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A I R P O R T C O O P E R A T I V E R E S E A R C H P R O G R A M ACRP RESEARCH REPORT 223 2020 Research sponsored by the Federal Aviation Administration Subscriber Categories Aviation â¢ Economics â¢ Terminals and Facilities Performance Measures for State Aviation Agencies Stephanie Ward Courtney Beard Sondra Retzlaff Mead & Hunt, Inc. Lansing, MI i n a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h Maria Muia Woolpert, Inc. Dayton, OH Christopher Willenborg aIrport SolutIonS Group, llc Burlington, MA Bryan Johnson avIatIon ManaGeMent conSultInG Group Centennial, CO Kim Kenville KIM KenvIlle conSultInG Grand Forks, ND
AIRPORT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM Airports are vital national resources. They serve a key role in trans- portation of people and goods and in regional, national, and interna- tional commerce. They are where the nationâs aviation system connects with other modes of transportation and where federal responsibility for managing and regulating air traffic operations intersects with the role of state and local governments that own and operate most airports. Research is necessary to solve common operating problems, to adapt appropriate new technologies from other industries, and to introduce innovations into the airport industry. The Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) serves as one of the principal means by which the airport industry can develop innovative near-term solutions to meet demands placed on it. The need for ACRP was identified in TRB Special Report 272: Airport Research Needs: Cooperative Solutions in 2003, based on a study spon- sored by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). ACRP carries out applied research on problems that are shared by airport operating agen- cies and not being adequately addressed by existing federal research programs. ACRP is modeled after the successful National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP) and Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP). ACRP undertakes research and other technical activi- ties in various airport subject areas, including design, construction, legal, maintenance, operations, safety, policy, planning, human resources, and administration. ACRP provides a forum where airport operators can cooperatively address common operational problems. ACRP was authorized in December 2003 as part of the Vision 100â Century of Aviation Reauthorization Act. The primary participants in the ACRP are (1) an independent governing board, the ACRP Oversight Committee (AOC), appointed by the Secretary of the U.S. Department of Transportation with representation from airport operating agencies, other stakeholders, and relevant industry organizations such as the Airports Council International-North America (ACI-NA), the American Associa- tion of Airport Executives (AAAE), the National Association of State Aviation Officials (NASAO), Airlines for America (A4A), and the Airport Consultants Council (ACC) as vital links to the airport community; (2) TRB as program manager and secretariat for the governing board; and (3) the FAA as program sponsor. In October 2005, the FAA executed a contract with the National Academy of Sciences formally initiating the program. ACRP benefits from the cooperation and participation of airport professionals, air carriers, shippers, state and local government officials, equipment and service suppliers, other airport users, and research organi- zations. Each of these participants has different interests and responsibili- ties, and each is an integral part of this cooperative research effort. Research problem statements for ACRP are solicited periodically but may be submitted to TRB by anyone at any time. It is the responsibility of the AOC to formulate the research program by identifying the highest priority projects and defining funding levels and expected products. Once selected, each ACRP project is assigned to an expert panel appointed by TRB. Panels include experienced practitioners and research specialists; heavy emphasis is placed on including airport professionals, the intended users of the research products. The panels prepare project statements (requests for proposals), select contractors, and provide technical guidance and counsel throughout the life of the project. The process for developing research problem statements and selecting research agencies has been used by TRB in managing coop- erative research programs since 1962. As in other TRB activities, ACRP project panels serve voluntarily without compensation. Primary emphasis is placed on disseminating ACRP results to the intended users of the research: airport operating agencies, service pro- viders, and academic institutions. ACRP produces a series of research reports for use by airport operators, local agencies, the FAA, and other interested parties; industry associations may arrange for workshops, training aids, field visits, webinars, and other activities to ensure that results are implemented by airport industry practitioners. ACRP RESEARCH REPORT 223 Project 01-37 ISSN 2572-3731 (Print) ISSN 2572-374X (Online) ISBN 978-0-309-67346-4 Library of Congress Control Number 2020945631 Â© 2020 National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. COPYRIGHT INFORMATION Authors herein are responsible for the authenticity of their materials and for obtaining written permissions from publishers or persons who own the copyright to any previously published or copyrighted material used herein. Cooperative Research Programs (CRP) grants permission to reproduce material in this publication for classroom and not-for-profit purposes. Permission is given with the understanding that none of the material will be used to imply TRB, AASHTO, FAA, FHWA, FTA, GHSA, NHTSA, or TDC endorsement of a particular product, method, or practice. It is expected that those reproducing the material in this document for educational and not-for-profit uses will give appropriate acknowledgment of the source of any reprinted or reproduced material. For other uses of the material, request permission from CRP. NOTICE The research report was reviewed by the technical panel and accepted for publication according to procedures established and overseen by the Transportation Research Board and approved by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. The opinions and conclusions expressed or implied in this report are those of the researchers who performed the research and are not necessarily those of the Transportation Research Board; the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine; or the program sponsors. The Transportation Research Board; the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine; and the sponsors of the Airport Cooperative Research Program do not endorse products or manufacturers. Trade or manufacturersâ names appear herein solely because they are considered essential to the object of the report. Published research reports of the AIRPORT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM are available from Transportation Research Board Business Office 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 and can be ordered through the Internet by going to https://www.nationalacademies.org and then searching for TRB Printed in the United States of America
The National Academy of Sciences was established in 1863 by an Act of Congress, signed by President Lincoln, as a private, non- governmental institution to advise the nation on issues related to science and technology. Members are elected by their peers for outstanding contributions to research. Dr. Marcia McNutt is president. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to bring the practices of engineering to advising the nation. Members are elected by their peers for extraordinary contributions to engineering. Dr. John L. Anderson is president. The National Academy of Medicine (formerly the Institute of Medicine) was established in 1970 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to advise the nation on medical and health issues. Members are elected by their peers for distinguished contributions to medicine and health. Dr. Victor J. Dzau is president. The three Academies work together as the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine to provide independent, objective analysis and advice to the nation and conduct other activities to solve complex problems and inform public policy decisions. The National Academies also encourage education and research, recognize outstanding contributions to knowledge, and increase public understanding in matters of science, engineering, and medicine. Learn more about the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine at www.nationalacademies.org. The Transportation Research Board is one of seven major programs of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. The mission of the Transportation Research Board is to provide leadership in transportation improvements and innovation through trusted, timely, impartial, and evidence-based information exchange, research, and advice regarding all modes of transportation. The Boardâs varied activities annually engage about 8,000 engineers, scientists, and other transportation researchers and practitioners from the public and private sectors and academia, all of whom contribute their expertise in the public interest. The program is supported by state transportation departments, federal agencies including the component administrations of the U.S. Department of Transportation, and other organizations and individuals interested in the development of transportation. Learn more about the Transportation Research Board at www.TRB.org.
