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High and Rising Mortality Rates Among Working-Age Adults (2021)

Chapter: Appendix A: Mortality Data Analyses: Review Process and Detailed Mortality Rate Tables

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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Mortality Data Analyses: Review Process and Detailed Mortality Rate Tables." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. High and Rising Mortality Rates Among Working-Age Adults. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25976.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Mortality Data Analyses: Review Process and Detailed Mortality Rate Tables." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. High and Rising Mortality Rates Among Working-Age Adults. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25976.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Mortality Data Analyses: Review Process and Detailed Mortality Rate Tables." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. High and Rising Mortality Rates Among Working-Age Adults. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25976.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Mortality Data Analyses: Review Process and Detailed Mortality Rate Tables." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. High and Rising Mortality Rates Among Working-Age Adults. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25976.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Mortality Data Analyses: Review Process and Detailed Mortality Rate Tables." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. High and Rising Mortality Rates Among Working-Age Adults. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25976.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Mortality Data Analyses: Review Process and Detailed Mortality Rate Tables." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. High and Rising Mortality Rates Among Working-Age Adults. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25976.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Mortality Data Analyses: Review Process and Detailed Mortality Rate Tables." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. High and Rising Mortality Rates Among Working-Age Adults. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25976.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Mortality Data Analyses: Review Process and Detailed Mortality Rate Tables." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. High and Rising Mortality Rates Among Working-Age Adults. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25976.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Mortality Data Analyses: Review Process and Detailed Mortality Rate Tables." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. High and Rising Mortality Rates Among Working-Age Adults. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25976.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Mortality Data Analyses: Review Process and Detailed Mortality Rate Tables." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. High and Rising Mortality Rates Among Working-Age Adults. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25976.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Mortality Data Analyses: Review Process and Detailed Mortality Rate Tables." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. High and Rising Mortality Rates Among Working-Age Adults. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25976.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Mortality Data Analyses: Review Process and Detailed Mortality Rate Tables." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. High and Rising Mortality Rates Among Working-Age Adults. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25976.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Mortality Data Analyses: Review Process and Detailed Mortality Rate Tables." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. High and Rising Mortality Rates Among Working-Age Adults. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25976.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Mortality Data Analyses: Review Process and Detailed Mortality Rate Tables." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. High and Rising Mortality Rates Among Working-Age Adults. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25976.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Mortality Data Analyses: Review Process and Detailed Mortality Rate Tables." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. High and Rising Mortality Rates Among Working-Age Adults. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25976.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Mortality Data Analyses: Review Process and Detailed Mortality Rate Tables." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. High and Rising Mortality Rates Among Working-Age Adults. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25976.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Mortality Data Analyses: Review Process and Detailed Mortality Rate Tables." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. High and Rising Mortality Rates Among Working-Age Adults. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25976.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Mortality Data Analyses: Review Process and Detailed Mortality Rate Tables." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. High and Rising Mortality Rates Among Working-Age Adults. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25976.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Mortality Data Analyses: Review Process and Detailed Mortality Rate Tables." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. High and Rising Mortality Rates Among Working-Age Adults. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25976.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Mortality Data Analyses: Review Process and Detailed Mortality Rate Tables." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. High and Rising Mortality Rates Among Working-Age Adults. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25976.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Mortality Data Analyses: Review Process and Detailed Mortality Rate Tables." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. High and Rising Mortality Rates Among Working-Age Adults. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25976.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Mortality Data Analyses: Review Process and Detailed Mortality Rate Tables." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. High and Rising Mortality Rates Among Working-Age Adults. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25976.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Mortality Data Analyses: Review Process and Detailed Mortality Rate Tables." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. High and Rising Mortality Rates Among Working-Age Adults. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25976.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Mortality Data Analyses: Review Process and Detailed Mortality Rate Tables." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. High and Rising Mortality Rates Among Working-Age Adults. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25976.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Mortality Data Analyses: Review Process and Detailed Mortality Rate Tables." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. High and Rising Mortality Rates Among Working-Age Adults. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25976.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Mortality Data Analyses: Review Process and Detailed Mortality Rate Tables." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. High and Rising Mortality Rates Among Working-Age Adults. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25976.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Mortality Data Analyses: Review Process and Detailed Mortality Rate Tables." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. High and Rising Mortality Rates Among Working-Age Adults. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25976.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Mortality Data Analyses: Review Process and Detailed Mortality Rate Tables." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. High and Rising Mortality Rates Among Working-Age Adults. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25976.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Mortality Data Analyses: Review Process and Detailed Mortality Rate Tables." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. High and Rising Mortality Rates Among Working-Age Adults. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25976.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Mortality Data Analyses: Review Process and Detailed Mortality Rate Tables." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. High and Rising Mortality Rates Among Working-Age Adults. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25976.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Mortality Data Analyses: Review Process and Detailed Mortality Rate Tables." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. High and Rising Mortality Rates Among Working-Age Adults. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25976.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Mortality Data Analyses: Review Process and Detailed Mortality Rate Tables." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. High and Rising Mortality Rates Among Working-Age Adults. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25976.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Mortality Data Analyses: Review Process and Detailed Mortality Rate Tables." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. High and Rising Mortality Rates Among Working-Age Adults. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25976.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Mortality Data Analyses: Review Process and Detailed Mortality Rate Tables." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. High and Rising Mortality Rates Among Working-Age Adults. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25976.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Mortality Data Analyses: Review Process and Detailed Mortality Rate Tables." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. High and Rising Mortality Rates Among Working-Age Adults. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25976.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Mortality Data Analyses: Review Process and Detailed Mortality Rate Tables." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. High and Rising Mortality Rates Among Working-Age Adults. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25976.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Mortality Data Analyses: Review Process and Detailed Mortality Rate Tables." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. High and Rising Mortality Rates Among Working-Age Adults. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25976.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Mortality Data Analyses: Review Process and Detailed Mortality Rate Tables." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. High and Rising Mortality Rates Among Working-Age Adults. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25976.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Mortality Data Analyses: Review Process and Detailed Mortality Rate Tables." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. High and Rising Mortality Rates Among Working-Age Adults. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25976.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Mortality Data Analyses: Review Process and Detailed Mortality Rate Tables." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. High and Rising Mortality Rates Among Working-Age Adults. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25976.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Mortality Data Analyses: Review Process and Detailed Mortality Rate Tables." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. High and Rising Mortality Rates Among Working-Age Adults. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25976.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Mortality Data Analyses: Review Process and Detailed Mortality Rate Tables." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. High and Rising Mortality Rates Among Working-Age Adults. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25976.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Mortality Data Analyses: Review Process and Detailed Mortality Rate Tables." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. High and Rising Mortality Rates Among Working-Age Adults. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25976.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Mortality Data Analyses: Review Process and Detailed Mortality Rate Tables." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. High and Rising Mortality Rates Among Working-Age Adults. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25976.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Mortality Data Analyses: Review Process and Detailed Mortality Rate Tables." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. High and Rising Mortality Rates Among Working-Age Adults. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25976.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Mortality Data Analyses: Review Process and Detailed Mortality Rate Tables." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. High and Rising Mortality Rates Among Working-Age Adults. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25976.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Mortality Data Analyses: Review Process and Detailed Mortality Rate Tables." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. High and Rising Mortality Rates Among Working-Age Adults. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25976.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Mortality Data Analyses: Review Process and Detailed Mortality Rate Tables." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. High and Rising Mortality Rates Among Working-Age Adults. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25976.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Mortality Data Analyses: Review Process and Detailed Mortality Rate Tables." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. High and Rising Mortality Rates Among Working-Age Adults. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25976.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Mortality Data Analyses: Review Process and Detailed Mortality Rate Tables." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. High and Rising Mortality Rates Among Working-Age Adults. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25976.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Mortality Data Analyses: Review Process and Detailed Mortality Rate Tables." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. High and Rising Mortality Rates Among Working-Age Adults. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25976.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Mortality Data Analyses: Review Process and Detailed Mortality Rate Tables." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. High and Rising Mortality Rates Among Working-Age Adults. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25976.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Mortality Data Analyses: Review Process and Detailed Mortality Rate Tables." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. High and Rising Mortality Rates Among Working-Age Adults. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25976.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Mortality Data Analyses: Review Process and Detailed Mortality Rate Tables." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. High and Rising Mortality Rates Among Working-Age Adults. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25976.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Mortality Data Analyses: Review Process and Detailed Mortality Rate Tables." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. High and Rising Mortality Rates Among Working-Age Adults. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25976.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Mortality Data Analyses: Review Process and Detailed Mortality Rate Tables." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. High and Rising Mortality Rates Among Working-Age Adults. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25976.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Mortality Data Analyses: Review Process and Detailed Mortality Rate Tables." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. High and Rising Mortality Rates Among Working-Age Adults. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25976.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Mortality Data Analyses: Review Process and Detailed Mortality Rate Tables." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. High and Rising Mortality Rates Among Working-Age Adults. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25976.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Mortality Data Analyses: Review Process and Detailed Mortality Rate Tables." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. High and Rising Mortality Rates Among Working-Age Adults. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25976.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Mortality Data Analyses: Review Process and Detailed Mortality Rate Tables." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. High and Rising Mortality Rates Among Working-Age Adults. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25976.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Mortality Data Analyses: Review Process and Detailed Mortality Rate Tables." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. High and Rising Mortality Rates Among Working-Age Adults. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25976.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Mortality Data Analyses: Review Process and Detailed Mortality Rate Tables." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. High and Rising Mortality Rates Among Working-Age Adults. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25976.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Mortality Data Analyses: Review Process and Detailed Mortality Rate Tables." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. High and Rising Mortality Rates Among Working-Age Adults. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25976.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Mortality Data Analyses: Review Process and Detailed Mortality Rate Tables." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. High and Rising Mortality Rates Among Working-Age Adults. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25976.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Mortality Data Analyses: Review Process and Detailed Mortality Rate Tables." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. High and Rising Mortality Rates Among Working-Age Adults. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25976.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Mortality Data Analyses: Review Process and Detailed Mortality Rate Tables." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. High and Rising Mortality Rates Among Working-Age Adults. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25976.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Mortality Data Analyses: Review Process and Detailed Mortality Rate Tables." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. High and Rising Mortality Rates Among Working-Age Adults. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25976.
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Appendix A Mortality Data Analyses: Review Process and Detailed Mortality Rate Tables REVIEW PROCESS FOR MORTALITY DATA CODING AND ANALYSIS Checking International Classification of Diseases (ICD)-9 and ICD-10 Code Categorizations One committee member compiled a list of ICD-9 and ICD-10 codes for the 20 specific cause-of-death categories included in this report. Two additional committee members and two graduate research assistants checked this list for completeness and accuracy of categorization. The committee edited the list to ensure that it was exhaustive (included all ICD-9 and ICD-10 codes) and mutually exclusive (no code was included in more than one category). The specific ICD-9 and ICD-10 codes for each cause-of-death category are presented in Chapter 5. Checking for Accuracy of Death Counts for Cause of Death Categories The committee conducted analyses using the restricted mortality files (death certificates) from the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS). After assigning decedents to one of 20 cause-of-death categories based on their underlying cause of death, one committee member tabulated the total number of deaths in each of the 20 cause-of-death categories by year (1990– 2017), sex, and 10-year age group (25–34, 35–44, 45–54, and 55–64). She then compared those tabulations from the restricted mortality data with the total counts for each of the 20 cause-of- death categories in CDC WONDER (the public online mortality database) to ensure that the annual and subgroup-specific counts from the restricted mortality data equated to the counts derived from CDC WONDER. A graduate research assistant replicated this procedure. The committee member then repeated this procedure to further disaggregate counts by race (non- Hispanic [NH] white, NH black, Hispanic, Asian, American Indian/Alaska Native) and compare them with the CDC WONDER data. This check was available only for 1999–2017 because Hispanic ethnicity was not included in CDC WONDER prior to 1999. Checking for Accuracy of Age-Adjustment Two committee members, Shannon Monnat and Irma Elo, independently calculated all of the subgroup-specific age-adjusted mortality rates for all-cause mortality and the 20 cause-of- death categories presented in this report. The two committee members independently arrived at identical age-adjusted mortality rates, which are those presented in the report. A-1 Prepublication copy, uncorrected proofs

CAUSE-SPECIFIC MORTALITY ESTIMATES BY SEX, AGE GROUP, AND RACE/ETHNICITY TABLE A-1 Cause-Specific Mortality Rates (Deaths/100,000): Non-Hispanic White Males Ages 25-44 1990-93 1994-96 1997-99 2000-02 2003-05 2006-08 2009-11 2012-14 2015-17 All-Cause Mortality 212.29 216.23 184.10 188.82 190.08 190.73 186.89 190.47 222.62 Cause-Specific Mortality Infectious & Parasitic Diseases HIV/AIDS 35.83 36.31 9.06 7.01 5.51 3.74 2.08 1.53 1.05 Non-HIV/AIDS 3.62 3.98 3.31 3.14 2.94 2.60 2.45 2.35 2.57 Cancers Liver 0.49 0.61 0.62 0.57 0.56 0.51 0.51 0.47 0.52 Lung 4.34 4.11 4.00 3.82 3.47 2.79 2.26 1.90 1.61 All Other Cancers 20.90 20.38 19.30 18.28 17.39 16.51 16.56 15.82 15.55 Cardio and Metabolic Diseases Endocrine, Nutrition, & Metabolic Diseases 5.12 5.50 5.14 5.65 5.94 5.95 6.20 6.58 7.00 Hypertensive Heart Disease 1.08 1.39 1.60 1.97 2.58 2.90 3.24 3.41 3.86 Ischemic & Other Circulatory Diseases 30.76 30.93 29.67 28.76 28.48 26.98 25.74 24.48 24.52 Substance Use and Mental Health Drug Poisonings 9.55 13.00 15.08 19.09 24.86 31.71 34.39 39.48 62.43 Alcohol-Induced* 4.81 4.95 4.41 4.08 3.83 4.66 5.33 5.61 6.70 Suicide 23.09 24.37 23.82 23.65 24.32 25.57 27.62 28.92 32.30 Mental & Behavioral Disorders 3.84 4.24 4.48 4.76 5.15 4.01 3.42 3.85 5.10 Other Body System Diseases & Disorders Nervous System 3.11 3.23 3.31 3.77 4.06 4.19 4.41 4.39 4.63 Genitourinary System 1.01 0.96 1.00 1.14 1.24 1.32 1.19 1.17 1.29 Respiratory System 4.49 4.40 4.17 4.16 4.01 3.95 4.35 4.37 4.23 Digestive System* 5.50 5.33 5.18 5.23 4.88 4.46 4.43 4.58 4.59 Other Causes of Death Homicides 8.12 7.12 5.97 5.39 5.18 5.57 4.78 4.88 5.66 Transport Injuries 27.21 25.55 24.96 26.11 26.47 26.21 21.28 20.90 22.22 Other External Causes 12.69 12.54 12.16 11.66 11.34 10.67 10.02 9.76 10.43 All Other Causes of Death 6.72 7.36 6.85 10.58 7.87 6.45 6.62 6.00 6.38 *Changes in the International Classification of Diseases (ICD)-10 code for diseases of the digestive system in 2006 affected the comparability of both digestive system deaths and alcohol-induced deaths before and after that year. More information is provided in Chapter 5. NOTE: The table shows all-cause and cause-specific mortality rates (in deaths per 100,000 people in the population) among non-Hispanic White males ages 25–44. Mortality rates within each age group are age-adjusted by single-year of age to match the age distribution of the U.S. population in 2000 in order to improve comparability over time. These causes of death are exhaustive of all underlying cause-of-death codes and are based on the ICD-9 (1990–1998) and ICD-10 (1999–2017) codes. More information about the classification of causes of death can be found in Chapter 5. SOURCE: Data from: https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/nvss/nvss-restricted-data.htm A-2 Prepublication copy, uncorrected proofs

