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Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. High and Rising Mortality Rates Among Working-Age Adults. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25976.
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  References Abdullah, A., Wolfe, R., Stoelwinder, J.U., De Courten, M., Stevenson, C., Walls, H.L., and Peeters, A. (2011). The number of years lived with obesity and the risk of all-cause and cause-specific mortality. International Journal of Epidemiology, 40, 4, 985-996. Abrutyn, S. and Mueller, A.S. (2018). Toward a cultural-structural theory of suicide: Examining excessive regulation and its discontents. Sociological Theory, 36, 1, 48-66. Acciai, A.J., Noah, A.J., and Firebaugh, G. (2015). Pinpointing the sources of the Asian mortality advantage in the United States. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, 69, 10, 1006-1011. Achenbach, J., and Keating, D. (2017). New research identifies a ‘sea of despair’ among white, working-class Americans. Washington Post. Available: https://www.washingtonpost.com/national/health-science/new- research-identifies-a-sea-of-despair-among-white-working-class-americans/2017/03/22/c777ab6e-0da6- 11e7-9b0d-d27c98455440_story.html Adair, L.S., Gordon-Larsen, P., Du, S.F., Zhang, B., and Popkin, B.M. (2014). The emergence of cardiometabolic disease risk in Chinese children and adults: Consequences of changes in diet, physical activity and obesity. Obesity Reviews, 15, 49-59. Adams, J.M. (2019). The value of worker well-being. Public Health, 134, 6, 583-586. doi: https://doi.org/10.1177/0033354919878434 Advisory Committee to the Surgeon General of the Public Health Service. (1964). Smoking and Health: Report of the Advisory Committee to the Surgeon General of the Public Health Service (No. 1103). U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, Public Health Service. AFCARS (Adoption and Foster Care Analysis and Reporting System). (2017). The AFCARS Report: Preliminary FY 2016 Estimates as of Oct 20, 2017, No. 24. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Administration for Children and Families, Administration on Children, Youth and Families, Children’s Bureau. Afifi, T.O., Boman, J., Fleisher, W., and Sareen, J. (2009). The relationship between child abuse, parental divorce, and lifetime mental disorders and suicidality in a nationally representative adult sample. Child Abuse & Neglect, 33, 3, 139-147. Agarwal, R., Gupta, A., and Fendrick, A.M. (2018). Value-based insurance design improves medication adherence without an increase in total health care spending. Health Affairs, 37, 7, 1057-1064. Aguilar-Gaxiola, S., Loera, G., Geraghty, E.M., Ton, H., Lim, C.C., De Jonge, P., Kessler, R.C., Posada-Villa, J., Medina-Mora, M.E., Hu, C., and Fiestas, F. (2016). Associations between DSM-IV mental disorders and subsequent onset of arthritis. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 82, 11-16. Ahmad, F.B., Rossen, L.M., and Sutton, P. (2020). Provisional Drug Overdose Death Counts. National Center for Health Statistics. Available: https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/nvss/vsrr/drug-overdose-data.htm Ahmedani, B.K., Peterson, E.L., Hu, Y., Rossom, R.C., Lynch, F., Lu, C.Y., Waitzfelder, B.E., Owen-Smith, A.A., Hubley, S., Prabhakar, D., and Williams, L.K. (2017). Major physical health conditions and risk of suicide. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 53, 3, 308-315. REF-1 Prepublication copy, uncorrected proofs 

