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Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Improving the Safety, Health, and Productivity of Transit Operators Through Adequate Restroom Access. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25960.
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Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Improving the Safety, Health, and Productivity of Transit Operators Through Adequate Restroom Access. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25960.
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Page 100
Page 101
Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Improving the Safety, Health, and Productivity of Transit Operators Through Adequate Restroom Access. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25960.
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99 Asfaw, A., Pana-Cryan, R., Bushnell, T., Rosa, R., and Mao, R. (2013). Linking Workers’ Compensation and Group Health Insurance Data to Examine the Impact of Occupational Injury on Workers’ and Their Family Members’ Health Care Use and Costs: Two Case Studies. In Use of Workers’ Compensation Data for Occupational Safety and Health: Proceedings from June 2012 Workshop (T. M. Schnorr and D. F. Utterback, eds.), U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Cincinnati, OH, pp. 41–46. https://www.cdc.gov/ niosh/docs/2013-147/. American Restroom Association (ARA). (n.d.) Public Restroom Locators. https://americanrestroom.org/ restroom-locations/. Asian News International. (June 5, 2014). No Toilet Stops? Bus Conductors in Bangkok Wear Adult Nappies. Deccan Chronicle. https://www.deccanchronicle.com/140605/lifestyle-offbeat/article/bus-conductors- bangkok-have-started-wearing-adult-nappies. BBC. (2018a). Mayor of London to Spend £6m on Toilets for Bus Drivers. Feb. 13, 2018. BBC.com. https:// www.bbc.com/news/uk-england-london-43048596. BBC. (2018b). Bus Driver Toilet Is a ‘Hideous Surprise’ for Residents. Dec. 12, 2018. BBC.com. https:// www.bbc.com/news/uk-england-london-46471578. Boyle, D., Pappas, J., Boyle, P., Nelson, B., Sharfarz, D., and Benn, H. (2009). TCRP Report 135: Controlling System Costs: Basic and Advanced Scheduling Manuals and Contemporary Issues in Transit Scheduling. Transportation Research Board, Washington, DC. http://www.trb.org/Publications/Blurbs/161864.aspx. Burgel, B. J., Gillen, M., and White, M.C. (2012). Health and Safety Strategies of Urban Taxi Drivers. Journal of Urban Health, 89(4):717–722. Bushnell, P. T., Li, J., and Landen, D. (2011). Group Medical Claims as a Source of Information on Worker Health and Potentially Work-Related Diseases. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 53(12):1430–1441. Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety (CCOHS). (2019). OH and S Legislation in Canada—Due Diligence. https://www.ccohs.ca/oshanswers/legisl/diligence.html. City and County of San Francisco. (2016). San Francisco Municipal Transportation Agency: Absence Management Efforts Can Be Enhanced Through Improved Organizational Culture and More Effective Program Management Tools. Office of the Controller, City Services Auditor, San Francisco, CA. Cronin, C. B., Alexander, A., Cronin, B., Riches, C., Stern, J., Lazaro, R., and Lazaro, V. (2013). TCRP Report 162: Building a Sustainable Workforce in the Public Transportation Industry—A Systems Approach. Transportation Research Board, Washington, DC. http://www.trb.org/Main/Blurbs/169592.aspx. Danaher, A. R., Wensley, J., Dunham, A., Orosz, T., Avery, R., Turner, D., Cobb, K., Watkins, K., Queen, C., Berrebi, S., and Connor, M. (2019). TCRP Research Report 215: Minutes Matter: A Bus Transit Service Reliability Guidebook. Transportation Research Board, Washington, DC. http://www.trb.org/main/blurbs/ 180325.aspx. Diab, E. I., Badami, M. G., and El-Geneidy, A. M. (2015). Bus Transit Service Reliability and Improvement Strategies: Integrating the Perspectives of Passengers and Transit Agencies in North America. Transport Reviews, 35(3):292–328. Employment.Laws.com. (2019). Illinois Labor Laws Breaks. https://employment.laws.com/illinois-labor-laws- breaks. Federal Highway Administration (FHWA). (2009). Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices. U.S. Department of Transportation. http://mutcd.fhwa.dot.gov/. Fitzgerald, M. P., Stablein, U., and Brubaker, L. (2002). Urinary Habits Among Asymptomatic Women. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 187(5):1384–1388. References