TABLE A-2 Cause-Specific Mortality Rates (Deaths/100,000): Non-Hispanic Black Males Ages 25-44 1990-93 1994-96 1997-99 2000-02 2003-05 2006-08 2009-11 2012-14 2015-17 All-Cause Mortality 582.82 575.02 407.48 373.59 352.47 329.79 286.19 281.67 319.86 Cause-Specific Mortality Infectious & Parasitic Diseases HIV/AIDS 134.82 174.99 68.52 56.25 43.76 31.89 19.68 12.58 10.16 Non-HIV/AIDS 16.23 14.90 10.56 7.61 6.90 6.16 5.33 4.63 4.78 Cancers Liver 1.84 2.11 1.72 1.63 1.52 1.42 1.16 1.25 1.18 Lung 10.43 9.16 7.55 6.87 4.97 3.47 2.34 2.37 2.36 All Other Cancers 31.45 29.61 26.74 23.02 21.33 20.41 19.17 17.46 17.42 Cardio and Metabolic Diseases Endocrine, Nutrition, & Metabolic Diseases 13.04 14.48 12.35 11.68 12.83 13.60 12.99 13.69 15.39 Hypertensive Heart Disease 9.98 10.25 10.45 10.77 11.98 12.88 13.16 13.52 14.97 Ischemic & Other Circulatory Diseases 76.27 70.33 63.20 57.62 56.41 53.75 49.32 49.66 49.51 Substance Use and Mental Health Drug Poisonings 19.45 22.19 19.75 17.65 17.02 18.18 13.71 16.20 32.54 Alcohol-Induced* 13.17 8.40 5.57 4.34 3.04 2.78 2.87 2.83 3.26 Suicide 17.11 17.04 14.78 13.94 13.70 13.72 13.58 14.35 15.67 Mental & Behavioral Disorders 14.37 11.57 8.33 7.27 5.95 4.24 2.98 2.85 3.53 Other Body System Diseases & Disorders Nervous System 6.82 5.99 5.74 6.34 6.06 6.11 6.10 6.88 7.36 Genitourinary System 7.59 6.46 5.47 4.77 5.26 5.25 4.80 4.44 4.86 Respiratory System 19.29 16.02 13.23 10.84 9.47 8.48 8.36 8.02 8.52 Digestive System* 15.93 13.65 9.83 8.69 7.29 5.77 5.25 4.90 4.79 Other Causes of Death Homicides 92.84 76.20 57.02 57.80 62.88 63.23 56.12 57.93 69.24 Transport Injuries 34.30 31.80 31.92 31.64 31.32 30.89 24.87 25.62 30.37 Other External Causes 23.88 19.69 17.11 14.89 13.66 12.73 11.17 10.64 11.50 All Other Causes of Death 24.03 20.18 17.65 19.99 17.11 14.84 13.23 11.85 12.46 *Changes in the International Classification of Diseases (ICD)-10 code for diseases of the digestive system in 2006 affected the comparability of both digestive system deaths and alcohol-induced deaths before and after that year. More information is provided in Chapter 5. NOTE: The table shows all-cause and cause-specific mortality rates (in deaths per 100,000 people in the population) among non-Hispanic Black males ages 25–44. Mortality rates within each age group are age-adjusted by single-year of age to match the age distribution of the U.S. population in 2000 in order to improve comparability over time. These causes of death are exhaustive of all underlying cause-of-death codes and are based on the ICD-9 (1990–1998) and ICD-10 (1999–2017) codes. More information about the classification of causes of death can be found in Chapter 5. SOURCE: Data from: https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/nvss/nvss-restricted-data.htm A-3 Prepublication copy, uncorrected proofs

Table A-3 Cause-Specific Mortality Rates (Deaths/100,000): Hispanic Males Ages 25-44 1990-93 1994-96 1997-99 2000-02 2003-05 2006-08 2009-11 2012-14 2015-17 All-Cause Mortality 287.25 263.37 183.15 170.32 161.19 150.07 129.11 126.49 144.89 Cause-Specific Mortality Infectious & Parasitic Diseases HIV/AIDS 70.91 72.57 21.34 14.99 11.26 7.75 4.66 2.79 2.38 Non-HIV/AIDS 6.84 6.48 5.59 4.47 4.16 3.31 2.76 2.51 2.32 Cancers Liver 0.83 0.90 0.82 0.88 0.83 0.70 0.61 0.60 0.54 Lung 2.08 1.89 1.63 1.32 1.17 0.90 0.88 0.72 0.73 All Other Cancers 15.65 14.75 13.57 12.99 12.25 12.08 11.76 11.99 11.95 Cardio and Metabolic Diseases Endocrine, Nutrition, & Metabolic Diseases 4.65 4.75 3.69 3.99 4.03 4.24 4.30 4.68 5.09 Hypertensive Heart Disease 1.64 1.71 1.73 2.09 2.33 2.46 2.45 2.90 3.07 Ischemic & Other Circulatory Diseases 23.58 22.01 19.64 17.85 18.47 17.29 15.68 15.04 16.19 Substance Use and Mental Health Drug Poisonings 16.26 17.41 16.17 13.16 13.16 13.71 11.98 13.58 22.39 Alcohol-Induced* 12.60 10.72 8.50 7.33 6.18 6.82 7.21 6.83 7.78 Suicide 14.42 13.76 11.20 10.79 10.85 10.95 10.66 11.07 12.94 Mental & Behavioral Disorders 7.33 7.19 6.27 5.37 5.35 3.74 2.35 2.56 2.92 Other Body System Diseases & Disorders Nervous System 2.53 2.14 2.00 2.05 2.36 2.32 2.23 2.23 2.72 Genitourinary System 1.46 1.03 1.08 1.14 1.12 1.09 1.23 1.11 1.14 Respiratory System 6.30 4.86 3.80 3.01 2.89 2.71 3.64 3.05 2.97 Digestive System* 8.58 7.29 6.80 5.86 5.28 4.75 4.25 3.92 3.95 Other Causes of Death Homicides 38.69 27.36 18.17 16.28 16.87 15.76 12.45 11.21 12.75 Transport Injuries 30.75 27.05 24.13 26.32 25.76 23.27 17.25 17.23 19.41 Other External Causes 13.90 12.10 11.09 10.97 10.67 10.46 8.44 8.10 8.68 All Other Causes of Death 8.26 7.43 5.94 9.45 6.21 5.77 4.30 4.39 4.96 *Changes in the International Classification of Diseases (ICD)-10 code for diseases of the digestive system in 2006 affected the comparability of both digestive system deaths and alcohol-induced deaths before and after that year. More information is provided in Chapter 5. NOTE: The table shows all-cause and cause-specific mortality rates (in deaths per 100,000 people in the population) among Hispanic males ages 25–44. Mortality rates within each age group are age-adjusted by single-year of age to match the age distribution of the U.S. population in 2000 in order to improve comparability over time. These causes of death are exhaustive of all underlying cause-of-death codes and are based on the ICD-9 (1990–1998) and ICD-10 (1999–2017) codes. More information about the classification of causes of death can be found in Chapter 5. SOURCE: Data from: https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/nvss/nvss-restricted-data.htm A-4 Prepublication copy, uncorrected proofs

Table A-4 Cause-Specific Mortality Rates (Deaths/100,000): Non-Hispanic White Females Ages 25-44 1990-93 1994-96 1997-99 2000-02 2003-05 2006-08 2009-11 2012-14 2015-17 All-Cause Mortality 88.93 93.74 94.27 99.49 102.11 102.97 104.62 108.04 121.90 Cause-Specific Mortality Infectious & Parasitic Diseases HIV/AIDS 2.09 3.65 1.52 1.42 1.24 0.93 0.62 0.42 0.37 Non-HIV/AIDS 1.43 1.75 1.89 2.06 2.20 2.10 2.16 2.20 2.41 Cancers Liver 0.24 0.28 0.30 0.27 0.28 0.32 0.31 0.35 0.39 Lung 3.07 3.08 3.35 3.51 3.21 2.70 2.32 1.88 1.48 All Other Cancers 26.62 25.39 23.97 22.98 21.61 20.52 20.00 19.50 19.19 Cardio and Metabolic Diseases Endocrine, Nutrition, & Metabolic Diseases 3.06 3.35 3.51 3.88 3.99 4.11 4.20 4.55 4.92 Hypertensive Heart Disease 0.33 0.46 0.49 0.78 0.97 1.11 1.22 1.41 1.65 Ischemic & Other Circulatory Diseases 11.88 12.69 13.12 13.26 13.34 12.77 12.48 12.52 13.09 Substance Use and Mental Health Drug Poisonings 4.10 5.11 6.72 9.60 13.92 17.60 20.10 22.42 30.36 Alcohol-Induced* 1.71 1.87 1.97 2.04 1.91 2.31 2.72 3.03 3.83 Suicide 4.64 4.77 4.95 4.64 4.78 5.20 5.77 6.62 7.85 Mental & Behavioral Disorders 1.24 1.44 1.69 1.91 2.04 1.92 1.65 2.11 3.08 Other Body System Diseases & Disorders Nervous System 2.28 2.32 2.50 2.76 2.80 3.16 3.20 3.33 3.53 Genitourinary System 0.71 0.79 0.88 1.03 1.09 1.07 1.17 1.11 1.18 Respiratory System 3.03 3.47 3.61 3.72 3.70 3.71 4.27 4.33 4.18 Digestive System* 2.68 2.57 2.84 3.24 3.21 3.01 3.11 3.30 3.75 Other Causes of Death Homicides 3.36 3.14 2.86 2.72 2.58 2.47 2.37 2.28 2.59 Transport Injuries 9.60 9.91 10.10 9.89 9.86 9.21 7.66 7.48 8.22 Other External Causes 2.59 2.77 2.98 2.98 3.12 3.10 3.18 3.21 3.49 All Other Causes of Death 4.26 4.92 5.01 6.81 6.25 5.66 6.11 5.99 6.38 *Changes in the International Classification of Diseases (ICD)-10 code for diseases of the digestive system in 2006 affected the comparability of both digestive system deaths and alcohol-induced deaths before and after that year. More information is provided in Chapter 5. NOTE: The table shows all-cause and cause-specific mortality rates (in deaths per 100,000 people in the population) among non-Hispanic White females ages 25–44. Mortality rates within each age group are age-adjusted by single-year of age to match the age distribution of the U.S. population in 2000 in order to improve comparability over time. These causes of death are exhaustive of all underlying cause-of-death codes and are based on the ICD-9 (1990–1998) and ICD-10 (1999–2017) codes. More information about the classification of causes of death can be found in Chapter 5. SOURCE: Data from: https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/nvss/nvss-restricted-data.htm A-5 Prepublication copy, uncorrected proofs

TABLE A-5 Cause-Specific Mortality Rates (Deaths/100,000): Non-Hispanic Black Females Ages 25-44 1990-93 1994-96 1997-99 2000-02 2003-05 2006-08 2009-11 2012-14 2015-17 All-Cause Mortality 243.70 256.23 218.70 210.98 198.28 180.02 161.93 153.79 162.89 Cause-Specific Mortality Infectious & Parasitic Diseases HIV/AIDS 32.04 51.84 28.14 27.51 23.88 19.34 12.08 8.13 5.89 Non-HIV/AIDS 8.75 8.22 7.86 5.83 5.39 4.94 4.50 3.88 4.26 Cancers Liver 0.59 0.57 0.60 0.64 0.53 0.45 0.56 0.42 0.53 Lung 4.59 4.32 4.64 4.25 3.67 2.88 1.84 1.74 1.19 All Other Cancers 41.80 39.68 37.95 35.17 33.24 30.93 29.94 27.72 27.61 Cardio and Metabolic Diseases Endocrine, Nutrition, & Metabolic Diseases 8.34 9.43 9.09 8.90 9.45 9.82 9.47 9.93 11.31 Hypertensive Heart Disease 5.65 6.01 6.13 6.58 7.44 7.15 7.52 7.05 7.51 Ischemic & Other Circulatory Diseases 42.31 42.84 39.67 37.51 35.35 31.54 28.47 27.13 27.90 Substance Use and Mental Health Drug Poisonings 6.72 7.95 7.55 8.27 9.40 8.85 8.11 9.02 13.88 Alcohol-Induced* 5.38 3.63 2.63 2.02 1.48 1.40 1.49 1.58 2.15 Suicide 2.42 2.29 1.87 1.90 1.96 1.76 2.13 2.39 2.83 Mental & Behavioral Disorders 5.30 4.47 3.65 3.17 2.68 2.22 1.39 1.47 1.78 Other Body System Diseases & Disorders Nervous System 4.21 4.32 4.14 4.74 5.18 5.14 5.10 5.53 5.93 Genitourinary System 4.01 3.48 3.66 4.35 4.57 4.31 4.10 3.71 4.10 Respiratory System 11.40 11.35 10.41 8.48 7.43 6.84 7.19 6.83 6.47 Digestive System* 8.18 6.69 6.09 5.91 5.20 4.54 4.22 4.17 4.02 Other Causes of Death Homicides 19.64 17.01 12.96 11.47 9.82 9.27 7.58 7.18 8.11 Transport Injuries 9.83 10.35 10.42 9.67 8.96 8.15 7.02 7.18 8.20 Other External Causes 5.15 4.99 4.19 4.03 3.79 3.45 3.28 3.20 3.36 All Other Causes of Death 17.41 16.81 17.05 20.58 18.86 17.05 15.94 15.52 15.84 *Changes in the International Classification of Diseases (ICD)-10 code for diseases of the digestive system in 2006 affected the comparability of both digestive system deaths and alcohol-induced deaths before and after that year. More information is provided in Chapter 5. NOTE: The table shows all-cause and cause-specific mortality rates (in deaths per 100,000 people in the population) among non-Hispanic Black females ages 25–44. Mortality rates within each age group are age-adjusted by single-year of age to match the age distribution of the U.S. population in 2000 in order to improve comparability over time. These causes of death are exhaustive of all underlying cause-of-death codes and are based on the ICD-9 (1990–1998) and ICD-10 (1999–2017) codes. More information about the classification of causes of death can be found in Chapter 5. SOURCE: Data from: https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/nvss/nvss-restricted-data.htm A-6 Prepublication copy, uncorrected proofs

Table A-6 Cause-Specific Mortality Rates (Deaths/100,000): Hispanic Females Ages 25-44 1990-93 1994-96 1997-99 2000-02 2003-05 2006-08 2009-11 2012-14 2015-17 All-Cause Mortality 89.67 90.46 75.75 74.45 69.10 64.48 60.86 60.75 66.32 Cause-Specific Mortality Infectious & Parasitic Diseases HIV/AIDS 11.74 16.05 5.86 4.71 3.51 2.47 1.32 0.81 0.54 Non-HIV/AIDS 2.57 2.48 2.33 2.12 2.13 1.74 1.69 1.44 1.41 Cancers Liver 0.29 0.30 0.29 0.34 0.31 0.33 0.26 0.33 0.39 Lung 1.03 1.00 1.10 1.00 0.88 0.86 0.82 0.70 0.71 All Other Cancers 21.79 20.98 19.87 19.64 17.39 17.59 16.20 16.84 17.24 Cardio and Metabolic Diseases Endocrine, Nutrition, & Metabolic Diseases 2.50 2.92 2.76 2.60 2.73 2.46 2.80 2.87 2.88 Hypertensive Heart Disease 0.80 0.61 0.70 0.80 0.80 0.81 0.90 0.89 1.00 Ischemic & Other Circulatory Diseases 10.17 9.02 8.92 8.84 8.00 7.10 6.69 6.59 7.07 Substance Use and Mental Health Drug Poisonings 2.91 3.34 3.53 3.72 4.31 4.51 5.19 5.71 7.25 Alcohol-Induced* 2.00 1.91 1.75 1.47 1.38 1.47 1.58 1.70 2.50 Suicide 2.24 1.98 1.56 1.51 1.50 1.56 1.71 2.02 2.66 Mental & Behavioral Disorders 1.29 1.45 1.16 1.23 1.19 0.97 0.63 0.65 0.83 Other Body System Diseases & Disorders Nervous System 1.54 1.40 1.54 1.47 1.55 1.63 1.67 1.73 1.80 Genitourinary System 0.98 0.92 0.93 1.04 0.99 0.86 0.94 0.89 0.99 Respiratory System 3.47 3.03 2.67 2.31 2.14 1.85 2.60 2.09 1.93 Digestive System* 2.50 2.55 2.45 2.44 2.23 2.31 1.99 1.97 2.14 Other Causes of Death Homicides 6.26 5.12 3.83 3.61 3.35 3.08 2.70 2.31 2.75 Transport Injuries 8.49 7.85 7.56 7.48 7.31 6.37 5.01 4.95 5.70 Other External Causes 1.79 1.80 1.86 1.67 1.68 1.35 1.39 1.38 1.41 All Other Causes of Death 5.33 5.74 5.09 6.44 5.72 5.14 4.78 4.89 5.13 *Changes in the International Classification of Diseases (ICD)-10 code for diseases of the digestive system in 2006 affected the comparability of both digestive system deaths and alcohol-induced deaths before and after that year. More information is provided in Chapter 5. NOTE: The table shows all-cause and cause-specific mortality rates (in deaths per 100,000 people in the population) among Hispanic females ages 25–44. Mortality rates within each age group are age-adjusted by single-year of age to match the age distribution of the U.S. population in 2000 in order to improve comparability over time. These causes of death are exhaustive of all underlying cause-of-death codes and are based on the ICD-9 (1990–1998) and ICD-10 (1999–2017) codes. More information about the classification of causes of death can be found in Chapter 5. SOURCE: Data from: https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/nvss/nvss-restricted-data.htm A-7 Prepublication copy, uncorrected proofs

