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2021 N A T I O N A L C O O P E R A T I V E H I G H W A Y R E S E A R C H P R O G R A M NCHRP RESEARCH REPORT 960 Proposed AASHTO Practice and Tests for Process Control and Product Acceptance of Asphalt-Treated Cold Recycled Pavements Brian K. Diefenderfer Ilker Boz Jhony Habbouche Virginia TransporTaTion research council Charlottesville, VA David Jones uniVersiTy of california paVemenT research cenTer Davis, CA Adam J. T. Hand uniVersiTy of neVadaâreno Reno, NV Benjamin F. Bowers auburn uniVersiTy Auburn, AL Gerardo Flintsch Virginia Tech TransporTaTion insTiTuTe Blacksburg, VA Subscriber Categories Construction â¢ Maintenance and Preservation â¢ Materials Research sponsored by the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials in cooperation with the Federal Highway Administration
NATIONAL COOPERATIVE HIGHWAY RESEARCH PROGRAM Systematic, well-designed, and implementable research is the most effective way to solve many problems facing state departments of transportation (DOTs) administrators and engineers. Often, highway problems are of local or regional interest and can best be studied by state DOTs individually or in cooperation with their state universities and others. However, the accelerating growth of highway transporta- tion results in increasingly complex problems of wide interest to high- way authorities. These problems are best studied through a coordinated program of cooperative research. Recognizing this need, the leadership of the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO) in 1962 ini- tiated an objective national highway research program using modern scientific techniquesâthe National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP). NCHRP is supported on a continuing basis by funds from participating member states of AASHTO and receives the full cooperation and support of the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), United States Department of Transportation, under Agree- ment No. 693JJ31950003. The Transportation Research Board (TRB) of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine was requested by AASHTO to administer the research program because of TRBâs recognized objectivity and understanding of modern research practices. TRB is uniquely suited for this purpose for many reasons: TRB maintains an extensive com- mittee structure from which authorities on any highway transportation subject may be drawn; TRB possesses avenues of communications and cooperation with federal, state, and local governmental agencies, univer- sities, and industry; TRBâs relationship to the National Academies is an insurance of objectivity; and TRB maintains a full-time staff of special- ists in highway transportation matters to bring the findings of research directly to those in a position to use them. The program is developed on the basis of research needs iden- tified by chief administrators and other staff of the highway and transportation departments, by committees of AASHTO, and by the FHWA. Topics of the highest merit are selected by the AASHTO Special Committee on Research and Innovation (R&I), and each year R&Iâs recommendations are proposed to the AASHTO Board of Direc- tors and the National Academies. Research projects to address these topics are defined by NCHRP, and qualified research agencies are selected from submitted proposals. Administration and surveillance of research contracts are the responsibilities of the National Academies and TRB. The needs for highway research are many, and NCHRP can make significant contributions to solving highway transportation problems of mutual concern to many responsible groups. The program, however, is intended to complement, rather than to substitute for or duplicate, other highway research programs. Published research reports of the NATIONAL COOPERATIVE HIGHWAY RESEARCH PROGRAM are available from Transportation Research Board Business Office 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 and can be ordered through the Internet by going to https://www.nationalacademies.org and then searching for TRB Printed in the United States of America NCHRP RESEARCH REPORT 960 Project 09-62 ISSN 2572-3766 (Print) ISSN 2572-3774 (Online) ISBN 978-0-309-67367-9 Library of Congress Control Number 2020951457 Â© 2021 National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. COPYRIGHT INFORMATION Authors herein are responsible for the authenticity of their materials and for obtaining written permissions from publishers or persons who own the copyright to any previously published or copyrighted material used herein. Cooperative Research Programs (CRP) grants permission to reproduce material in this publication for classroom and not-for-profit purposes. Permission is given with the understanding that none of the material will be used to imply TRB, AASHTO, FAA, FHWA, FTA, GHSA, NHTSA, or TDC endorsement of a particular product, method, or practice. It is expected that those reproducing the material in this document for educational and not-for-profit uses will give appropriate acknowledgment of the source of any reprinted or reproduced material. For other uses of the material, request permission from CRP. NOTICE The research report was reviewed by the technical panel and accepted for publication according to procedures established and overseen by the Transportation Research Board and approved by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. The opinions and conclusions expressed or implied in this report are those of the researchers who performed the research and are not necessarily those of the Transportation Research Board; the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine; the FHWA; or the program sponsors. The Transportation Research Board; the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine; and the sponsors of the National Cooperative Highway Research Program do not endorse products or manufacturers. Trade or manufacturersâ names appear herein solely because they are considered essential to the object of the report.