100 Improving the Safety, Health, and Productivity of Transit Operators Through Adequate Restroom Access Gertler, J., Popkin, S., Nelson, D., O’Neil, K (2002). TCRP Report 81: Toolbox for Transit Operator Fatigue. Transportation Research Board, Washington, DC. http://www.trb.org/Publications/Blurbs/153765.aspx. Gillespie, R. M., Wang, X., and Brown, T. (2014). TCRP Report 169: Developing Best-Practice Guidelines for Improving Bus Operator Health and Retention. Transportation Research Board, Washington, DC. Government of Alberta, Canada. (2009). Occupational Health and Safety Code, Alberta Regulation 87/2009. http://www.qp.alberta.ca/ohscode.cfm. Government of Canada. (2015). Employment Standards. https://canadabusiness.ca/government/regulations/ regulated-business-activities/human-resources-regulations/employment-standards/. Iowa Division of Labor. (n.d.). Wage Frequently Asked Questions. https://www.iowadivisionoflabor.gov/wage- frequently-asked-questions. International Transport Workers’ Federation (ITF). (2019). ITF Sanitation Charter. https://www.itfglobal.org/ en/reports-publications/itf-sanitation-charter. Ji, Y., He, L., and Zhang, H. M. (2014). Bus Drivers’ Responses to Real-Time Schedule Adherence and the Effects on Transit Reliability. Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, 2417:1–9. Johnson, C., Menendez, C. C., and Trout, D. 2019. Bathroom Breaks. https://blogs.cdc.gov/niosh-science- blog/2019/11/22/bathroom-breaks/. Kessler, E., and Gonzales, M. (2014). Bus Operators and the Right to Access Restrooms. http://aoec.org/ohip/ SFbusoperators.pdf. Leedham, E. (2019). Winnipeg Transit Drivers May Take Job Action This Weekend. May 30, 2019. http:// rankandfile.ca/winnipeg-transit-drivers-may-take-job-action-this-weekend/. Lehman Center for Transportation Research. (2015). Training Manual for Transit Service Planning and Scheduling. Florida International University, Miami, FL. https://www.nctr.usf.edu/wp-content/uploads/ 2017/02/TrainingManual_FinalReport.pdf. Lewis, M. S., Snyder, P. J., Pietrzak, R. H., Darby, D., Feldman, R. A., and Maruff, P. 2011. The effect of acute increase in urge to void on cognitive function in healthy adults. Neurourology and Urodynamics 30(1):183–7. doi: 10.1002/nau.20963. Lukacz, E. S., Sampselle, C., Gray, M., Macdiarmid, S., Rosenberg, M., Ellsworth, P., and Palmer, M. H. (2011). A Healthy Bladder: A Consensus Statement. International Journal of Clinical Practice, 65(10):1026–1036. Mass, A. Y., Goldfarb, D. S., and Shah, O. (2014). Taxi Cab Syndrome: A Review of the Extensive Genitourinary Pathology Experienced by Taxi Cab Drivers and What We Can Do to Help. Reviews in Urology, 16(3):99–104. Masterson, E. A., Bushnell, P. T., Themann, C. L., and Morata, T. C. (2016). Hearing Impairment Among Noise-Exposed Workers—United States, 2003–2012. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 65(15):389–394. McGlothlin Davis, Inc., and Corporate Strategies, Inc. (2002). TCRP Report 77: Managing Transit’s Workforce in the New Millennium. Transportation Research Board, Washington, DC. http://onlinepubs.trb.org/ onlinepubs/tcrp/tcrp_rpt_77.pdf. Musumeci, N. (2019). MTA Worker’s Bathroom Break Sparks Commuter Chaos on Five Subway Lines. May 17, 2019. New York Post. https://nypost.com/2019/05/17/mta-workers-bathroom-break-causes- commuter-chaos-on-five-subway-lines/. Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA). (n.d.-a) Restrooms and Sanitation Requirements. https://www.osha.gov/SLTC/restrooms_sanitation/. Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA). (n.d.-b) State Plans. https://www.osha.gov/stateplans. Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA). (n.d.-c). Worker Protection. Whistleblower Protection Program. https://www.whistleblowers.gov/about-us. Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA). (1998). 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Restroom Breaks for Bus Driver in the Netherlands. Facebook webinar, June 1, 2019. https://www.facebook.com/ATUInternational/videos/1658801727488339/. Pérez, B., and Dang, C. (2008). Banned from Bathrooms: Los Angeles Taxi Drivers and the Denial of Restroom Access. Los Angeles Taxi Workers Alliance, Los Angeles, CA. http://utwsd.org/wp-content/uploads/2012/06/ LATWA-Restroom-Access-Report-FINAL-1.pdf.