TABLE A-7 Cause-Specific Mortality Rates (Deaths/100,000): Non-Hispanic White Males Ages 45-54 1990-93 1994-96 1997-99 2000-02 2003-05 2006-08 2009-11 2012-14 2015-17 All-Cause Mortality 520.80 514.60 485.49 498.00 511.08 508.07 500.12 491.17 493.39 Cause-Specific Mortality Infectious & Parasitic Diseases HIV/AIDS 25.76 25.35 7.73 7.91 7.67 6.74 5.37 4.68 3.81 Non-HIV/AIDS 6.54 7.92 10.13 14.12 16.35 15.23 13.85 12.63 11.03 Cancers Liver 2.54 3.21 4.47 5.81 7.16 7.23 7.18 6.37 5.03 Lung 52.60 45.42 39.22 36.28 35.68 32.95 30.38 26.45 21.22 All Other Cancers 91.52 89.68 86.74 84.65 79.74 77.32 76.18 73.87 70.23 Cardio and Metabolic Diseases Endocrine, Nutrition, & Metabolic Diseases 14.95 16.48 17.22 19.01 20.68 20.83 21.55 22.24 24.93 Hypertensive Heart Disease 5.61 6.99 7.33 8.12 10.46 12.11 13.37 14.74 16.00 Ischemic & Other Circulatory Diseases 177.57 168.47 152.90 141.28 135.41 127.61 119.49 114.03 110.92 Substance Use and Mental Health Drug Poisonings 4.39 7.59 11.63 16.94 24.87 31.77 33.83 36.87 47.73 Alcohol-Induced* 13.33 14.37 15.07 15.83 16.25 18.71 20.30 21.49 21.83 Suicide 22.36 22.56 22.51 24.19 26.14 29.19 32.92 33.80 35.21 Mental & Behavioral Disorders 7.35 8.48 9.44 10.63 12.76 11.51 10.38 10.78 12.69 Other Body System Diseases & Disorders Nervous System 7.01 7.36 8.08 9.56 10.52 10.73 11.19 11.53 11.98 Genitourinary System 3.18 3.28 3.59 4.30 4.79 5.16 4.89 5.00 5.62 Respiratory System 18.32 18.41 17.91 18.20 19.36 19.68 20.92 20.70 20.26 Digestive System* 17.23 17.69 19.56 22.85 23.58 22.76 22.79 21.83 19.94 Other Causes of Death Homicides 6.26 4.91 4.47 4.03 4.29 4.51 4.23 4.31 4.78 Transport Injuries 20.37 20.63 21.41 22.95 24.73 24.73 21.91 21.56 22.13 Other External Causes 14.19 14.39 14.74 15.52 16.91 17.26 17.07 16.50 15.99 All Other Causes of Death 9.74 11.40 11.35 15.83 13.71 12.03 12.33 11.81 12.04 *Changes in the International Classification of Diseases (ICD)-10 code for diseases of the digestive system in 2006 affected the comparability of both digestive system deaths and alcohol-induced deaths before and after that year. More information is provided in Chapter 5. NOTE: The table shows all-cause and cause-specific mortality rates (in deaths per 100,000 people in the population) among non-Hispanic White males ages 45–54. Mortality rates within each age group are age-adjusted by single-year of age to match the age distribution of the U.S. population in 2000 in order to improve comparability over time. These causes of death are exhaustive of all underlying cause-of-death codes and are based on the ICD-9 (1990–1998) and ICD-10 (1999–2017) codes. More information about the classification of causes of death can be found in Chapter 5. SOURCE: Data from: https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/nvss/nvss-restricted-data.htm A-8 Prepublication copy, uncorrected proofs

TABLE A-8 Cause-Specific Mortality Rates (Deaths/100,000): Non-Hispanic Black Males Ages 45-54 1990-93 1994-96 1997-99 2000-02 2003-05 2006-08 2009-11 2012-14 2015-17 All-Cause Mortality 1236.32 1241.31 1082.49 1015.41 968.97 861.30 738.48 688.14 697.04 Cause-Specific Mortality Infectious & Parasitic Diseases HIV/AIDS 98.09 151.77 80.01 83.62 75.58 61.62 41.69 29.65 20.96 Non-HIV/AIDS 30.71 30.38 33.53 34.44 33.07 29.30 23.30 20.49 18.09 Cancers Liver 7.90 10.09 13.34 15.22 16.92 14.65 12.44 9.09 7.51 Lung 108.93 91.83 79.02 69.00 61.54 53.14 43.80 34.74 23.84 All Other Cancers 176.23 160.08 148.35 128.95 122.15 109.62 97.74 92.07 85.03 Cardio and Metabolic Diseases Endocrine, Nutrition, & Metabolic Diseases 43.04 47.42 45.02 43.53 42.50 40.47 38.38 40.57 46.95 Hypertensive Heart Disease 46.34 51.22 47.56 45.77 50.87 47.26 46.39 47.08 48.20 Ischemic & Other Circulatory Diseases 357.62 346.51 311.24 276.94 262.86 229.70 200.62 187.13 188.32 Substance Use and Mental Health Drug Poisonings 12.92 23.59 27.42 30.20 32.13 34.83 25.55 28.00 48.91 Alcohol-Induced* 36.81 32.65 24.76 19.84 16.54 14.49 13.39 12.22 12.04 Suicide 12.65 10.60 9.54 9.32 8.97 9.21 9.74 9.79 10.64 Mental & Behavioral Disorders 32.90 30.44 25.30 24.08 21.81 15.93 11.85 10.29 10.69 Other Body System Diseases & Disorders Nervous System 12.75 12.62 13.88 14.30 14.55 14.95 14.55 14.97 16.07 Genitourinary System 20.19 19.43 20.81 22.62 22.87 20.06 17.78 16.65 18.74 Respiratory System 52.38 49.92 42.97 37.30 35.67 31.73 28.13 28.17 27.31 Digestive System* 45.89 43.93 42.76 43.25 39.05 31.81 26.41 22.44 19.39 Other Causes of Death Homicides 45.41 36.06 27.04 25.91 26.20 25.69 21.72 23.30 27.69 Transport Injuries 31.78 29.17 30.42 29.34 29.16 27.49 21.89 23.35 27.25 Other External Causes 31.46 30.46 27.83 24.43 24.59 21.96 18.49 16.20 17.58 All Other Causes of Death 32.33 33.12 31.70 37.35 31.94 27.39 24.61 21.95 21.84 *Changes in the International Classification of Diseases (ICD)-10 code for diseases of the digestive system in 2006 affected the comparability of both digestive system deaths and alcohol-induced deaths before and after that year. More information is provided in Chapter 5. NOTE: The table shows all-cause and cause-specific mortality rates (in deaths per 100,000 people in the population) among non-Hispanic Black males ages 45–54. Mortality rates within each age group are age-adjusted by single-year of age to match the age distribution of the U.S. population in 2000 in order to improve comparability over time. These causes of death are exhaustive of all underlying cause-of-death codes and are based on the ICD-9 (1990–1998) and ICD-10 (1999–2017) codes. More information about the classification of causes of death can be found in Chapter 5. SOURCE: Data from: https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/nvss/nvss-restricted-data.htm A-9 Prepublication copy, uncorrected proofs

TABLE A-9 Cause-Specific Mortality Rates (Deaths/100,000): Hispanic Males Ages 45-54 1990-93 1994-96 1997-99 2000-02 2003-05 2006-08 2009-11 2012-14 2015-17 All-Cause Mortality 520.73 524.78 456.60 442.64 434.57 402.41 365.31 345.63 344.90 Cause-Specific Mortality Infectious & Parasitic Diseases HIV/AIDS 57.24 72.71 24.33 24.95 23.04 16.70 12.02 8.62 6.36 Non-HIV/AIDS 11.55 13.18 16.25 20.95 23.46 20.48 17.42 15.33 12.28 Cancers Liver 5.32 7.01 9.28 10.23 12.61 11.37 11.19 9.54 8.93 Lung 18.58 19.14 16.35 14.37 12.95 10.59 9.34 7.94 5.51 All Other Cancers 64.00 62.22 64.60 59.06 57.07 54.29 51.61 50.38 48.70 Cardio and Metabolic Diseases Endocrine, Nutrition, & Metabolic Diseases 18.19 23.71 20.91 20.11 20.95 19.86 18.76 19.97 20.72 Hypertensive Heart Disease 7.92 10.16 9.06 9.39 10.32 10.78 11.72 11.24 11.99 Ischemic & Other Circulatory Diseases 128.06 121.10 114.24 100.21 95.46 86.08 76.97 71.29 70.47 Substance Use and Mental Health Drug Poisonings 10.16 14.23 15.87 15.07 16.96 19.31 16.49 17.88 24.45 Alcohol-Induced* 37.36 37.65 32.29 30.24 27.16 28.48 26.96 26.75 27.02 Suicide 14.04 13.25 10.49 10.86 10.41 10.57 11.00 10.55 11.59 Mental & Behavioral Disorders 14.66 13.26 13.72 11.81 12.96 9.34 7.64 7.36 8.26 Other Body System Diseases & Disorders Nervous System 5.60 4.24 4.94 5.69 5.40 6.36 6.17 6.14 7.13 Genitourinary System 5.28 4.33 4.80 5.45 6.56 6.91 6.20 5.82 6.14 Respiratory System 17.25 15.78 13.86 12.54 12.34 11.61 11.99 11.62 10.39 Digestive System* 29.07 26.74 28.32 29.81 28.65 25.41 24.58 22.76 18.61 Other Causes of Death Homicides 22.98 16.23 10.64 9.36 10.01 8.67 7.43 6.54 6.89 Transport Injuries 27.37 24.04 22.03 22.92 22.16 21.52 16.06 15.35 17.55 Other External Causes 15.85 14.23 14.49 13.63 15.09 13.79 12.56 12.27 13.24 All Other Causes of Death 10.26 11.56 10.09 15.98 11.01 10.30 9.21 8.29 8.69 *Changes in the International Classification of Diseases (ICD)-10 code for diseases of the digestive system in 2006 affected the comparability of both digestive system deaths and alcohol-induced deaths before and after that year. More information is provided in Chapter 5. NOTE: The table shows all-cause and cause-specific mortality rates (in deaths per 100,000 people in the population) among Hispanic males ages 45–54. Mortality rates within each age group are age-adjusted by single-year of age to match the age distribution of the U.S. population in 2000 in order to improve comparability over time. These causes of death are exhaustive of all underlying cause-of-death codes and are based on the ICD-9 (1990–1998) and ICD-10 (1999–2017) codes. More information about the classification of causes of death can be found in Chapter 5. SOURCE: Data from: https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/nvss/nvss-restricted-data.htm. A-10 Prepublication copy, uncorrected proofs

TABLE A-10 Cause-Specific Mortality Rates (Deaths/100,000): Non-Hispanic White Females Ages 45-54 1990-93 1994-96 1997-99 2000-02 2003-05 2006-08 2009-11 2012-14 2015-17 All-Cause Mortality 295.15 291.38 281.50 285.49 292.83 299.24 305.63 308.79 314.97 Cause-Specific Mortality Infectious & Parasitic Diseases HIV/AIDS 1.07 1.73 0.84 1.11 1.35 1.34 0.99 0.92 0.71 Non-HIV/AIDS 3.79 4.43 5.82 7.11 8.56 8.66 8.74 8.53 8.45 Cancers Liver 1.37 1.45 1.48 1.50 1.79 1.82 2.12 2.08 2.14 Lung 33.42 30.71 27.21 25.61 25.63 26.32 26.15 23.67 19.34 All Other Cancers 111.06 105.79 98.64 93.64 86.92 82.79 80.92 78.32 76.40 Cardio and Metabolic Diseases Endocrine, Nutrition, & Metabolic Diseases 10.04 10.80 11.33 12.37 12.53 12.16 12.37 13.38 14.76 Hypertensive Heart Disease 2.34 2.60 2.89 3.38 4.08 4.73 5.67 6.15 7.30 Ischemic & Other Circulatory Diseases 60.58 59.60 55.30 51.97 51.36 50.27 48.32 48.85 49.74 Substance Use and Mental Health Drug Poisonings 4.14 4.83 6.58 10.56 17.01 23.99 27.24 29.43 33.26 Alcohol-Induced* 4.21 4.58 4.57 5.17 6.13 7.53 9.47 10.28 11.73 Suicide 5.48 5.29 5.23 5.04 5.90 6.24 7.25 8.54 9.10 Mental & Behavioral Disorders 2.25 2.75 2.80 3.26 4.51 4.62 4.45 5.07 5.92 Other Body System Diseases & Disorders Nervous System 6.03 6.66 7.48 8.33 8.67 8.95 9.15 9.39 9.70 Genitourinary System 2.54 2.65 2.89 3.39 3.73 3.82 3.83 3.86 4.51 Respiratory System 14.45 15.04 14.87 15.08 15.75 17.10 20.06 20.73 20.87 Digestive System* 9.47 9.21 9.64 11.26 11.68 12.36 13.05 13.82 13.70 Other Causes of Death Homicides 2.48 2.09 1.82 1.93 1.82 2.03 2.01 1.93 2.10 Transport Injuries 8.54 8.71 8.78 8.66 9.11 8.71 7.35 7.23 8.04 Other External Causes 4.15 4.11 4.58 4.97 5.76 5.93 6.34 6.29 6.64 All Other Causes of Death 7.70 8.36 8.77 11.15 10.53 9.85 10.16 10.30 10.55 *Changes in the International Classification of Diseases (ICD)-10 code for diseases of the digestive system in 2006 affected the comparability of both digestive system deaths and alcohol-induced deaths before and after that year. More information is provided in Chapter 5. NOTE: The table shows all-cause and cause-specific mortality rates (in deaths per 100,000 people in the population) among non-Hispanic White females ages 45–54. Mortality rates within each age group are age-adjusted by single-year of age to match the age distribution of the U.S. population in 2000 in order to improve comparability over time. These causes of death are exhaustive of all underlying cause-of-death codes and are based on the ICD-9 (1990–1998) and ICD-10 (1999–2017) codes. More information about the classification of causes of death can be found in Chapter 5. SOURCE: Data from: https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/nvss/nvss-restricted-data.htm A-11 Prepublication copy, uncorrected proofs

TABLE A-11 Cause-Specific Mortality Rates (Deaths/100,000): Non-Hispanic Black Females Ages 45-54 1990-93 1994-96 1997-99 2000-02 2003-05 2006-08 2009-11 2012-14 2015-17 All-Cause Mortality 627.87 630.08 595.63 595.62 581.29 541.03 492.12 461.96 455.25 Cause-Specific Mortality Infectious & Parasitic Diseases HIV/AIDS 15.70 31.83 21.65 26.47 28.16 26.60 18.76 14.02 11.37 Non-HIV/AIDS 16.04 17.69 20.11 19.17 19.81 19.09 16.28 14.70 14.21 Cancers Liver 2.30 2.62 2.73 3.43 3.56 3.64 3.96 3.38 3.19 Lung 39.66 35.38 34.23 32.30 33.08 32.18 28.10 24.06 16.35 All Other Cancers 163.83 157.83 147.49 140.78 133.30 122.97 117.97 110.82 107.15 Cardio and Metabolic Diseases Endocrine, Nutrition, & Metabolic Diseases 35.09 36.40 35.48 35.67 33.78 30.07 28.98 30.23 31.95 Hypertensive Heart Disease 28.67 28.82 26.21 26.43 29.67 28.80 27.35 26.98 27.15 Ischemic & Other Circulatory Diseases 180.18 173.09 161.18 154.27 142.36 128.38 110.42 102.79 101.56 Substance Use and Mental Health Drug Poisonings 4.01 5.74 7.92 10.94 14.77 16.75 15.65 16.17 22.56 Alcohol-Induced* 11.24 9.59 7.84 7.41 5.76 5.63 6.28 6.19 6.58 Suicide 1.86 1.75 1.59 1.63 1.49 1.49 1.53 2.00 1.70 Mental & Behavioral Disorders 7.92 6.94 7.08 6.56 7.17 5.99 5.11 4.44 4.46 Other Body System Diseases & Disorders Nervous System 9.31 10.03 10.59 12.75 12.73 12.95 12.02 13.22 13.72 Genitourinary System 12.57 14.13 13.87 15.18 15.18 15.50 14.50 12.23 12.86 Respiratory System 29.91 30.22 28.75 26.94 26.98 25.52 25.82 24.94 24.42 Digestive System* 22.27 20.49 19.23 20.96 19.77 17.98 15.58 15.33 14.24 Other Causes of Death Homicides 7.82 6.93 6.19 5.53 6.13 5.76 5.14 5.24 4.67 Transport Injuries 8.73 9.86 10.33 9.75 9.33 8.43 6.85 6.85 7.90 Other External Causes 8.04 7.96 7.53 7.32 7.80 7.07 6.91 6.03 6.53 All Other Causes of Death 22.73 22.81 25.62 32.12 30.48 26.23 24.91 22.35 22.66 *Changes in the International Classification of Diseases (ICD)-10 code for diseases of the digestive system in 2006 affected the comparability of both digestive system deaths and alcohol-induced deaths before and after that year. More information is provided in Chapter 5. NOTE: The table shows all-cause and cause-specific mortality rates (in deaths per 100,000 people in the population) among non-Hispanic Black females ages 45–54. Mortality rates within each age group are age-adjusted by single-year of age to match the age distribution of the U.S. population in 2000 in order to improve comparability over time. These causes of death are exhaustive of all underlying cause-of-death codes and are based on the ICD-9 (1990–1998) and ICD-10 (1999–2017) codes. More information about the classification of causes of death can be found in Chapter 5. SOURCE: Data from: https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/nvss/nvss-restricted-data.htm A-12 Prepublication copy, uncorrected proofs