  Alexander, M. (2010). The New Jim Crow: Mass Incarceration in the Age of Colorblindness. New York: The New Press. Alexander, M.J., Kiang, M.V., and Barbieri, M. (2018). Trends in Black and white opioid mortality in the United States, 1979–2015. Epidemiology, 29, 5, 707. Ali, B., Fisher, D.A., Miller, T.R., Lawrence, B.A., Spicer, R.S., Swedler, D.I., and Allison, J. (2019). Trends in drug poisoning deaths among adolescents and young adults in the United States, 2006-2015. Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, 80, 2, 201-210. Alimujiang, A., Wiensch, A., Boss, J., Fleischer, N.L., Mondul, A.M., McLean, K., Mukherjee, B., and Pearce, C.L. (2019). Association between life purpose and mortality among US adults older than 50 years. Journal of the American Medical Association, 2, 5, e194270. doi: https://doi.org/10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.4270 Almond, D., and Chay, K.Y. (2006). The long-run and intergenerational impact of poor infant health: Evidence from cohorts born during the civil rights era. Monograph, University of California-Berkeley. Almond, D., and Currie, J. (2011). Killing me softly: The fetal origins hypothesis. Journal Of Economic Perspectives, 25, 3, 153-172. doi: https://doi.org/10.1257/jep.25.3.153 Alpert, A.E., Evans, W.N., Lieber, E.M., and Powell, D. (2019). Origins of the Opioid Crisis and Its Enduring Impacts. Working Paper No. 26500. Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research.. Available: https://www.nber.org/papers/w26500 Alvarez, K., Fillbrunn, M., Green, J.G., Jackson, J.S., Kessler, R.C., McLaughlin, K.A., Sadikova, E., Sampson, N.A., and Alegría, M. (2019). Race/Ethnicity, nativity, and lifetime risk of mental disorders in US adults. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 54, 5, 553-565. American Lung Association. (n.d.). Overall Tobacco Trends. Available: https://www.lung.org/research/trends-in- lung-disease/tobacco-trends-brief/overall-tobacco- trends#:~:text=Long%20term%2C%20cigarette%20smoking%20rates,to%2013.7%20percent%20in%202 018 American Psychiatric Association. (2018). Warning Signs of Mental Illness. Available: https://www.psychiatry.org/patients-families/warning-signs-of-mental-illness. American Public Health Association. (2013). Injury and Violence Prevention: Policy Lessons from the Field. (2013). Washington, DC. Available: https://apha.org/~/media/files/pdf/topics/injury_and_violence_prevention_policy_lessons_from_the_field. ashx Ananat, E.O., Gassman-Pines, A., Francis, D.V., and Gibson-Davis, C.M. (2017). Linking job loss, inequality, mental health, and education. Science, 356, 6343, 1127-1128. Anand, P. (2017). Health insurance costs and employee compensation: Evidence from the National Compensation Survey. Health Economics, 26, 12, 1601-1616. REF-2 Prepublication copy, uncorrected proofs 

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The past century has witnessed remarkable advances in life expectancy in the United States and throughout the world. In 2010, however, progress in life expectancy in the United States began to stall, despite continuing to increase in other high-income countries. Alarmingly, U.S. life expectancy fell between 2014 and 2015 and continued to decline through 2017, the longest sustained decline in life expectancy in a century (since the influenza pandemic of 1918-1919). The recent decline in U.S. life expectancy appears to have been the product of two trends: (1) an increase in mortality among middle-aged and younger adults, defined as those aged 25-64 years (i.e., "working age"), which began in the 1990s for several specific causes of death (e.g., drug- and alcohol-related causes and suicide); and (2) a slowing of declines in working-age mortality due to other causes of death (mainly cardiovascular diseases) after 2010.

High and Rising Mortality Rates among Working Age Adults highlights the crisis of rising premature mortality that threatens the future of the nation's families, communities, and national wellbeing. This report identifies the key drivers of increasing death rates and disparities in working-age mortality over the period 1990 to 2017; elucidates modifiable risk factors that could alleviate poor health in the working-age population, as well as widening health inequalities; identifies key knowledge gaps and make recommendations for future research and data collection to fill those gaps; and explores potential policy implications. After a comprehensive analysis of the trends in working-age mortality by age, sex, race/ethnicity, and geography using the most up-to-date data, this report then looks upstream to the macrostructural factors (e.g., public policies, macroeconomic trends, social and economic inequality, technology) and social determinants (e.g., socioeconomic status, environment, social networks) that may affect the health of working-age Americans in multiple ways and through multiple pathways.

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