C O O P E R A T I V E R E S E A R C H P R O G R A M S CRP STAFF FOR ACRP RESEARCH REPORT 223 Christopher J. Hedges, Director, Cooperative Research Programs Lori L. Sundstrom, Deputy Director, Cooperative Research Programs Marci A. Greenberger, Manager, Airport Cooperative Research Program Brittany Summerlin-Azeez, Program Coordinator Eileen P. Delaney, Director of Publications Natalie Barnes, Associate Director of Publications Doug English, Senior Editor ACRP PROJECT 01-37 PANEL Field of Administration Regan A. Schnug, Kimley-Horn and Associates, Inc., Columbus, OH (Chair) Tommy Booth, Mississippi Department of Transportation, Jackson, MS Patti J. Clark, Embry Riddle Aeronautical University, Hahira, GA Laurie K. Cullen, Lincoln, RI Anthony McCloskey, Pennsylvania Department of Transportation, Harrisburg, PA Christy Yaffa, Wyoming DOT, Cheyenne, WY Kyler Erhard, FAA Liaison Carlos Fields, FAA Liaison
Performance measures (PMs) are used in most organizations to demonstrate how well they are operating. ACRP Research Report 223: Performance Measures for State Aviation Agencies provides insight into the selection of the PMs that best fit the needs of state avia- tion agencies. The guidebook provides a summary of a range of PMs that can be tailored by state aviation agencies to address agency-related topics as well as topics related to the entire aviation system within a state. State aviation agencies are no different from other organizations in needing to demonstrate their value, often to a broad audience. While these agencies do not necessarily operate in the same way, or may have different demands on what they need to be measuring, the research demonstrated that there are a number of common activities that can be assessed within their own agencies and even benchmarked against their peers. Mead & Hunt was selected to collect data from state aviation agencies across the country and to prepare case studies on how state aviation agencies are using performance measures. A brief explanation of performance measurement and the importance of tying PMs to an agencyâs mission, vision, and values sets the stage for the discussion of specific PMs. Important to the guidebook is a discussion of the considerations an agency should review when selecting and developing specific measures for individual PMs. This is followed by detailed summaries of an assortment of PMs that are being used by state aviation agencies. This guidance will be useful to staff from state aviation agencies seeking to determine appropriate PMs for their particular operation that can be tailored to meet their specific state aviation agency needs. F O R E W O R D By Marci A. Greenberger Staff Officer Transportation Research Board
1 Summary 3 Chapter 1 Introduction 3 1.1 Purpose of the Research 3 1.2 Reason for Development and Intended Audience 4 1.3 How This Guidebook Was Developed 4 1.4 Contents of This Guidebook 6 Chapter 2 Context and Fundamentals 6 2.1 Linking Performance Measures to the Strategic Plan 6 2.2 Context of Performance Measures 7 2.3 Definitions for Use in This Guidebook 8 2.4 Fundamentals for Successful Performance Measures 9 2.5 The Performance Measurement Process 12 2.6 Summary 13 Chapter 3 Considerations in Selecting and Defining a Performance Measure 13 3.1 Connection to Agency Goals 14 3.2 Data Source 14 3.3 Defining a Specific Measure 17 3.4 Frequency of Reporting or Assessing a PM 17 3.5 Reporting Method 17 3.6 Responsibility to Monitor 18 3.7 Summary 19 Chapter 4 Detailed Performance Measure Summaries 21 4.1 Airport Related 46 4.2 Funding Related 53 4.3 Project Related 59 4.4 Flight Departments and Drones 65 4.5 Education 69 4.6 Return on Investment and Economic Impact 75 4.7 Summary 76 Chapter 5 Conclusions C O N T E N T S
78 Appendix A State Agency Case Studies 117 Appendix B Bibliography 118 Appendix C Annotated Review of TRB Resources 131 Appendix D Federal Aviation Administration Performance Measures 137 References Note: Photographs, figures, and tables in this report may have been converted from color to grayscale for printing. The electronic version of the report (posted on the web at www.trb.org) retains the color versions.