TABLE A-12 Cause-Specific Mortality Rates (Deaths/100,000): Hispanic Females Ages 45-54 1990-93 1994-96 1997-99 2000-02 2003-05 2006-08 2009-11 2012-14 2015-17 All-Cause Mortality 243.72 242.44 229.90 226.07 215.40 204.23 193.48 188.15 184.45 Cause-Specific Mortality Infectious & Parasitic Diseases HIV/AIDS 7.38 12.87 5.98 6.32 5.61 4.38 3.24 2.20 1.33 Non-HIV/AIDS 5.38 7.00 7.86 8.32 8.97 8.46 7.98 7.49 6.13 Cancers Liver 1.90 1.88 2.35 2.22 3.02 2.86 2.31 2.42 2.24 Lung 8.09 7.38 7.23 7.38 7.09 6.71 6.27 5.48 4.92 All Other Cancers 85.51 83.22 78.16 75.29 69.26 65.86 63.19 62.88 60.52 Cardio and Metabolic Diseases Endocrine, Nutrition, & Metabolic Diseases 12.99 15.63 14.94 14.55 14.27 12.76 10.97 10.98 11.82 Hypertensive Heart Disease 4.06 3.67 4.04 3.82 4.89 5.07 4.68 4.31 4.73 Ischemic & Other Circulatory Diseases 53.33 47.03 44.35 41.55 37.33 34.15 31.32 29.21 28.78 Substance Use and Mental Health Drug Poisonings 2.24 2.87 3.81 4.43 6.62 7.39 8.19 9.21 9.05 Alcohol-Induced* 6.07 5.94 4.70 5.18 4.10 5.86 6.87 6.49 6.95 Suicide 1.78 1.82 1.89 1.94 1.48 1.89 1.81 2.25 2.40 Mental & Behavioral Disorders 1.63 1.94 2.34 1.99 2.65 2.23 1.87 2.13 2.03 Other Body System Diseases & Disorders Nervous System 3.30 3.16 3.61 3.92 4.49 4.28 3.96 4.85 5.00 Genitourinary System 4.48 3.85 4.24 4.43 4.26 4.60 4.36 3.95 4.33 Respiratory System 10.53 10.09 10.57 8.86 8.81 7.42 8.95 7.21 8.00 Digestive System* 10.94 10.90 10.90 10.80 10.62 10.84 10.24 10.41 8.82 Other Causes of Death Homicides 3.84 3.82 2.69 2.77 2.32 2.16 1.89 1.53 2.02 Transport Injuries 8.92 8.38 8.45 9.01 7.40 6.61 5.24 4.99 5.59 Other External Causes 2.59 2.70 2.78 2.98 3.26 2.89 3.01 2.78 2.55 All Other Causes of Death 8.77 8.28 9.01 10.32 8.94 7.80 7.13 7.38 7.23 *Changes in the International Classification of Diseases (ICD)-10 code for diseases of the digestive system in 2006 affected the comparability of both digestive system deaths and alcohol-induced deaths before and after that year. More information is provided in Chapter 5. NOTE: The table shows all-cause and cause-specific mortality rates (in deaths per 100,000 people in the population) among Hispanic females ages 45–54. Mortality rates within each age group are age-adjusted by single-year of age to match the age distribution of the U.S. population in 2000 in order to improve comparability over time. These causes of death are exhaustive of all underlying cause-of-death codes and are based on the ICD-9 (1990–1998) and ICD-10 (1999–2017) codes. More information about the classification of causes of death can be found in Chapter 5. SOURCE: Data from: https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/nvss/nvss-restricted-data.htm A-13 Prepublication copy, uncorrected proofs

TABLE A-13 Cause-Specific Mortality Rates (Deaths/100,000): Non-Hispanic White Males Ages 55-64 1990-93 1994-96 1997-99 2000-02 2003-05 2006-08 2009-11 2012-14 2015-17 All-Cause Mortality 1345.21 1285.26 1209.87 1148.36 1093.17 1053.41 1036.31 1061.51 1085.81 Cause-Specific Mortality Infectious & Parasitic Diseases HIV/AIDS 10.16 10.32 3.45 3.92 3.91 3.89 3.67 3.61 3.49 Non-HIV/AIDS 13.68 14.82 16.12 19.25 22.62 25.61 28.81 31.70 29.26 Cancers Liver 8.75 10.51 10.36 11.28 12.94 16.40 21.23 25.59 25.79 Lung 198.91 180.50 166.02 151.82 135.58 119.16 107.07 99.68 90.90 All Other Cancers 271.79 264.68 255.22 247.11 234.17 224.16 215.61 211.11 206.16 Cardio and Metabolic Diseases Endocrine, Nutrition, & Metabolic Diseases 36.03 41.98 43.77 47.64 50.32 49.46 49.15 51.96 56.26 Hypertensive Heart Disease 15.20 16.27 16.34 16.13 19.37 21.33 24.01 28.50 32.61 Ischemic & Other Circulatory Diseases 517.49 479.54 432.67 381.81 335.84 302.15 280.07 277.70 279.65 Substance Use and Mental Health Drug Poisonings 2.58 2.72 3.72 4.83 8.19 13.03 17.60 22.56 31.42 Alcohol-Induced* 20.73 19.56 18.70 18.21 18.64 21.76 24.77 28.56 31.58 Suicide 24.75 22.75 21.73 21.96 22.96 25.39 28.52 31.27 32.79 Mental & Behavioral Disorders 11.37 12.08 11.30 11.22 13.83 14.74 15.16 18.09 21.01 Other Body System Diseases & Disorders Nervous System 15.71 16.95 18.12 21.32 22.55 23.25 24.49 26.11 28.44 Genitourinary System 10.42 10.68 11.53 12.80 14.21 14.37 14.18 14.08 16.02 Respiratory System 85.70 82.17 81.51 76.51 74.92 72.92 73.39 77.12 81.10 Digestive System* 39.05 36.64 36.22 37.54 38.27 40.03 43.46 46.17 44.79 Other Causes of Death Homicides 4.76 4.12 3.50 3.19 2.96 3.02 2.94 2.96 3.42 Transport Injuries 20.00 20.02 21.44 21.46 22.52 21.97 20.28 20.64 23.30 Other External Causes 19.63 18.88 19.38 19.41 20.38 21.43 22.35 23.53 25.58 All Other Causes of Death 18.49 20.06 18.77 20.94 19.00 19.33 19.55 20.57 22.24 *Changes in the International Classification of Diseases (ICD)-10 code for diseases of the digestive system in 2006 affected the comparability of both digestive system deaths and alcohol-induced deaths before and after that year. More information is provided in Chapter 5. NOTE: The table shows all-cause and cause-specific mortality rates (in deaths per 100,000 people in the population) among non-Hispanic White males ages 55–64. Mortality rates within each age group are age-adjusted by single-year of age to match the age distribution of the U.S. population in 2000 in order to improve comparability over time. These causes of death are exhaustive of all underlying cause-of-death codes and are based on the ICD-9 (1990–1998) and ICD-10 (1999–2017) codes. More information about the classification of causes of death can be found in Chapter 5. SOURCE: Data from: https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/nvss/nvss-restricted-data.htm A-14 Prepublication copy, uncorrected proofs

TABLES A-14 Cause-Specific Mortality Rates (Deaths/100,000): Non-Hispanic Black Males Ages 55-64 1990-93 1994-96 1997-99 2000-02 2003-05 2006-08 2009-11 2012-14 2015-17 All-Cause Mortality 2466.82 2371.54 2225.07 2074.04 1978.86 1838.06 1714.49 1669.12 1669.83 Cause-Specific Mortality Infectious & Parasitic Diseases HIV/AIDS 44.75 72.67 43.15 45.70 48.99 47.64 40.12 33.56 30.07 Non-HIV/AIDS 45.06 45.92 50.60 55.82 60.12 63.22 62.58 61.40 54.76 Cancers Liver 18.95 19.83 21.62 24.07 30.31 41.20 52.91 57.53 49.60 Lung 320.63 289.64 255.66 224.26 207.75 176.90 158.61 141.83 119.64 All Other Cancers 461.08 440.19 418.43 382.11 348.27 325.19 304.26 283.14 274.10 Cardio and Metabolic Diseases Endocrine, Nutrition, & Metabolic Diseases 92.87 104.37 108.46 110.79 111.13 100.68 97.21 97.72 103.79 Hypertensive Heart Disease 91.66 95.98 93.72 88.12 94.77 93.62 94.99 96.74 100.22 Ischemic & Other Circulatory Diseases 869.66 815.72 767.30 698.18 630.21 557.46 489.95 471.84 474.12 Substance Use and Mental Health Drug Poisonings 4.79 7.96 10.74 11.97 17.14 24.63 25.41 32.05 55.90 Alcohol-Induced* 41.88 34.98 31.92 24.02 23.09 21.73 23.58 23.96 25.36 Suicide 10.50 9.96 9.06 8.09 8.35 7.69 7.92 7.98 8.17 Mental & Behavioral Disorders 38.14 35.22 29.74 27.68 26.76 26.93 23.59 25.92 26.84 Other Body System Diseases & Disorders Nervous System 21.91 21.19 23.44 25.50 27.97 28.29 30.00 31.40 33.96 Genitourinary System 47.87 46.92 49.81 54.03 59.84 56.18 50.77 49.23 50.37 Respiratory System 136.43 127.44 118.65 103.26 100.17 92.44 85.21 89.15 92.21 Digestive System* 72.29 67.50 65.20 67.05 64.63 62.94 62.07 60.66 54.58 Other Causes of Death Homicides 29.74 23.88 17.44 14.73 14.19 15.34 13.66 13.87 17.05 Transport Injuries 31.16 28.81 30.60 29.20 27.64 25.75 22.49 24.60 29.09 Other External Causes 43.80 40.67 36.08 33.22 32.89 29.63 28.71 28.88 30.69 All Other Causes of Death 43.67 42.70 43.44 46.24 44.63 40.59 40.45 37.65 39.35 *Changes in the International Classification of Diseases (ICD)-10 code for diseases of the digestive system in 2006 affected the comparability of both digestive system deaths and alcohol-induced deaths before and after that year. More information is provided in Chapter 5. NOTE: The table shows all-cause and cause-specific mortality rates (in deaths per 100,000 people in the population) among non-Hispanic Black males ages 55–64. Mortality rates within each age group are age-adjusted by single-year of age to match the age distribution of the U.S. population in 2000 in order to improve comparability over time. These causes of death are exhaustive of all underlying cause-of-death codes and are based on the ICD-9 (1990–1998) and ICD-10 (1999–2017) codes. More information about the classification of causes of death can be found in Chapter 5. SOURCE: Data from: https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/nvss/nvss-restricted-data.htm A-15 Prepublication copy, uncorrected proofs

TABLES A-15 Cause-Specific Mortality Rates (Deaths/100,000): Hispanic Males Ages 55-64 1990-93 1994-96 1997-99 2000-02 2003-05 2006-08 2009-11 2012-14 2015-17 All-Cause Mortality 1090.13 1067.21 986.68 955.66 914.69 857.53 815.63 812.17 805.96 Cause-Specific Mortality Infectious & Parasitic Diseases HIV/AIDS 30.35 39.18 15.30 14.94 13.82 11.83 10.02 8.68 7.86 Non-HIV/AIDS 19.35 19.15 22.67 28.62 30.22 35.88 37.28 37.42 31.13 Cancers Liver 16.59 20.86 21.28 22.31 27.47 29.76 34.90 39.12 35.64 Lung 77.14 68.66 63.45 60.85 54.85 45.20 40.28 35.07 30.51 All Other Cancers 194.86 188.97 185.79 178.90 170.98 161.06 155.66 149.62 143.86 Cardio and Metabolic Diseases Endocrine, Nutrition, & Metabolic Diseases 54.32 65.59 68.36 67.08 68.35 58.60 56.56 54.60 58.01 Hypertensive Heart Disease 21.36 24.92 22.73 22.15 24.33 24.42 24.82 25.69 29.08 Ischemic & Other Circulatory Diseases 385.36 357.27 325.10 298.89 269.47 237.90 210.88 201.09 200.92 Substance Use and Mental Health Drug Poisonings 4.25 5.94 6.12 5.71 9.10 10.85 11.72 14.45 19.36 Alcohol-Induced* 50.36 49.43 44.84 40.55 35.60 37.63 39.94 42.33 43.74 Suicide 16.28 12.93 11.08 11.44 10.60 10.09 11.15 11.15 10.78 Mental & Behavioral Disorders 15.28 15.74 13.96 14.34 13.79 13.19 10.96 13.19 13.83 Other Body System Diseases & Disorders Nervous System 10.49 10.27 10.38 12.91 14.08 13.75 14.49 15.67 17.62 Genitourinary System 13.55 12.59 17.22 17.44 19.86 20.22 19.53 16.91 19.06 Respiratory System 51.06 49.47 45.76 45.16 41.64 39.31 37.53 40.43 37.73 Digestive System* 52.63 51.20 48.17 48.48 48.80 47.86 46.54 50.63 44.78 Other Causes of Death Homicides 14.04 12.79 7.85 6.65 5.77 6.10 4.86 4.70 5.47 Transport Injuries 27.08 27.11 23.25 23.53 21.50 20.36 16.33 18.62 20.08 Other External Causes 20.54 18.56 18.72 17.20 18.70 18.55 18.45 17.39 19.69 All Other Causes of Death 15.26 16.58 14.64 18.52 15.76 14.97 13.72 15.41 16.80 *Changes in the International Classification of Diseases (ICD)-10 code for diseases of the digestive system in 2006 affected the comparability of both digestive system deaths and alcohol-induced deaths before and after that year. More information is provided in Chapter 5. NOTE: The table shows all-cause and cause-specific mortality rates (in deaths per 100,000 people in the population) among Hispanic males ages 55–64. Mortality rates within each age group are age-adjusted by single-year of age to match the age distribution of the U.S. population in 2000 in order to improve comparability over time. These causes of death are exhaustive of all underlying cause-of-death codes and are based on the ICD-9 (1990–1998) and ICD-10 (1999–2017) codes. More information about the classification of causes of death can be found in Chapter 5. SOURCE: Data from: https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/nvss/nvss-restricted-data.htm A-16 Prepublication copy, uncorrected proofs

TABLES A-16 Cause-Specific Mortality Rates (Deaths/100,000): Non-Hispanic White Females Ages 55-64 1990-93 1994-96 1997-99 2000-02 2003-05 2006-08 2009-11 2012-14 2015-17 All-Cause Mortality 767.20 760.35 744.90 725.14 690.00 649.92 626.15 636.17 659.91 Cause-Specific Mortality Infectious & Parasitic Diseases HIV/AIDS 0.67 0.78 0.36 0.50 0.51 0.54 0.59 0.65 0.58 Non-HIV/AIDS 9.40 10.32 12.47 14.30 16.11 17.22 18.35 19.98 19.68 Cancers Liver 3.79 4.18 4.20 4.17 4.38 4.84 5.59 6.91 7.52 Lung 104.57 104.83 102.16 99.36 92.37 82.07 72.55 71.31 67.85 All Other Cancers 248.27 240.99 230.35 220.33 208.23 193.52 184.21 176.72 173.33 Cardio and Metabolic Diseases Endocrine, Nutrition, & Metabolic Diseases 28.45 31.60 32.36 33.23 33.03 31.19 29.35 29.91 32.24 Hypertensive Heart Disease 7.93 8.26 8.04 8.65 9.80 10.15 10.80 13.00 15.27 Ischemic & Other Circulatory Diseases 207.31 198.87 186.79 167.74 146.38 129.17 117.39 115.02 120.51 Substance Use and Mental Health Drug Poisonings 3.45 3.04 3.68 5.00 7.70 11.54 14.79 18.66 22.56 Alcohol-Induced* 6.52 6.16 5.53 5.53 5.72 6.64 8.17 9.83 12.65 Suicide 5.16 4.39 4.30 4.45 4.47 5.06 5.51 6.41 7.59 Mental & Behavioral Disorders 3.81 4.48 4.24 4.37 5.44 6.15 6.89 8.26 8.86 Other Body System Diseases & Disorders Nervous System 12.82 14.18 15.53 19.06 19.94 20.73 21.09 22.35 24.01 Genitourinary System 7.80 8.13 9.55 11.09 11.28 11.50 11.26 11.09 12.16 Respiratory System 60.25 62.77 65.78 64.67 63.50 59.10 59.99 62.93 68.84 Digestive System* 24.41 23.28 24.17 25.14 24.69 25.03 25.64 27.80 29.13 Other Causes of Death Homicides 1.72 1.51 1.36 1.42 1.31 1.36 1.39 1.45 1.57 Transport Injuries 9.29 9.71 10.22 9.59 9.23 8.26 6.65 6.74 7.12 Other External Causes 6.97 7.15 7.63 8.24 8.63 9.00 9.25 10.27 11.29 All Other Causes of Death 14.62 15.72 16.17 18.30 17.27 16.86 16.70 16.88 17.14 *Changes in the International Classification of Diseases (ICD)-10 code for diseases of the digestive system in 2006 affected the comparability of both digestive system deaths and alcohol-induced deaths before and after that year. More information is provided in Chapter 5. NOTE: The table shows all-cause and cause-specific mortality rates (in deaths per 100,000 people in the population) among non-Hispanic White females ages 55–64. Mortality rates within each age group are age-adjusted by single-year of age to match the age distribution of the U.S. population in 2000 in order to improve comparability over time. These causes of death are exhaustive of all underlying cause-of-death codes and are based on the ICD-9 (1990–1998) and ICD-10 (1999–2017) codes. More information about the classification of causes of death can be found in Chapter 5. SOURCE: Data from: https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/nvss/nvss-restricted-data.htm A-17 Prepublication copy, uncorrected proofs