The National Academy of Sciences was established in 1863 by an Act of Congress, signed by President Lincoln, as a private, non- governmental institution to advise the nation on issues related to science and technology. Members are elected by their peers for outstanding contributions to research. Dr. Marcia McNutt is president. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to bring the practices of engineering to advising the nation. Members are elected by their peers for extraordinary contributions to engineering. Dr. John L. Anderson is president. The National Academy of Medicine (formerly the Institute of Medicine) was established in 1970 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to advise the nation on medical and health issues. Members are elected by their peers for distinguished contributions to medicine and health. Dr. Victor J. Dzau is president. The three Academies work together as the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine to provide independent, objective analysis and advice to the nation and conduct other activities to solve complex problems and inform public policy decisions. The National Academies also encourage education and research, recognize outstanding contributions to knowledge, and increase public understanding in matters of science, engineering, and medicine. Learn more about the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine at www.nationalacademies.org. The Transportation Research Board is one of seven major programs of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. The mission of the Transportation Research Board is to provide leadership in transportation improvements and innovation through trusted, timely, impartial, and evidence-based information exchange, research, and advice regarding all modes of transportation. The Boardâs varied activities annually engage about 8,000 engineers, scientists, and other transportation researchers and practitioners from the public and private sectors and academia, all of whom contribute their expertise in the public interest. The program is supported by state transportation departments, federal agencies including the component administrations of the U.S. Department of Transportation, and other organizations and individuals interested in the development of transportation. Learn more about the Transportation Research Board at www.TRB.org.
C O O P E R A T I V E R E S E A R C H P R O G R A M S CRP STAFF FOR NCHRP RESEARCH REPORT 960 Christopher J. Hedges, Director, Cooperative Research Programs Lori L. Sundstrom, Deputy Director, Cooperative Research Programs Edward T. Harrigan, Senior Program Officer Anthony Avery, Senior Program Assistant Eileen P. Delaney, Director of Publications Natalie Barnes, Associate Director of Publications Doug English, Senior Editor NCHRP PROJECT 09-62 PANEL Field of Materials and ConstructionâBituminous Materials Ervin L. Dukatz, Jr., Mathy Construction Company, Onalaska, WI (Chair) Richard L. Bradbury, Maine Department of Transportation, Scarborough, ME Colin A. Franco, Rhode Island Department of Transportation, Providence, RI Richard P. Izzo, Texas Department of Transportation, Austin, TX Jusang Lee, Indiana Department of Transportation, West Lafayette, IN Yusuf A. Mehta, Rowan University, Glassboro, NJ Tanya M. Nash, Asphalt Testing Solutions and Engineering, Jacksonville, FL William R. Schiebel, RockSol Consulting Group, Thornton, CO Marta Vasquez, Baton Rouge, LA Jack S. Youtcheff, Jr., FHWA Liaison Nelson H. Gibson, TRB Liaison
AUTHOR ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The research reported herein was performed under NCHRP Project 09-62 by the Virginia Trans- portation Research Council (VTRC), University of California Pavement Research Center (UCPRC), University of NevadaâReno (UNR), Auburn University (AU), and the Virginia Tech Transportation Institute (VTTI). VTRC was the contractor for this study. Dr. Brian K. Diefenderfer, P.E., Principal Research Scientist at VTRC, was the Principal Investigator. Dr. David Jones, Associate Director at UCPRC, was the Co-Principal Investigator. The other authors of this report are Dr. Adam J. T. Hand, P.E., Associate Professor at UNR; Dr. Benjamin F. Bowers, P.E., Associate Professor at AU; Dr. Gerardo Flintsch, P.E., Director of the Center for Sustainable Transportation Infrastructure at VTTI; Dr. Ilker Boz, Research Scientist at VTRC; and Dr. Jhony Habbouche, Research Scientist at VTRC. The work was completed under the general supervision of Dr. Diefenderfer at VTRC. The authors acknowledge the assistance of the following individuals: Nick Schwear, Allan Myers; Sadaf Khosravifar, Applied Research Associates; Stephen Cross, Asphalt Recycling and Reclaiming Associa- tion; David Allain, AU; Travis Cable, Colony Construction Inc.; Darren Coughlin, Coughlin Company; Stephanie Drain, S. Drain Engineering of IL, LLC; Jason Dietz, FHWA; Rob Sommerfeldt and Roger Roberts, Geophysical Survey Systems, Inc.; Tom Kazmierowski, Goulder Associates Ltd.; Dennis McElroy, Anthony Silva, and Frank Rancadore, Graniterock; Zach Robinson and Jason Wielinski, Heritage Research Group; Christopher Bolt and Bret Taylor, Jackson County DOT; Mike Crenshaw, King Asphalt Inc.; Ervin Dukatz, Mathy Construction Co.; Dan Schellhammer, Midstate Reclamation and Trucking; Gerard Geib, Eddie Johnson, Raul Velasquez, and Benjamin Worel, Minnesota DOT; Buzz Powell, National Center for Asphalt Technology; Donna Gililland, New Mexico DOT; Thomas Kane, Michael Kelly, and Donald Smithgall, New York State DOT; Michael Concannon and Don Mathews, Pavement Recycling Systems, Inc.; Dan Patenaude, Seal Coating Inc.; Laura Kline, South Carolina DOT; Gary Foux, Suit-Kote Corp.; Linus Dep, Troxler Labs; Stefan Louw, UCPRC; Forrest Hierholzer and Murugaiyah Piratheepan, UNR; Sayed Adel, Aksel Seitllari, and Len Sheler, University of Virginia; Troy Deeds, Stacey Diefenderfer, Donald Dodds, Linda Evans, Jennifer Samuels, and Drew Barber, VTRC; Mark Stahl, Wirtgen America; and Mike Marshall, Wirtgen GmbH.