References 101 Pine, R., Niemeyer, J., and Chisholm, R. (1998). TCRP Report 30: Transit Scheduling: Basic and Advanced Manuals. Transportation Research Board, Washington, DC. http://www.trb.org/Main/Blurbs/153847.aspx. Powers, M. (2016). Want to Use a Metro Station Bathroom? Know Your Rights. Washington Post, June 30, 2016. https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/dr-gridlock/wp/2016/06/30/want-to-use-a-metro-station-bathroom- know-your-rights/. Rankin, J., Todd, L., and Wigmore, D. (2008). Part C: Principles of Health and Safety at Work. In Seeing the Workplace with New Eyes: A Self-Help Guide for Workplace Safety and Health Committees and Workplace Safety and Health Representatives. New Eyes Project and SAFE Work Manitoba. https://www.mgeu.ca/files/ File/Seeing%20the%20Workplace%20with%20New%20Eyes%20Guide%2008.pdf. Rodriguez, J. F. (2016). Muni Slams Brakes on Excessive Breaks. San Francisco Examiner, May 24, 2016. http://sfexaminer.com/muni-slams-brakes-excessive-breaks. San Francisco Municipal Transportation Agency (SFMTA). (2017). Item 10.4 Geneva Car Barn-MOU and Lease Staff Report. https://www.sfmta.com/sites/default/files/reports-and-documents/2017/12/12-5-17_ item_10.4_geneva_car_barn_-_mou_and_lease.pdf. Staes, L. (2017). FTA Report to Congress on 2015 Section 5314 Projects: Review and Evaluation of Public Trans- portation Safety Standards. FTA Report No. 0103. Center for Urban Transportation Research, University of South Florida, Tampa. https://rosap.ntl.bts.gov/view/dot/39034. State of Virginia. (2012). Virginia Construction Code. Chapter 29, Plumbing Systems. https://codes.iccsafe.org/ content/VCC2012/chapter-29-plumbing-systems?site_type=public. Strathman, J. G., Broach, J. P., and Callas, S. (2009). Evaluation of Short-Duration, Unscheduled Absences Among Transit Operators: TriMet Case Study. Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, 2111(1). Taylor, B. D., Garrett, M., and Iseki, H. (2000). Measuring Cost Variability in Provision of Transit Service. Transportation Research Record, Journal of the Transportation Research Board, No. 1735:101–112. Transbay Joint Powers Authority. (2017). Right of Entry Agreement for Bus Plaza. https://tjpa.org/uploads/ 2017/12/Item13_SFMTA-right-of-entry-for-Bus-Plaza.pdf. Tresca, A. J. (2020). How the Restroom Access Act Helps Those with IBD. https://www.verywellhealth.com/ the-restroom-access-act-1942432. Unite the Union. (2019). Toilet Dignity. Jan. 31, 2019. https://unitetheunion.org/campaigns/toilet-dignity/. United Nations General Assembly. (2016) 70th sess.: 2015–2016. The Human Rights to Safe Drinking Water and Sanitation: Resolution. 70th session: 2015–2016. https://digitallibrary.un.org/record/821067?ln=en. U.S. Department of Labor. (n.d.). Breaks and Meal Periods. www.dol.gov/general/topic/workhours/breaks. Vermont Department of Labor. (2019). A Summary of Vermont Wage and Hour Laws. Wage and Hour Program, Burlington, VT. https://labor.vermont.gov/sites/labor/files/doc_library/WH-13-Wages-and- Hour-Laws-2019%20.pdf. Volinski, J. (1999). TCRP Synthesis of Transit Practice 33: Practices in Assuring Employee Availability. Transportation Research Board, Washington, DC. http://www.trb.org/Main/Blurbs/153662.aspx. Washington, K. M. (2014). Go Before You Go: How Public Toilets Impact Public Transit Usage. PSU McNair Scholars Online Journal, 8(1), Article 5. Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority (WMATA). (2017). Station Area Planning Guide. https:// www.wmata.com/business/real-estate/upload/Station-Area-Planning-Guide-October-2017.pdf. Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority (WMATA). (2018). Metrobus Restroom Planning Guide. https:// www.wmata.com/initiatives/plans/upload/Metrobus-Restroom-Planning-Guide-FINAL-REPORT.pdf. Washington State Department of Labor and Industries. (2014). King County Metro Inspection 317378149. http://op.bna.com.s3.amazonaws.com/env.nsf/r%3FOpen%3drdae-9wmt57. Wulsin, L., Alterman, T., Bushnell, P. T., Li, J., and Shen, R. (2014). Prevalence Rates for Depression by Industry: A Claims Database Analysis. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 49(11):1805–1821.

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Improving the Safety, Health, and Productivity of Transit Operators Through Adequate Restroom Access Get This Book
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Around the United States and Canada, both transit agencies and the unions representing operators have recognized the serious impact of limited restroom access and begun to negotiate ways to address this problem.

The TRB Transit Cooperative Research Program's TCRP Research Report 216: Improving the Safety, Health, and Productivity of Transit Operators Through Adequate Restroom Access presents a catalog of good practices, tools, and resources that provide a foundation for implementable strategies to improve restroom access, primarily for transit vehicle operators.

A toolbox accompanies the report and includes:

Transit Operator Restroom Inventory Tools

Transit Operator Restroom Access Planning Tools

Transit Operator Restroom Access Cost Estimation Tools

Templates for Restroom Access Policies and Boilerplate Contract Language

Also included as part of the report is Appendix E: Collective Bargaining Agreement Restroom Language.

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