TABLES A-17 Cause-Specific Mortality Rates (Deaths/100,000): Non-Hispanic Black Females Ages 55-64 1990-93 1994-96 1997-99 2000-02 2003-05 2006-08 2009-11 2012-14 2015-17 All-Cause Mortality 1367.98 1340.86 1302.88 1229.51 1156.01 1062.93 996.15 988.17 1002.3 Cause-Specific Mortality Infectious & Parasitic Diseases HIV/AIDS 7.36 14.50 10.04 11.21 12.48 13.98 13.37 11.91 10.70 Non-HIV/AIDS 28.04 31.17 36.63 39.45 38.46 37.74 37.44 38.42 36.95 Cancers Liver 6.52 7.14 7.11 7.31 7.90 8.35 10.74 12.42 13.48 Lung 108.58 104.81 101.66 96.17 91.33 80.77 76.84 73.06 68.08 All Other Cancers 342.25 332.47 322.64 297.41 283.77 268.72 255.12 247.79 242.89 Cardio and Metabolic Diseases Endocrine, Nutrition, & Metabolic Diseases 92.73 102.92 103.15 92.53 89.30 79.47 70.27 68.49 70.97 Hypertensive Heart Disease 61.95 58.98 59.81 55.61 54.25 51.20 50.24 50.81 53.22 Ischemic & Other Circulatory Diseases 476.99 448.57 416.31 383.56 334.85 287.27 253.53 242.34 244.29 Substance Use and Mental Health Drug Poisonings 1.59 2.08 2.54 3.05 5.17 8.08 9.80 12.69 18.80 Alcohol-Induced* 12.18 11.60 8.26 7.85 6.86 6.06 7.13 7.71 9.26 Suicide 1.98 1.53 1.47 1.40 1.31 0.95 1.06 1.32 1.57 Mental & Behavioral Disorders 8.39 7.35 6.44 6.20 6.59 7.92 7.05 8.68 9.35 Other Body System Diseases & Disorders Nervous System 15.27 15.56 19.57 21.65 23.52 24.29 24.51 26.00 27.98 Genitourinary System 35.72 36.12 39.27 42.55 43.89 40.94 35.45 33.83 36.48 Respiratory System 67.09 69.43 68.85 63.97 59.76 57.30 57.59 65.94 72.12 Digestive System* 41.75 37.22 37.57 36.64 34.61 32.58 31.59 32.85 31.68 Other Causes of Death Homicides 5.66 4.69 3.57 3.00 3.11 2.93 2.77 2.71 3.50 Transport Injuries 10.44 9.73 10.77 8.31 9.13 8.13 6.55 6.72 7.06 Other External Causes 12.72 12.67 12.87 12.61 11.27 11.01 11.35 11.41 11.22 All Other Causes of Death 30.77 32.31 34.37 39.03 38.46 35.23 33.76 33.08 32.72 *Changes in the International Classification of Diseases (ICD)-10 code for diseases of the digestive system in 2006 affected the comparability of both digestive system deaths and alcohol-induced deaths before and after that year. More information is provided in Chapter 5. NOTE: The table shows all-cause and cause-specific mortality rates (in deaths per 100,000 people in the population) among non-Hispanic Black females ages 55–64. Mortality rates within each age group are age-adjusted by single-year of age to match the age distribution of the U.S. population in 2000 in order to improve comparability over time. These causes of death are exhaustive of all underlying cause-of-death codes and are based on the ICD-9 (1990–1998) and ICD-10 (1999–2017) codes. More information about the classification of causes of death can be found in Chapter 5. SOURCE: Data from: https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/nvss/nvss-restricted-data.htm A-18 Prepublication copy, uncorrected proofs

TABLE A-18 Cause-Specific Mortality Rates (Deaths/100,000): Hispanic Females Ages 55-64 1990-93 1994-96 1997-99 2000-02 2003-05 2006-08 2009-11 2012-14 2015-17 All-Cause Mortality 596.84 590.57 570.90 542.74 514.90 478.95 449.44 443.92 440.99 Cause-Specific Mortality Infectious & Parasitic Diseases HIV/AIDS 4.38 7.14 3.40 4.38 3.13 3.00 2.75 1.96 1.88 Non-HIV/AIDS 13.41 15.09 16.86 16.85 19.07 19.45 20.12 19.51 16.70 Cancers Liver 6.17 6.99 7.20 7.88 8.12 8.08 8.52 10.45 9.96 Lung 26.69 25.70 25.23 23.59 21.99 20.87 19.55 19.67 18.45 All Other Cancers 178.44 173.30 166.91 162.39 154.13 149.09 140.81 137.20 135.29 Cardio and Metabolic Diseases Endocrine, Nutrition, & Metabolic Diseases 50.36 55.92 55.65 52.42 47.74 40.38 34.07 35.54 35.63 Hypertensive Heart Disease 12.34 12.72 11.96 13.01 13.34 13.04 11.03 11.64 13.04 Ischemic & Other Circulatory Diseases 175.91 167.98 157.64 136.62 121.40 104.41 92.16 84.03 81.51 Substance Use and Mental Health Drug Poisonings 2.15 2.33 1.90 2.27 3.00 4.27 5.20 5.86 7.54 Alcohol-Induced* 8.38 7.22 6.71 5.78 6.02 5.99 7.22 7.95 9.27 Suicide 1.92 1.52 1.40 1.00 1.31 1.04 1.60 1.68 1.97 Mental & Behavioral Disorders 3.03 2.83 2.51 2.65 2.35 3.44 3.40 4.01 4.02 Other Body System Diseases & Disorders Nervous System 7.38 8.79 8.37 10.02 10.94 11.22 11.39 10.94 13.44 Genitourinary System 12.33 11.14 12.47 14.99 15.49 16.35 13.82 13.09 12.98 Respiratory System 29.20 28.34 29.09 27.48 26.79 24.27 25.17 26.08 27.01 Digestive System* 33.06 30.19 29.48 27.19 27.89 26.97 27.12 28.01 26.52 Other Causes of Death Homicides 2.54 1.90 1.76 1.74 1.36 1.27 1.39 1.35 1.24 Transport Injuries 10.70 11.77 10.74 9.95 9.75 7.12 6.09 6.59 6.45 Other External Causes 5.09 5.03 6.03 5.66 6.05 5.85 5.45 4.96 5.56 All Other Causes of Death 13.37 14.69 15.60 16.86 15.02 12.84 12.58 13.41 12.53 *Changes in the International Classification of Diseases (ICD)-10 code for diseases of the digestive system in 2006 affected the comparability of both digestive system deaths and alcohol-induced deaths before and after that year. More information is provided in Chapter 5. NOTE: The table shows all-cause and cause-specific mortality rates (in deaths per 100,000 people in the population) among Hispanic females ages 55–64. Mortality rates within each age group are age-adjusted by single-year of age to match the age distribution of the U.S. population in 2000 in order to improve comparability over time. These causes of death are exhaustive of all underlying cause-of-death codes and are based on the ICD-9 (1990–1998) and ICD-10 (1999–2017) codes. More information about the classification of causes of death can be found in Chapter 5. SOURCE: Data from: https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/nvss/nvss-restricted-data.htm A-19 Prepublication copy, uncorrected proofs

CAUSE-SPECIFIC MORTALITY ESTIMATES BY SEX, AGE GROUP, RACE/ETHNICITY, AND METROPOLITAN AREA STATUS Table A-19 Cause-Specific Mortality Rates (Deaths/100,000): Non-Hispanic White Males Ages 25-64 Living in Large Central Metropolitan Areas Ages 25-44 Ages 45-64 1990-93 2000-02 2009-11 2015-17 1990-93 2000-02 2009-11 2015-17 All-Cause Mortality 224.09 175.70 162.81 198.33 838.81 726.52 654.79 643.75 Cause-Specific Mortality Infectious & Parasitic Diseases HIV/AIDS 52.48 7.17 1.77 0.89 31.00 7.56 4.61 3.29 Non-HIV/AIDS 4.48 4.64 2.58 2.12 10.24 18.32 19.59 16.44 Cancers Liver 0.50 0.59 0.50 0.50 5.39 8.37 12.65 12.11 Lung 4.16 3.27 1.87 1.28 106.61 75.66 52.39 40.02 All Other Cancers 21.09 16.91 14.80 13.61 156.34 142.78 120.81 109.37 Cardio and Metabolic Diseases Endocrine, Nutrition, & Metabolic Diseases 5.17 5.00 5.16 5.41 22.65 29.16 29.27 32.16 Hypertensive Heart Disease 1.26 2.26 3.32 3.61 11.38 13.26 19.21 22.46 Ischemic & Other Circulatory Diseases 29.10 25.30 21.03 20.02 299.82 221.27 163.46 153.04 Substance Use and Mental Health Drug Poisonings 12.13 21.29 34.08 66.45 4.64 14.66 29.50 44.80 Alcohol-Induced* 5.43 3.62 3.73 4.69 16.76 16.23 18.76 20.81 Suicide 21.80 20.65 23.75 26.79 22.31 21.80 29.74 31.05 Mental & Behavioral Disorders 4.18 5.45 3.61 5.09 9.00 11.88 12.51 14.93 Other Body System Diseases & Disorders Nervous System 3.01 3.33 3.72 3.64 10.24 13.58 15.21 16.40 Genitourinary System 1.02 1.04 0.95 0.89 6.09 7.28 7.76 8.39 Respiratory System 4.68 3.73 3.69 3.19 41.05 36.88 35.16 34.84 Digestive System* 5.99 4.70 3.71 3.84 26.40 27.15 28.16 25.25 Other Causes of Death Homicides 8.29 4.66 3.77 4.28 5.95 2.90 2.65 2.95 Transport Injuries 21.39 19.46 15.37 16.34 16.42 17.81 16.42 17.27 Other External Causes 10.44 9.21 8.72 9.13 13.99 14.51 18.08 18.58 All Other Causes of Death 7.47 13.42 6.66 6.57 22.54 25.46 18.87 19.59 *Changes in the International Classification of Diseases (ICD)-10 code for diseases of the digestive system in 2006 affected the comparability of both digestive system deaths and alcohol-induced deaths before and after that year. More information is provided in Chapter 5. A-20 Prepublication copy, uncorrected proofs

NOTE: The table shows the all-cause and cause-specific mortality rates among non-Hispanic White working-age males in large central metropolitan areas by age group (25–44 and 45–64). These causes of death are exhaustive of all underlying cause-of-death codes and are based on the International Classification of Diseases (ICD)-9 (1990–1998) and ICD-10 (1999–2017) codes. Mortality rates within each age group are age-adjusted by single-year of age groups to match the age distribution of the U.S. population in 2000 in order to improve comparability over time. More information about the classification of causes of death can be found in Chapter 5. SOURCE: Data from: https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/nvss/nvss-restricted-data.htm A-21 Prepublication copy, uncorrected proofs

TABLE A-20 Cause-Specific Mortality Rates (Deaths/100,000): Non-Hispanic White Males Ages 25-64 Living in Large Fringe Metropolitan Areas Ages 25-44 Ages 45-64 1990-93 2000-02 2009-11 2015-17 1990-93 2000-02 2009-11 2015-17 All-Cause Mortality 196.33 194.49 197.98 238.70 830.48 756.98 731.08 767.65 Cause-Specific Mortality Infectious & Parasitic Diseases HIV/AIDS 24.13 5.00 1.57 0.83 11.49 3.64 3.32 3.07 Non-HIV/AIDS 3.11 5.01 3.30 3.23 8.89 17.59 22.13 21.09 Cancers Liver 0.46 0.50 0.59 0.44 4.62 8.01 13.26 14.64 Lung 4.35 4.05 2.39 1.80 110.53 83.18 62.84 51.78 All Other Cancers 20.61 18.33 16.67 15.28 149.76 143.27 129.20 122.41 Cardio and Metabolic Diseases Endocrine, Nutrition, & Metabolic Diseases 4.72 5.89 6.42 7.74 23.43 30.72 33.03 40.14 Hypertensive Heart Disease 0.90 1.96 3.32 4.22 8.81 11.40 17.71 24.09 Ischemic & Other Circulatory Diseases 30.26 29.45 27.71 24.98 307.50 232.57 183.54 181.24 Substance Use and Mental Health Drug Poisonings 8.52 20.64 37.53 67.36 3.22 13.28 29.61 45.95 Alcohol-Induced* 4.69 4.21 4.46 6.08 16.56 17.98 21.52 26.39 Suicide 23.07 25.07 29.19 35.35 24.03 24.20 31.83 36.07 Mental & Behavioral Disorders 3.54 4.42 3.31 5.20 8.45 10.67 13.01 17.99 Other Body System Diseases & Disorders Nervous System 3.11 4.24 4.53 5.25 10.94 14.53 17.26 19.91 Genitourinary System 0.91 1.14 1.29 1.39 5.90 7.46 8.89 10.01 Respiratory System 4.27 4.20 4.42 4.61 45.28 42.37 43.17 47.64 Digestive System* 5.09 4.95 4.98 5.03 25.62 27.80 33.39 32.18 Other Causes of Death Homicides 7.65 5.25 4.88 6.01 5.03 3.42 3.06 4.11 Transport Injuries 27.85 27.22 21.96 24.01 20.27 22.80 21.26 23.67 Other External Causes 11.96 11.87 11.42 12.21 15.53 16.91 21.15 22.25 All Other Causes of Death 7.17 11.10 8.04 7.68 24.62 25.17 21.90 23.01 *Changes in the International Classification of Diseases (ICD)-10 code for diseases of the digestive system in 2006 affected the comparability of both digestive system deaths and alcohol-induced deaths before and after that year. More information is provided in Chapter 5. NOTE: The table shows the all-cause and cause-specific mortality rates among non-Hispanic White working-age males in large fringe metropolitan areas by age group (25–44 and 45–64). These causes of death are exhaustive of all underlying cause-of-death codes and are based on the International Classification of Diseases (ICD)-9 (1990–1998) and ICD-10 A-22 Prepublication copy, uncorrected proofs

(1999–2017) codes. Mortality rates within each age group are age-adjusted by single-year of age groups to match the age distribution of the U.S. population in 2000 in order to improve comparability over time. More information about the classification of causes of death can be found in Chapter 5. SOURCE: Data from: https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/nvss/nvss-restricted-data.htm A-23 Prepublication copy, uncorrected proofs

TABLE A-21: Cause-Specific Mortality Rates (Deaths/100,000): Non-Hispanic White Males Ages 25-64 Living in Small/Medium Metropolitan Areas Ages 25-44 Ages 45-64 1990-93 2000-02 2009-11 2015-17 1990-93 2000-02 2009-11 2015-17 All-Cause Mortality 195.06 197.63 207.13 236.00 865.54 782.03 767.40 812.83 Cause-Specific Mortality Infectious & Parasitic Diseases HIV/AIDS 16.73 3.67 1.34 0.55 7.67 2.99 2.66 2.53 Non-HIV/AIDS 2.70 4.56 3.31 3.33 8.92 16.09 21.34 21.09 Cancers Liver 0.48 0.57 0.29 0.65 4.68 7.23 12.78 14.30 Lung 4.52 4.27 2.67 1.90 117.10 86.61 67.06 55.95 All Other Cancers 20.02 18.32 16.77 15.66 152.06 146.06 131.39 129.79 Cardio and Metabolic Diseases Endocrine, Nutrition, & Metabolic Diseases 5.05 6.40 7.57 8.38 25.16 32.92 36.35 42.71 Hypertensive Heart Disease 0.93 1.47 2.85 3.67 7.33 8.86 16.28 22.13 Ischemic & Other Circulatory Diseases 31.52 32.00 29.50 27.40 327.81 250.03 201.16 203.12 Substance Use and Mental Health Drug Poisonings 5.74 16.12 33.33 52.49 2.74 10.60 25.26 35.29 Alcohol-Induced* 4.23 4.22 3.94 6.14 16.19 16.91 22.07 27.25 Suicide 25.21 26.74 32.29 37.93 24.05 24.53 33.68 38.16 Mental & Behavioral Disorders 3.17 4.22 3.76 5.61 8.77 10.47 13.09 19.40 Other Body System Diseases & Disorders Nervous System 3.79 4.35 5.24 5.99 11.14 15.25 18.56 21.51 Genitourinary System 1.01 1.36 1.60 1.75 6.50 8.25 9.59 11.40 Respiratory System 4.40 4.71 4.57 5.38 51.33 45.19 48.51 53.74 Digestive System* 4.92 4.68 5.07 5.02 25.11 27.34 33.88 34.94 Other Causes of Death Homicides 7.28 4.83 4.81 6.75 5.38 3.38 3.34 3.75 Transport Injuries 32.36 31.55 26.14 25.66 23.76 26.16 25.22 28.05 Other External Causes 15.21 13.84 13.58 13.67 17.81 19.43 23.56 23.37 All Other Causes of Death 5.80 9.75 8.50 8.09 22.03 23.73 21.64 24.36 *Changes in the International Classification of Diseases (ICD)-10 code for diseases of the digestive system in 2006 affected the comparability of both digestive system deaths and alcohol-induced deaths before and after that year. More information is provided in Chapter 5. A-24 Prepublication copy, uncorrected proofs