NCHRP Research Report 960: Proposed AASHTO Practice and Tests for Process Control and Product Acceptance of Asphalt-Treated Cold Recycled Pavements will improve our ability to make time-critical decisions on opening asphalt-treated, cold recycled pavements to traffic and surfacing. Thus, the report will be of immediate interest to engineers in state and local transportation agencies and industry with responsibility for the construction and quality assurance of cold recycled pavements. Pavement recycling offers significant economic and environmental benefits through reductions in material and energy consumption, cost of construction, and user delays. However, there are currently no universally agreed upon rapid process control and product acceptance test methods to ensure that the constructed materials comply with commonly specified parameters and are ready for traffic and surfacing. Asphalt-treated, cold recycled materials used in cold in-place recycling (CIR), cold central-plant recycling (CCPR), and full-depth reclamation (FDR) have traditionally been accepted based on moisture content and density in the field and performance tests in the laboratory. These tests do not lend themselves to rapidly assessing the as-constructed quality and performance of cold recycled materials, nor do they help determine the proper time for application of traffic and surfacing without causing damage. Therefore, a standard practice for process control and product acceptance of cold recycling operations was needed to promote consistency among agencies. Appropriate time-critical field tests performed during construction are also needed to rapidly determine the quality of the as-constructed cold recycled pavement and evaluate its readiness for traffic and surfacing. Under NCHRP Project 09-62, âRapid Tests and Specifications for Construction of Asphalt-Treated Cold Recycled Pavements,â the Virginia Transportation Research Council was tasked with developing rapid, time-critical tests for asphalt-treated CIR, FDR, and CCPR materials that provide criteria for determining when the pavement can be opened to traffic and surfaced as well as a standard practice for using these tests for process control and product acceptance. The research was conducted in three phases. Phase I included a comprehensive literature review, a stakeholder survey, and a review of agency specifications. A few tests routinely used in the field were identified that could assess desired time-critical properties. Phase II was a series of laboratory experiments that evaluated several existing and newly developed tests for their ability to determine in the field when a pavement was ready to accept traffic or surfacing. Phase III assessed the most promising tests from Phase II in a field setting where the properties of cold recycled materials from 16 construction projects were measured in situ to determine the pavementsâ readiness for traffic or surfacing. Finally, the most F O R E W O R D By Edward T. Harrigan Staff Officer Transportation Research Board
promising rapid test methods from the field experiment were incorporated in a proposed AASHTO standard practice that guides their use for making time-critical decisions regarding opening cold recycled pavements to traffic and surfacing. The key outcome of this research is the proposed AASHTO Standard Practice: Process Control and Product Acceptance of Asphalt-Treated Cold Recycled Pavements and its associated test methods. This practice is presented as Appendix B. Two new test methods developed in the project are presented in Appendices C and D.
1 Summary 3 Chapter 1 Background 5 1.1 Problem Statement 5 1.2 Objectives 5 1.3 Current Recycled Material Quality Tests 6 1.4 Scope of Report 7 Chapter 2 Research Approach 7 2.1 Phase IâCurrent and Emerging Quality Tests 8 2.2 Phase IIâLaboratory Testing 17 2.3 Phase IIIâField Testing 18 2.4 Repeatability and Reproducibility of Field Raveling and Shear Tests 25 Chapter 3 Findings and Applications 25 3.1 Current and Emerging Quality Tests 38 3.2 Candidate Tests 39 3.3 Selected Tests 39 3.4 Laboratory Testing 82 3.5 Field Testing 111 3.6 Selection of Recommended Tests and Threshold Values 113 3.7 Proposed AASHTO Standard Practice 114 Chapter 4 Conclusions and Suggested Research 114 4.1 Conclusions 114 4.2 Suggested Research 116 Chapter 5 Training and Implementation 116 5.1 Implementation Plan 117 5.2 Potential Institution and Individual Research Product Deployment Leaders 117 5.3 Assessment of Impediments to Successful Implementation 117 5.4 Methods of Identifying and Measuring the Implementation Impacts 119 References A-1 Appendix A Stakeholder Survey Questions B-1 Appendix B Proposed AASHTO Standard Practice C-1 Appendix C Proposed AASHTO Standard Method of Test for Evaluating the Shear Resistance of Asphalt-Treated Recycled Pavement Applications Using a Long-Pin Fixture C O N T E N T S
D-1 Appendix D Proposed AASHTO Standard Method of Test for Evaluating the Raveling Resistance of Asphalt-Treated Recycled Pavement Applications Using a Short-Pin Fixture Note: Photographs, figures, and tables in this report may have been converted from color to grayscale for printing. The electronic version of the report (posted on the web at www.trb.org) retains the color versions.