Driveways 78 4.6 Roadways 82 4.7 Intersection Sight Distance 82 4.8 Highway-Railroad Grade Crossings 82 4.9 Sidewalks 83 4.10 Bicycle Facilities 83 4.11 Work Zones C O N T E N T S

84 Chapter 5 Balancing Truck Considerations with Other Modes 84 5.1 Pedestrian Considerations 85 5.2 Bicycle Considerations 87 5.3 Transit Considerations 88 Acronyms 90 References Note: Photographs, figures, and tables in this report may have been converted from color to grayscale for printing. The electronic version of the report (posted on the web at www.trb.org) retains the color versions.

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Most laws, ordinances, and rules concerning truck routes are established for through trucks, but that trucks with local origins or destinations may use other roads and streets to travel to and from the established truck routes.

The TRB National Cooperative Highway Research Program's NCHRP Research Report 943: Design and Access Management Guidelines for Truck Routes: Planning and Design Guide helps transportation agencies establish appropriate methods of choosing truck routes to ensure that the selected roads and streets are suitable for truck travel but do not decrease efficiency by taking trucks too far out of their way or increase crash risk by increasing travel distance (and, therefore, vehicle-miles of travel) too much.

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