NOTE: The table shows the all-cause and cause-specific mortality rates among non-Hispanic White working-age males in small/medium metropolitan areas by age group (25–44 and 45–64). These causes of death are exhaustive of all underlying cause-of-death codes and are based on the International Classification of Diseases (ICD)-9 (1990–1998) and ICD-10 (1999–2017) codes. Mortality rates within each age group are age-adjusted by single-year of age groups to match the age distribution of the U.S. population in 2000 in order to improve comparability over time. More information about the classification of causes of death can be found in Chapter 5. SOURCE: Data from: https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/nvss/nvss-restricted-data.htm A-25 Prepublication copy, uncorrected proofs

TABLE A-22 Cause-Specific Mortality Rates (Deaths/100,000): Non-Hispanic White Males Ages 25-64 Living in Nonmetropolitan Areas Ages 25-44 Ages 45-64 1990-93 2000-02 2009-11 2015-17 1990-93 2000-02 2009-11 2015-17 All-Cause Mortality 206.06 224.03 234.74 267.70 878.35 820.79 816.05 872.60 Cause-Specific Mortality Infectious & Parasitic Diseases HIV/AIDS 11.17 3.00 1.22 0.78 4.97 2.26 2.06 1.88 Non-HIV/AIDS 2.24 4.15 3.41 3.81 7.92 15.66 22.33 22.52 Cancers Liver 0.50 0.64 0.60 0.61 4.65 7.49 12.74 14.40 Lung 4.65 5.07 3.08 2.21 117.06 93.49 76.36 65.99 All Other Cancers 20.40 19.90 18.06 17.33 149.42 148.59 136.53 136.76 Cardio and Metabolic Diseases Endocrine, Nutrition, & Metabolic Diseases 5.48 7.06 8.23 10.00 23.84 31.80 38.30 45.71 Hypertensive Heart Disease 0.82 1.47 3.20 4.24 6.27 8.06 14.46 21.78 Ischemic & Other Circulatory Diseases 35.27 37.45 35.24 35.69 341.08 273.22 224.44 228.81 Substance Use and Mental Health Drug Poisonings 5.20 15.91 34.84 51.40 2.17 8.78 24.85 32.85 Alcohol-Induced* 3.64 3.58 3.84 5.45 15.58 15.59 19.53 24.67 Suicide 25.93 29.88 34.65 42.09 24.65 26.23 33.34 39.21 Mental & Behavioral Disorders 2.88 3.83 2.85 4.68 8.50 9.44 10.55 14.73 Other Body System Diseases & Disorders Nervous System 3.64 4.23 5.84 6.06 11.01 14.94 17.55 21.14 Genitourinary System 1.11 1.33 1.58 2.07 5.94 8.53 9.72 12.21 Respiratory System 4.21 5.30 6.23 6.13 51.63 49.04 53.04 61.50 Digestive System* 4.47 4.84 5.55 6.03 24.39 27.20 34.44 36.88 Other Causes of Death Homicides 8.52 5.63 5.19 7.12 5.54 3.70 3.76 4.69 Transport Injuries 41.58 42.55 35.42 36.06 28.11 32.05 32.06 33.14 Other External Causes 19.35 18.30 16.55 16.87 22.72 22.14 26.11 27.66 All Other Causes of Death 5.01 9.91 9.15 9.06 22.88 22.58 23.87 26.05 *Changes in the International Classification of Diseases (ICD)-10 code for diseases of the digestive system in 2006 affected the comparability of both digestive system deaths and alcohol-induced deaths before and after that year. More information is provided in Chapter 5. NOTE: The table shows the all-cause and cause-specific mortality rates among non-Hispanic White working-age males in nonmetropolitan areas by age group (25–44 and 45–64). These causes of death are exhaustive of all underlying cause-of-death codes and are based on the International Classification of Diseases (ICD)-9 (1990–1998) and ICD-10 (1999– A-26 Prepublication copy, uncorrected proofs

2017) codes. Mortality rates within each age group are age-adjusted by single-year of age groups to match the age distribution of the U.S. population in 2000 in order to improve comparability over time. More information about the classification of causes of death can be found in Chapter 5. SOURCE: Data from: https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/nvss/nvss-restricted-data.htm A-27 Prepublication copy, uncorrected proofs

TABLE A-23 Cause-Specific Mortality Rates (Deaths/100,000): Non-Hispanic Black Males Ages 25-64 Living in Large Central Metropolitan Areas Ages 25-44 Ages 45-64 1990-93 2000-02 2009-11 2015-17 1990-93 2000-02 2009-11 2015-17 All-Cause Mortality 642.70 393.44 286.44 314.95 1728.58 1425.35 1090.57 1033.27 Cause-Specific Mortality Infectious & Parasitic Diseases HIV/AIDS 170.11 51.37 15.75 8.07 98.39 67.48 35.21 20.67 Non-HIV/AIDS 19.21 20.89 10.72 6.96 40.42 60.33 50.32 36.09 Cancers Liver 1.84 1.77 1.12 1.29 13.45 20.33 29.68 23.33 Lung 10.27 6.46 2.05 2.17 188.71 122.98 81.38 54.43 All Other Cancers 31.51 22.20 17.94 16.59 258.54 219.22 167.41 146.98 Cardio and Metabolic Diseases Endocrine, Nutrition, & Metabolic Diseases 13.91 11.65 12.68 14.29 61.12 66.32 56.92 64.70 Hypertensive Heart Disease 10.75 12.21 13.69 14.94 70.58 69.25 70.79 71.86 Ischemic & Other Circulatory Diseases 73.80 55.13 45.98 45.46 536.65 424.38 297.21 280.36 Substance Use and Mental Health Drug Poisonings 25.17 24.32 16.79 36.22 12.83 33.21 32.50 63.80 Alcohol-Induced* 14.20 3.74 1.81 2.13 41.04 20.26 14.20 14.11 Suicide 17.59 14.18 13.74 15.56 12.04 9.03 9.19 9.40 Mental & Behavioral Disorders 15.49 8.00 2.97 3.46 35.16 26.64 16.81 16.20 Other Body System Diseases & Disorders Nervous System 6.85 6.21 5.74 6.96 16.17 17.65 19.27 21.31 Genitourinary System 8.52 4.58 4.37 4.03 32.02 33.97 27.72 28.14 Respiratory System 21.84 11.76 8.27 7.99 86.59 61.99 47.78 49.13 Digestive System* 17.24 7.77 4.85 4.40 57.51 50.06 39.46 30.14 Other Causes of Death Homicides 107.53 66.40 61.42 73.44 42.01 20.25 17.89 22.57 Transport Injuries 27.57 27.09 21.67 26.17 26.35 24.30 17.83 23.55 Other External Causes 21.84 13.60 10.67 11.62 33.89 24.88 22.04 23.03 All Other Causes of Death 27.45 24.10 14.22 13.21 65.10 52.81 36.96 33.45 *Changes in the International Classification of Diseases (ICD)-10 code for diseases of the digestive system in 2006 affected the comparability of both digestive system deaths and alcohol-induced deaths before and after that year. More information is provided in Chapter 5. NOTE: The table shows the all-cause and cause-specific mortality rates among non-Hispanic Black working-age males in large central metropolitan areas by age group (25–44 and 45–64). These causes of death are exhaustive of all underlying cause-of-death codes and are based on the International Classification of Diseases (ICD)-9 (1990–1998) and ICD-10 A-28 Prepublication copy, uncorrected proofs

(1999–2017) codes. Mortality rates within each age group are age-adjusted by single-year of age groups to match the age distribution of the U.S. population in 2000 in order to improve comparability over time. More information about the classification of causes of death can be found in Chapter 5. SOURCE: Data from: https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/nvss/nvss-restricted-data.htm A-29 Prepublication copy, uncorrected proofs

TABLE A-24 Cause-Specific Mortality Rates (Deaths/100,000): Non-Hispanic Black Males Ages 25-64 Living in Large Fringe Metropolitan Areas Ages 25-44 Ages 45-64 1990-93 2000-02 2009-11 2015-17 1990-93 2000-02 2009-11 2015-17 All-Cause Mortality 477.67 361.79 293.62 336.96 1622.77 1413.10 1145.14 1128.13 Cause-Specific Mortality Infectious & Parasitic Diseases HIV/AIDS 88.98 36.78 13.09 7.48 45.42 42.86 26.51 19.22 Non-HIV/AIDS 12.33 20.09 9.56 7.44 28.03 53.09 47.14 40.28 Cancers Liver 1.94 1.39 1.47 0.76 10.07 17.62 29.41 28.74 Lung 9.79 6.35 2.83 2.39 191.65 133.70 94.50 67.56 All Other Cancers 29.67 22.16 19.17 16.19 252.68 220.05 174.67 158.43 Cardio and Metabolic Diseases Endocrine, Nutrition, & Metabolic Diseases 11.41 11.94 13.90 16.22 62.84 77.21 67.59 75.97 Hypertensive Heart Disease 8.17 8.87 11.62 15.30 53.24 51.55 60.16 63.57 Ischemic & Other Circulatory Diseases 72.59 63.10 53.09 55.17 549.16 442.99 319.44 313.83 Substance Use and Mental Health Drug Poisonings 10.89 15.61 13.56 33.79 4.56 16.25 24.38 43.56 Alcohol-Induced* 11.64 4.02 2.06 2.19 36.36 21.98 19.07 17.95 Suicide 16.05 15.25 14.75 17.14 10.58 9.48 8.63 10.14 Mental & Behavioral Disorders 11.23 6.46 2.98 3.30 32.06 24.05 15.78 18.51 Other Body System Diseases & Disorders Nervous System 6.44 7.13 7.04 7.50 17.47 20.33 22.34 26.43 Genitourinary System 6.33 5.18 5.49 6.83 26.77 34.55 33.28 34.13 Respiratory System 14.12 10.20 8.78 9.28 81.97 65.43 52.72 57.01 Digestive System* 12.90 6.65 5.60 5.44 53.40 48.76 44.05 37.54 Other Causes of Death Homicides 69.75 47.72 51.07 69.10 30.27 19.46 15.41 21.02 Transport Injuries 37.67 36.62 29.08 34.63 35.74 34.13 26.18 32.24 Other External Causes 25.01 14.89 13.62 12.57 34.07 27.75 23.76 22.62 All Other Causes of Death 20.78 21.36 14.84 14.24 66.42 51.85 40.12 39.35 *Changes in the International Classification of Diseases (ICD)-10 code for diseases of the digestive system in 2006 affected the comparability of both digestive system deaths and alcohol-induced deaths before and after that year. More information is provided in Chapter 5. NOTE: The table shows the all-cause and cause-specific mortality rates among non-Hispanic Black working-age males in large fringe metropolitan areas by age group (25–44 and 45–64). These causes of death are exhaustive of all underlying cause-of-death codes and are based on the International Classification of Diseases (ICD)-9 (1990–1998) and ICD-10 A-30 Prepublication copy, uncorrected proofs

(1999–2017) codes. Mortality rates within each age group are age-adjusted by single-year of age groups to match the age distribution of the U.S. population in 2000 in order to improve comparability over time. More information about the classification of causes of death can be found in Chapter 5. SOURCE: Data from: https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/nvss/nvss-restricted-data.htm A-31 Prepublication copy, uncorrected proofs

TABLE A-25 Cause-Specific Mortality Rates (Deaths/100,000): Non-Hispanic Black Males Ages 25-64 Living in Small/Medium Metropolitan Areas Ages 25-44 Ages 45-64 1990-93 2000-02 2009-11 2015-17 1990-93 2000-02 2009-11 2015-17 All-Cause Mortality 430.49 311.60 277.68 323.99 1717.77 1451.65 1171.27 1176.07 Cause-Specific Mortality Infectious & Parasitic Diseases HIV/AIDS 52.66 29.46 11.48 7.16 25.25 27.21 23.06 15.19 Non-HIV/AIDS 9.09 15.68 10.30 6.29 31.43 46.98 47.39 40.39 Cancers Liver 1.29 1.30 1.14 1.06 9.68 15.89 25.58 22.57 Lung 9.28 9.94 3.65 3.23 205.67 136.72 101.20 73.72 All Other Cancers 27.86 22.58 18.36 16.38 275.19 232.50 175.52 167.14 Cardio and Metabolic Diseases Endocrine, Nutrition, & Metabolic Diseases 9.68 10.98 14.27 20.18 68.16 81.36 69.09 73.94 Hypertensive Heart Disease 8.29 6.68 11.88 14.24 50.08 53.45 53.85 61.03 Ischemic & Other Circulatory Diseases 76.93 56.31 59.01 56.46 602.37 481.43 354.24 348.03 Substance Use and Mental Health Drug Poisonings 8.22 9.41 15.84 32.79 3.15 12.27 17.00 32.16 Alcohol-Induced* 11.69 4.54 2.23 2.88 36.39 22.89 17.55 17.78 Suicide 18.57 13.16 11.45 15.87 9.68 7.67 8.45 10.12 Mental & Behavioral Disorders 11.47 5.75 2.63 4.75 36.44 24.49 15.97 20.81 Other Body System Diseases & Disorders Nervous System 7.62 6.60 6.62 9.27 15.85 24.91 24.46 27.16 Genitourinary System 4.84 4.92 6.48 5.27 31.66 39.22 38.14 38.80 Respiratory System 13.58 9.53 8.03 9.48 80.06 65.93 53.51 64.19 Digestive System* 12.75 7.59 5.43 5.16 55.37 48.27 39.82 44.11 Other Causes of Death Homicides 61.65 29.88 34.04 50.85 35.33 14.60 12.50 18.18 Transport Injuries 40.43 34.79 26.83 35.61 41.17 32.17 26.50 34.54 Other External Causes 29.30 15.80 12.26 13.24 39.95 37.05 27.79 24.76 All Other Causes of Death 15.30 16.70 15.75 13.82 64.90 46.64 39.62 41.46 *Changes in the International Classification of Diseases (ICD)-10 code for diseases of the digestive system in 2006 affected the comparability of both digestive system deaths and alcohol-induced deaths before and after that year. More information is provided in Chapter 5. NOTE: The table shows the all-cause and cause-specific mortality rates among non-Hispanic Black working-age males in small/medium metropolitan areas by age group (25–44 and 45–64). These causes of death are exhaustive of all underlying cause-of-death codes and are based on the International Classification of Diseases (ICD)-9 (1990–1998) and A-32 Prepublication copy, uncorrected proofs

ICD-10 (1999–2017) codes. Mortality rates within each age group are age-adjusted by single-year of age groups to match the age distribution of the U.S. population in 2000 in order to improve comparability over time. More information about the classification of causes of death can be found in Chapter 5. SOURCE: Data from: https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/nvss/nvss-restricted-data.htm A-33 Prepublication copy, uncorrected proofs

TABLE A-26 Cause-Specific Mortality Rates (Deaths/100,000): Non-Hispanic Black Males Ages 25-64 Living in Nonmetropolitan Areas Ages 25-44 Ages 45-64 1990-93 2000-02 2009-11 2015-17 1990-93 2000-02 2009-11 2015-17 All-Cause Mortality 466.44 340.00 287.46 316.37 1809.05 1555.88 1249.46 1255.89 Cause-Specific Mortality Infectious & Parasitic Diseases HIV/AIDS 45.87 26.10 11.99 6.62 23.65 29.47 19.55 15.67 Non-HIV/AIDS 8.44 15.55 11.05 7.48 26.20 46.72 44.95 40.55 Cancers Liver 1.75 1.48 0.88 1.21 9.61 13.11 21.53 22.35 Lung 11.38 8.09 2.56 2.86 206.54 164.85 114.67 89.43 All Other Cancers 30.87 22.75 19.24 16.94 263.02 239.57 194.65 179.39 Cardio and Metabolic Diseases Endocrine, Nutrition, & Metabolic Diseases 11.45 12.24 12.68 17.72 67.63 75.68 73.61 85.40 Hypertensive Heart Disease 8.30 8.84 13.10 14.31 49.04 48.37 51.91 64.03 Ischemic & Other Circulatory Diseases 89.95 65.93 57.02 59.13 682.93 540.28 382.93 383.06 Substance Use and Mental Health Drug Poisonings 5.36 7.22 9.13 18.70 2.10 7.05 12.70 21.32 Alcohol-Induced* 10.91 5.42 2.51 1.99 32.70 23.51 16.68 18.74 Suicide 15.47 12.70 12.46 13.78 13.21 9.09 9.09 10.38 Mental & Behavioral Disorders 12.09 5.58 3.50 3.32 36.19 24.74 15.88 17.46 Other Body System Diseases & Disorders Nervous System 7.67 6.03 6.36 8.32 17.60 19.59 23.12 26.56 Genitourinary System 5.19 5.35 5.31 6.09 32.36 39.74 38.79 40.84 Respiratory System 14.61 8.40 8.89 10.10 85.96 70.42 61.73 63.51 Digestive System* 11.99 8.22 7.10 5.78 49.26 50.26 42.27 39.82 Other Causes of Death Homicides 59.19 29.62 36.33 45.83 35.17 16.35 12.84 17.73 Transport Injuries 65.66 49.86 37.25 45.41 52.20 50.48 38.81 45.42 Other External Causes 35.07 23.42 14.59 15.41 54.61 40.05 31.33 31.91 All Other Causes of Death 15.20 17.19 15.52 15.37 69.07 46.55 42.43 42.31 *Changes in the International Classification of Diseases (ICD)-10 code for diseases of the digestive system in 2006 affected the comparability of both digestive system deaths and alcohol-induced deaths before and after that year. More information is provided in Chapter 5. NOTE: The table shows the all-cause and cause-specific mortality rates among non-Hispanic Black working-age males in nonmetropolitan areas by age group (25–44 and 45–64). These causes of death are exhaustive of all underlying cause-of-death codes and are based on the International Classification of Diseases (ICD)-9 (1990–1998) and ICD-10 (1999– A-34 Prepublication copy, uncorrected proofs

2017) codes. Mortality rates within each age group are age-adjusted by single-year of age groups to match the age distribution of the U.S. population in 2000 in order to improve comparability over time. More information about the classification of causes of death can be found in Chapter 5. SOURCE: Data from: https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/nvss/nvss-restricted-data.htm A-35 Prepublication copy, uncorrected proofs

TABLE A-27 Cause-Specific Mortality Rates (Deaths/100,000): Hispanic Males Ages 25-64 Living in Large Central Metropolitan Areas Ages 25-44 Ages 45-64 1990-93 2000-02 2009-11 2015-17 1990-93 2000-02 2009-11 2015-17 All-Cause Mortality 305.04 163.68 121.72 136.69 743.83 622.96 513.87 493.84 Cause-Specific Mortality Infectious & Parasitic Diseases HIV/AIDS 88.22 14.75 3.87 2.15 60.69 22.23 10.55 6.39 Non-HIV/AIDS 7.68 6.32 3.47 2.39 14.33 25.58 25.46 18.08 Cancers Liver 0.89 0.79 0.64 0.50 9.66 14.16 19.06 17.87 Lung 2.27 1.35 0.91 0.68 41.33 32.67 21.33 14.98 All Other Cancers 15.69 12.43 11.33 11.64 106.46 100.49 86.84 80.78 Cardio and Metabolic Diseases Endocrine, Nutrition, & Metabolic Diseases 4.45 3.50 3.87 4.78 27.92 33.89 30.76 32.78 Hypertensive Heart Disease 1.82 2.25 2.75 3.18 15.17 15.61 17.27 19.69 Ischemic & Other Circulatory Diseases 23.02 17.32 15.08 14.96 224.38 173.55 124.68 115.63 Substance Use and Mental Health Drug Poisonings 16.81 13.63 12.04 22.82 8.31 12.59 14.81 23.45 Alcohol-Induced* 12.83 6.55 5.09 5.81 44.29 32.03 29.14 29.50 Suicide 13.10 9.73 9.59 11.31 14.84 10.99 10.50 10.44 Mental & Behavioral Disorders 7.43 5.61 2.31 2.95 14.87 12.63 8.74 10.20 Other Body System Diseases & Disorders Nervous System 2.57 1.74 2.16 2.41 7.01 7.95 8.76 10.01 Genitourinary System 1.58 1.11 1.13 1.07 7.93 9.98 10.26 10.32 Respiratory System 6.68 2.65 3.35 2.66 29.95 24.20 20.69 19.12 Digestive System* 8.33 4.86 3.58 3.36 36.55 32.41 27.39 23.45 Other Causes of Death Homicides 43.95 16.30 11.70 12.09 22.27 7.47 5.42 4.64 Transport Injuries 25.97 21.96 14.62 17.31 22.96 19.55 13.39 16.03 Other External Causes 12.99 9.99 9.57 9.31 16.20 13.62 15.02 16.56 All Other Causes of Death 8.75 10.85 4.67 5.33 18.70 21.35 13.82 13.93 *Changes in the International Classification of Diseases (ICD)-10 code for diseases of the digestive system in 2006 affected the comparability of both digestive system deaths and alcohol-induced deaths before and after that year. More information is provided in Chapter 5. NOTE: The table shows the all-cause and cause-specific mortality rates among Hispanic working-age males in large central metropolitan areas by age group (25–44 and 45–64). These causes of death are exhaustive of all underlying cause-of-death codes and are based on the International Classification of Diseases (ICD)-9 (1990–1998) and ICD-10 (1999– A-36 Prepublication copy, uncorrected proofs

2017) codes. Mortality rates within each age group are age-adjusted by single-year of age groups to match the age distribution of the U.S. population in 2000 in order to improve comparability over time. More information about the classification of causes of death can be found in Chapter 5. SOURCE: Data from: https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/nvss/nvss-restricted-data.htm A-37 Prepublication copy, uncorrected proofs

TABLE A-28 Cause-Specific Mortality Rates (Deaths/100,000): Hispanic Males Ages 25-64 Living in Large Fringe Metropolitan Areas Ages 25-44 Ages 45-64 1990-93 2000-02 2009-11 2015-17 1990-93 2000-02 2009-11 2015-17 All-Cause Mortality 245.27 180.83 142.50 165.00 731.25 692.76 592.62 604.94 Cause-Specific Mortality Infectious & Parasitic Diseases HIV/AIDS 33.50 9.96 3.91 1.62 15.41 10.33 6.94 5.23 Non-HIV/AIDS 5.07 6.75 3.78 3.65 15.97 31.38 32.12 27.31 Cancers Liver 0.64 1.03 0.52 0.59 9.74 18.04 23.99 22.48 Lung 1.47 0.95 0.89 0.99 40.13 32.06 21.07 15.66 All Other Cancers 15.03 12.98 11.67 11.75 115.85 107.89 91.72 88.17 Cardio and Metabolic Diseases Endocrine, Nutrition, & Metabolic Diseases 4.95 5.13 4.76 5.31 40.74 47.08 37.80 41.69 Hypertensive Heart Disease 1.34 1.83 1.93 3.02 9.79 14.27 18.12 18.87 Ischemic & Other Circulatory Diseases 24.37 18.42 17.05 19.21 226.10 186.49 137.68 132.09 Substance Use and Mental Health Drug Poisonings 17.35 16.47 15.64 25.79 9.05 15.53 19.73 28.04 Alcohol-Induced* 11.76 7.42 5.34 6.73 38.34 40.81 30.02 35.12 Suicide 16.55 11.92 11.66 15.08 13.30 9.34 12.20 13.16 Mental & Behavioral Disorders 6.67 4.45 2.33 2.79 15.81 13.09 8.90 10.97 Other Body System Diseases & Disorders Nervous System 2.77 3.07 2.41 3.33 9.43 9.49 10.33 14.51 Genitourinary System 1.22 1.36 1.42 1.33 11.11 10.24 13.83 12.38 Respiratory System 5.52 3.92 3.96 3.85 32.00 25.97 23.61 24.96 Digestive System* 9.29 6.31 6.02 5.00 41.42 43.96 44.21 41.78 Other Causes of Death Homicides 27.33 14.10 12.47 14.18 12.39 5.69 5.10 6.37 Transport Injuries 38.25 32.04 20.51 22.97 33.49 28.38 19.33 23.48 Other External Causes 14.11 11.81 10.12 11.12 19.67 16.00 17.52 19.61 All Other Causes of Death 8.09 10.92 6.10 6.68 21.52 26.72 18.40 23.08 *Changes in the International Classification of Diseases (ICD)-10 code for diseases of the digestive system in 2006 affected the comparability of both digestive system deaths and alcohol-induced deaths before and after that year. More information is provided in Chapter 5. NOTE: The table shows the all-cause and cause-specific mortality rates among Hispanic working-age males in large fringe metropolitan areas by age group (25–44 and 45–64). These causes of death are exhaustive of all underlying cause-of-death codes and are based on the International Classification of Diseases (ICD)-9 (1990–1998) and ICD-10 (1999– A-38 Prepublication copy, uncorrected proofs

2017) codes. Mortality rates within each age group are age-adjusted by single-year of age groups to match the age distribution of the U.S. population in 2000 in order to improve comparability over time. More information about the classification of causes of death can be found in Chapter 5. SOURCE: Data from: https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/nvss/nvss-restricted-data.htm A-39 Prepublication copy, uncorrected proofs

TABLE A-29 Cause-Specific Mortality Rates (Deaths/100,000): Hispanic Males Ages 25-64 Living in Small/Medium Metropolitan Areas Ages 25-44 Ages 45-64 1990-93 2000-02 2009-11 2015-17 1990-93 2000-02 2009-11 2015-17 All-Cause Mortality 220.74 175.49 137.31 156.08 699.50 640.03 568.27 571.72 Cause-Specific Mortality Infectious & Parasitic Diseases HIV/AIDS 22.58 6.23 2.44 1.66 15.01 7.59 3.64 2.83 Non-HIV/AIDS 4.64 6.29 4.60 3.30 13.21 25.77 26.57 25.19 Cancers Liver 1.02 0.41 0.35 0.57 8.82 14.72 21.83 21.83 Lung 0.52 1.11 0.59 0.68 38.92 33.45 19.13 14.89 All Other Cancers 15.91 13.33 10.88 11.98 104.84 94.12 84.83 82.38 Cardio and Metabolic Diseases Endocrine, Nutrition, & Metabolic Diseases 3.81 5.03 5.75 6.16 46.44 47.70 39.39 37.03 Hypertensive Heart Disease 0.87 1.90 1.00 1.96 6.80 7.88 12.66 13.46 Ischemic & Other Circulatory Diseases 21.01 18.76 16.57 15.37 214.03 171.72 130.43 130.88 Substance Use and Mental Health Drug Poisonings 13.37 12.01 13.92 21.67 2.98 9.99 15.82 21.58 Alcohol-Induced* 10.92 7.76 6.52 7.13 36.29 35.87 33.62 36.70 Suicide 14.39 13.88 13.80 17.07 16.98 12.71 11.02 11.65 Mental & Behavioral Disorders 7.84 4.69 2.31 2.96 12.67 16.33 9.39 13.75 Other Body System Diseases & Disorders Nervous System 1.82 2.16 2.14 4.11 6.63 8.42 12.07 12.62 Genitourinary System 0.92 0.75 1.35 1.10 9.00 8.02 11.96 13.30 Respiratory System 3.82 4.42 4.39 3.86 30.66 25.52 24.03 25.54 Digestive System* 8.04 5.58 4.67 6.15 42.45 43.56 41.29 35.76 Other Causes of Death Homicides 21.02 10.78 8.70 9.33 10.33 3.35 6.44 5.44 Transport Injuries 45.45 39.31 21.27 22.82 38.93 31.26 22.54 23.76 Other External Causes 16.54 14.35 12.71 12.79 24.43 18.21 21.30 22.78 All Other Causes of Death 6.24 6.74 3.36 5.41 20.10 23.84 20.30 20.35 *Changes in the International Classification of Diseases (ICD)-10 code for diseases of the digestive system in 2006 affected the comparability of both digestive system deaths and alcohol-induced deaths before and after that year. More information is provided in Chapter 5. NOTE: The table shows the all-cause and cause-specific mortality rates among Hispanic working-age males in small/medium metropolitan areas by age group (25–44 and 45–64). These causes of death are exhaustive of all underlying cause-of-death codes and are based on the International Classification of Diseases (ICD)-9 (1990–1998) and ICD-10 (1999– A-40 Prepublication copy, uncorrected proofs

2017) codes. Mortality rates within each age group are age-adjusted by single-year of age groups to match the age distribution of the U.S. population in 2000 in order to improve comparability over time. More information about the classification of causes of death can be found in Chapter 5. SOURCE: Data from: https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/nvss/nvss-restricted-data.htm A-41 Prepublication copy, uncorrected proofs

TABLE A-30 Cause-Specific Mortality Rates (Deaths/100,000): Hispanic Males Ages 25-64 Living in Nonmetropolitan Areas Ages 25-44 Ages 45-64 1990-93 2000-02 2009-11 2015-17 1990-93 2000-02 2009-11 2015-17 All-Cause Mortality 241.11 191.64 155.40 165.45 783.61 683.79 626.17 614.95 Cause-Specific Mortality Infectious & Parasitic Diseases HIV/AIDS 16.62 4.93 2.41 1.73 8.80 6.33 3.33 3.66 Non-HIV/AIDS 3.20 7.62 4.62 2.68 13.78 27.84 33.38 27.58 Cancers Liver 0.33 1.42 0.64 0.82 11.00 14.54 22.72 25.15 Lung 2.05 1.90 0.70 0.41 47.40 30.09 23.54 17.85 All Other Cancers 13.54 12.29 9.68 9.57 102.79 101.03 95.02 82.79 Cardio and Metabolic Diseases Endocrine, Nutrition, & Metabolic Diseases 5.55 4.49 5.84 6.64 44.16 50.63 41.81 43.41 Hypertensive Heart Disease 0.68 1.02 1.70 2.98 6.43 6.32 11.36 13.22 Ischemic & Other Circulatory Diseases 24.20 17.98 16.09 20.09 282.44 190.95 144.47 150.71 Substance Use and Mental Health Drug Poisonings 9.03 11.54 14.37 20.06 2.27 8.81 13.82 17.55 Alcohol-Induced* 11.99 6.72 5.22 5.15 39.67 31.67 32.75 32.61 Suicide 23.62 17.19 16.23 20.61 18.52 16.14 13.93 15.15 Mental & Behavioral Disorders 6.24 4.87 2.68 2.92 12.63 11.79 9.61 9.49 Other Body System Diseases & Disorders Nervous System 2.22 2.35 2.57 3.29 9.18 10.48 11.04 13.46 Genitourinary System 1.04 1.00 1.53 1.27 7.61 11.98 14.25 15.32 Respiratory System 5.00 2.61 4.94 3.02 30.60 32.75 27.39 27.13 Digestive System* 7.00 6.68 5.65 5.19 42.43 44.14 51.48 44.77 Other Causes of Death Homicides 23.30 14.06 8.30 9.73 13.89 8.95 4.45 5.62 Transport Injuries 54.92 46.56 31.63 29.10 46.67 37.62 29.46 28.23 Other External Causes 25.56 18.80 15.85 15.24 23.31 21.50 24.68 23.34 All Other Causes of Death 4.98 7.62 4.77 4.95 20.05 20.23 17.68 17.90 *Changes in the International Classification of Diseases (ICD)-10 code for diseases of the digestive system in 2006 affected the comparability of both digestive system deaths and alcohol-induced deaths before and after that year. More information is provided in Chapter 5. NOTE: The table shows the all-cause and cause-specific mortality rates among Hispanic working-age males in nonmetropolitan areas by age group (25–44 and 45–64). These causes of death are exhaustive of all underlying cause-of-death codes and are based on the International Classification of Diseases (ICD)-9 (1990–1998) and ICD-10 (1999–2017) A-42 Prepublication copy, uncorrected proofs

codes. Mortality rates within each age group are age-adjusted by single-year of age groups to match the age distribution of the U.S. population in 2000 in order to improve comparability over time. More information about the classification of causes of death can be found in Chapter 5. SOURCE: Data from: https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/nvss/nvss-restricted-data.htm A-43 Prepublication copy, uncorrected proofs

TABLE A-31 Cause-Specific Mortality Rates (Deaths/100,000): Non-Hispanic White Females Ages 25-64 Living in Large Central Metropolitan Areas Ages 25-44 Ages 45-64 1990-93 2000-02 2009-11 2015-17 1990-93 2000-02 2009-11 2015-17 All-Cause Mortality 87.28 91.51 89.26 103.91 483.81 443.70 397.17 396.31 Cause-Specific Mortality Infectious & Parasitic Diseases HIV/AIDS 2.97 1.47 0.48 0.26 1.29 1.06 0.71 0.60 Non-HIV/AIDS 1.52 2.21 1.98 1.93 6.05 10.10 11.80 11.13 Cancers Liver 0.22 0.22 0.25 0.35 2.32 2.50 3.47 4.08 Lung 3.15 3.09 1.85 1.17 64.49 53.87 39.93 32.86 All Other Cancers 26.04 21.96 18.27 17.32 168.96 142.66 118.01 106.95 Cardio and Metabolic Diseases Endocrine, Nutrition, & Metabolic Diseases 2.80 3.31 3.29 3.64 16.04 18.74 16.23 17.64 Hypertensive Heart Disease 0.37 0.79 1.23 1.32 5.30 6.07 8.13 9.97 Ischemic & Other Circulatory Diseases 11.07 11.29 9.75 9.77 113.91 89.23 64.58 63.42 Substance Use and Mental Health Drug Poisonings 4.70 9.93 18.35 29.43 4.45 9.02 21.91 28.10 Alcohol-Induced* 2.03 1.96 2.14 2.98 5.97 5.35 8.06 10.65 Suicide 4.55 4.46 5.14 6.79 5.48 4.78 6.40 7.90 Mental & Behavioral Disorders 1.32 2.16 1.85 2.85 2.99 4.07 5.48 6.89 Other Body System Diseases & Disorders Nervous System 2.26 2.41 2.61 2.78 8.50 12.08 12.95 13.34 Genitourinary System 0.69 0.88 0.91 0.89 4.67 5.96 5.98 6.15 Respiratory System 2.96 3.33 3.39 3.05 31.38 31.33 29.43 30.67 Digestive System* 2.79 2.95 2.48 3.14 15.44 15.37 16.07 16.39 Other Causes of Death Homicides 3.29 2.04 1.65 1.87 2.09 1.31 1.23 1.46 Transport Injuries 7.68 7.04 5.08 5.43 7.56 7.10 5.22 5.64 Other External Causes 2.25 2.50 2.92 3.21 4.80 5.72 7.38 8.12 All Other Causes of Death 4.60 7.49 5.66 5.70 12.12 17.39 14.21 14.35 *Changes in the International Classification of Diseases (ICD)-10 code for diseases of the digestive system in 2006 affected the comparability of both digestive system deaths and alcohol-induced deaths before and after that year. More information is provided in Chapter 5. NOTE: The table shows the all-cause and cause-specific mortality rates among non-Hispanic White working-age females in large central metropolitan areas by age group (25–44 and 45–64). These causes of death are exhaustive of all underlying cause-of-death codes and are based on the International Classification of Diseases (ICD)-9 (1990–1998) and A-44 Prepublication copy, uncorrected proofs

ICD-10 (1999–2017) codes. Mortality rates within each age group are age-adjusted by single-year of age groups to match the age distribution of the U.S. population in 2000 in order to improve comparability over time. More information about the classification of causes of death can be found in Chapter 5. SOURCE: Data from: https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/nvss/nvss-restricted-data.htm A-45 Prepublication copy, uncorrected proofs

TABLE A-32 Cause-Specific Mortality Rates (Deaths/100,000): Non-Hispanic White Females Ages 25-64 Living in Large Fringe Metropolitan Areas Ages 25-44 Ages 45-64 1990-93 2000-02 2009-11 2015-17 1990-93 2000-02 2009-11 2015-17 All-Cause Mortality 87.77 103.48 111.15 132.37 474.45 460.73 440.00 471.08 Cause-Specific Mortality Infectious & Parasitic Diseases HIV/AIDS 1.50 1.05 0.40 0.32 0.74 0.53 0.66 0.50 Non-HIV/AIDS 1.41 2.45 2.58 2.62 6.37 10.12 13.16 13.80 Cancers Liver 0.21 0.29 0.40 0.46 2.26 2.51 3.54 4.22 Lung 3.03 3.84 2.60 1.51 59.72 53.84 46.06 39.53 All Other Cancers 25.99 22.89 20.09 19.62 158.44 139.81 117.35 113.37 Cardio and Metabolic Diseases Endocrine, Nutrition, & Metabolic Diseases 3.11 4.43 4.49 5.16 17.86 20.87 19.65 23.04 Hypertensive Heart Disease 0.30 0.76 1.16 1.84 4.35 5.55 7.75 11.03 Ischemic & Other Circulatory Diseases 11.70 13.69 13.09 13.65 115.94 97.14 75.73 79.28 Substance Use and Mental Health Drug Poisonings 4.06 11.07 22.65 34.69 3.83 9.46 24.62 31.74 Alcohol-Induced* 1.76 2.05 2.49 3.88 5.27 5.74 8.97 12.47 Suicide 4.66 4.71 6.08 9.14 5.38 4.97 6.89 9.24 Mental & Behavioral Disorders 1.03 1.65 1.45 3.28 2.83 3.51 5.51 7.41 Other Body System Diseases & Disorders Nervous System 2.37 2.87 3.47 3.80 9.17 13.04 14.18 16.71 Genitourinary System 0.70 1.10 1.21 1.34 4.47 6.66 6.89 8.02 Respiratory System 3.16 4.02 4.51 4.64 33.39 36.68 37.00 42.63 Digestive System* 2.53 3.07 3.59 4.11 15.49 16.18 19.65 21.59 Other Causes of Death Homicides 3.27 2.68 2.33 2.51 2.18 1.57 1.56 1.66 Transport Injuries 9.72 10.20 7.90 8.44 8.54 8.70 6.85 7.64 Other External Causes 2.50 2.77 3.63 3.99 5.23 6.14 7.99 9.62 All Other Causes of Death 4.78 7.89 7.01 7.39 13.00 17.71 15.98 17.58 *Changes in the International Classification of Diseases (ICD)-10 code for diseases of the digestive system in 2006 affected the comparability of both digestive system deaths and alcohol-induced deaths before and after that year. More information is provided in Chapter 5. NOTE: The table shows the all-cause and cause-specific mortality rates among non-Hispanic White working-age females in large fringe metropolitan areas by age group (25–44 and 45–64). These causes of death are exhaustive of all underlying cause-of-death codes and are based on the International Classification of Diseases (ICD)-9 (1990–1998) and A-46 Prepublication copy, uncorrected proofs

ICD-10 (1999–2017) codes. Mortality rates within each age group are age-adjusted by single-year of age groups to match the age distribution of the U.S. population in 2000 in order to improve comparability over time. More information about the classification of causes of death can be found in Chapter 5. SOURCE: Data from: https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/nvss/nvss-restricted-data.htm A-47 Prepublication copy, uncorrected proofs

TABLE A-33 Cause-Specific Mortality Rates (Deaths/100,000): Non-Hispanic White Females Ages 25-64 Living in Small/Medium Metropolitan Areas Ages 25-44 Ages 45-64 1990-93 2000-02 2009-11 2015-17 1990-93 2000-02 2009-11 2015-17 All-Cause Mortality 90.17 106.27 116.45 132.61 490.11 473.83 462.99 503.41 Cause-Specific Mortality Infectious & Parasitic Diseases HIV/AIDS 1.12 0.82 0.41 0.22 0.49 0.30 0.65 0.40 Non-HIV/AIDS 1.29 2.59 2.56 2.71 5.96 10.04 12.99 14.61 Cancers Liver 0.27 0.40 0.23 0.35 2.16 2.69 3.43 4.38 Lung 2.72 3.85 2.57 1.70 60.94 56.88 47.38 43.17 All Other Cancers 26.69 23.38 19.78 19.10 162.49 138.88 120.56 116.44 Cardio and Metabolic Diseases Endocrine, Nutrition, & Metabolic Diseases 3.69 4.37 5.22 5.84 19.03 22.33 22.80 25.78 Hypertensive Heart Disease 0.22 0.69 1.27 1.79 4.04 4.59 7.39 10.60 Ischemic & Other Circulatory Diseases 12.33 15.29 15.35 15.53 124.44 105.13 85.43 91.68 Substance Use and Mental Health Drug Poisonings 3.45 9.34 20.90 29.03 3.46 7.56 23.11 29.07 Alcohol-Induced* 1.45 2.14 2.41 3.81 4.38 5.31 8.16 12.11 Suicide 4.91 4.72 6.86 9.08 5.55 5.28 6.74 9.28 Mental & Behavioral Disorders 1.17 1.74 1.50 3.49 2.63 3.53 5.71 7.72 Other Body System Diseases & Disorders Nervous System 2.28 3.56 3.54 4.35 9.26 13.87 15.01 17.63 Genitourinary System 0.73 1.09 1.63 1.07 4.39 6.68 7.51 9.08 Respiratory System 3.12 3.61 4.84 5.20 34.82 38.06 40.92 48.31 Digestive System* 2.47 3.06 3.86 4.13 15.26 16.57 20.22 22.71 Other Causes of Death Homicides 3.50 2.44 2.51 2.43 2.28 1.54 1.64 2.00 Transport Injuries 11.54 12.15 9.09 10.18 9.95 10.38 8.20 9.60 Other External Causes 3.13 3.52 4.31 4.74 5.90 6.88 8.57 10.42 All Other Causes of Death 4.09 7.51 7.62 7.87 12.68 17.34 16.56 18.39 *Changes in the International Classification of Diseases (ICD)-10 code for diseases of the digestive system in 2006 affected the comparability of both digestive system deaths and alcohol-induced deaths before and after that year. More information is provided in Chapter 5. NOTE: The table shows the all-cause and cause-specific mortality rates among non-Hispanic White working-age females in small/medium metropolitan areas by age group (25–44 and 45–64). These causes of death are exhaustive of all underlying cause-of-death codes and are based on the International Classification of Diseases (ICD)-9 (1990–1998) and A-48 Prepublication copy, uncorrected proofs

ICD-10 (1999–2017) codes. Mortality rates within each age group are age-adjusted by single-year of age groups to match the age distribution of the U.S. population in 2000 in order to improve comparability over time. More information about the classification of causes of death can be found in Chapter 5. SOURCE: Data from: https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/nvss/nvss-restricted-data.htm A-49 Prepublication copy, uncorrected proofs

TABLE A-34 Cause-Specific Mortality Rates (Deaths/100,000): Non-Hispanic White Females Ages 25-64 Living in Nonmetropolitan Areas Ages 25-44 Ages 45-64 1990-93 2000-02 2009-11 2015-17 1990-93 2000-02 2009-11 2015-17 All-Cause Mortality 94.04 117.75 136.50 156.66 485.17 495.14 503.68 557.48 Cause-Specific Mortality Infectious & Parasitic Diseases HIV/AIDS 0.71 0.64 0.39 0.28 0.31 0.31 0.43 0.44 Non-HIV/AIDS 1.26 2.49 2.96 3.83 5.65 10.32 14.41 16.24 Cancers Liver 0.32 0.36 0.42 0.42 2.58 2.68 3.63 4.90 Lung 3.02 4.32 3.32 2.31 56.92 57.26 53.46 51.17 All Other Cancers 27.36 24.48 22.62 21.70 156.03 142.35 124.78 122.62 Cardio and Metabolic Diseases Endocrine, Nutrition, & Metabolic Diseases 3.41 4.69 6.00 7.92 19.26 24.38 24.01 29.18 Hypertensive Heart Disease 0.28 0.84 1.30 2.27 3.19 4.47 6.87 11.26 Ischemic & Other Circulatory Diseases 14.07 17.76 18.32 20.84 131.94 116.68 99.54 108.28 Substance Use and Mental Health Drug Poisonings 2.72 8.96 23.41 29.94 2.62 7.39 22.36 29.54 Alcohol-Induced* 1.16 1.70 2.14 3.25 3.93 4.22 7.52 10.52 Suicide 4.75 5.21 6.70 8.81 4.85 4.49 6.60 9.11 Mental & Behavioral Disorders 0.86 1.65 1.41 3.25 2.16 3.18 4.99 6.93 Other Body System Diseases & Disorders Nervous System 2.64 3.29 4.41 4.93 9.07 12.62 15.40 18.26 Genitourinary System 0.78 1.36 1.62 1.96 4.88 7.35 8.27 10.01 Respiratory System 3.01 4.70 6.34 6.42 34.17 39.52 48.74 57.58 Digestive System* 2.32 3.16 3.98 4.91 14.60 17.06 20.27 25.70 Other Causes of Death Homicides 3.53 3.31 2.87 3.26 2.33 1.94 1.82 2.17 Transport Injuries 14.32 17.05 14.38 15.49 11.93 13.82 11.53 12.28 Other External Causes 3.54 4.56 5.09 5.35 6.21 7.34 10.02 11.26 All Other Causes of Death 3.98 7.19 8.79 9.52 12.54 17.75 19.02 20.04 *Changes in the International Classification of Diseases (ICD)-10 code for diseases of the digestive system in 2006 affected the comparability of both digestive system deaths and alcohol-induced deaths before and after that year. More information is provided in Chapter 5. NOTE: The table shows the all-cause and cause-specific mortality rates among non-Hispanic White working-age females in nonmetropolitan areas by age group (25–44 and 45– 64). These causes of death are exhaustive of all underlying cause-of-death codes and are based on the International Classification of Diseases (ICD)-9 (1990–1998) and ICD-10 A-50 Prepublication copy, uncorrected proofs

(1999–2017) codes. Mortality rates within each age group are age-adjusted by single-year of age groups to match the age distribution of the U.S. population in 2000 in order to improve comparability over time. More information about the classification of causes of death can be found in Chapter 5. SOURCE: Data from: https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/nvss/nvss-restricted-data.htm A-51 Prepublication copy, uncorrected proofs

TABLE A-35 Cause-Specific Mortality Rates (Deaths/100,000): Non-Hispanic Black Females Ages 25-64 Living in Large Central Metropolitan Areas Ages 25-44 Ages 45-64 1990-93 2000-02 2009-11 2015-17 1990-93 2000-02 2009-11 2015-17 All-Cause Mortality 252.59 209.52 152.18 150.31 919.69 833.20 668.61 640.65 Cause-Specific Mortality Infectious & Parasitic Diseases HIV/AIDS 39.64 24.37 8.47 4.27 15.65 20.69 13.70 9.04 Non-HIV/AIDS 9.32 12.14 7.72 5.24 21.89 31.61 28.03 23.68 Cancers Liver 0.59 0.63 0.52 0.58 4.10 5.05 6.87 7.21 Lung 4.81 4.33 1.87 1.27 70.98 58.58 47.20 36.37 All Other Cancers 40.86 33.70 29.15 26.60 235.40 199.30 168.50 157.62 Cardio and Metabolic Diseases Endocrine, Nutrition, & Metabolic Diseases 8.05 8.33 8.17 9.04 53.79 52.51 40.31 42.57 Hypertensive Heart Disease 6.04 6.90 7.50 7.17 45.35 40.70 38.34 38.36 Ischemic & Other Circulatory Diseases 39.76 34.66 24.61 23.87 283.58 231.55 154.48 144.00 Substance Use and Mental Health Drug Poisonings 8.25 10.75 9.18 14.93 3.69 10.07 15.73 24.85 Alcohol-Induced* 5.74 1.70 1.14 1.73 11.97 7.25 5.71 7.00 Suicide 2.65 1.93 2.41 2.91 2.00 1.74 1.43 1.74 Mental & Behavioral Disorders 5.68 3.55 1.51 1.89 7.94 7.04 6.11 6.50 Other Body System Diseases & Disorders Nervous System 4.16 4.37 4.61 5.31 11.53 15.93 15.82 17.81 Genitourinary System 4.16 4.18 3.30 3.46 22.01 24.17 19.92 19.68 Respiratory System 12.36 8.46 6.99 5.77 45.67 41.71 37.28 40.48 Digestive System* 8.37 5.01 3.75 3.63 30.35 24.80 21.10 19.52 Other Causes of Death Homicides 20.29 10.64 6.73 7.41 6.91 4.06 3.42 3.32 Transport Injuries 8.40 8.31 5.78 6.79 8.10 7.58 5.50 6.21 Other External Causes 4.87 3.67 3.29 3.31 9.26 8.36 7.98 8.03 All Other Causes of Death 18.59 21.89 15.47 15.15 29.50 40.48 31.17 26.67 *Changes in the International Classification of Diseases (ICD)-10 code for diseases of the digestive system in 2006 affected the comparability of both digestive system deaths and alcohol-induced deaths before and after that year. More information is provided in Chapter 5. NOTE: The table shows the all-cause and cause-specific mortality rates among non-Hispanic Black working-age females in large central metropolitan areas by age group (25–44 and 45–64). These causes of death are exhaustive of all underlying cause-of-death codes and are based on the International Classification of Diseases (ICD)-9 (1990–1998) and A-52 Prepublication copy, uncorrected proofs

ICD-10 (1999–2017) codes. Mortality rates within each age group are age-adjusted by single-year of age groups to match the age distribution of the U.S. population in 2000 in order to improve comparability over time. More information about the classification of causes of death can be found in Chapter 5. SOURCE: Data from: https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/nvss/nvss-restricted-data.htm A-53 Prepublication copy, uncorrected proofs

TABLE A-36 Cause-Specific Mortality Rates (Deaths/100,000): Non-Hispanic Black Females Ages 25-64 Living in Large Fringe Metropolitan Areas Ages 25-44 Ages 45-64 1990-93 2000-02 2009-11 2015-17 1990-93 2000-02 2009-11 2015-17 All-Cause Mortality 218.15 205.00 169.97 180.52 889.80 852.66 708.02 701.81 Cause-Specific Mortality Infectious & Parasitic Diseases HIV/AIDS 21.39 16.24 7.25 4.44 6.97 10.71 11.01 9.80 Non-HIV/AIDS 7.91 12.46 8.92 5.91 17.84 31.49 29.88 26.51 Cancers Liver 0.60 0.68 0.70 0.44 2.97 4.80 6.98 7.93 Lung 4.06 4.24 1.81 0.91 61.72 57.09 48.77 38.33 All Other Cancers 38.86 35.19 28.23 27.61 215.40 195.10 163.90 152.49 Cardio and Metabolic Diseases Endocrine, Nutrition, & Metabolic Diseases 8.16 9.13 10.50 14.67 64.67 67.55 49.93 52.55 Hypertensive Heart Disease 4.81 5.86 7.15 8.22 32.88 33.58 31.59 35.59 Ischemic & Other Circulatory Diseases 40.98 39.28 33.42 33.05 301.26 249.12 174.82 171.12 Substance Use and Mental Health Drug Poisonings 4.68 7.99 8.47 15.05 2.37 7.16 13.69 17.66 Alcohol-Induced* 5.18 2.13 1.45 1.90 13.05 7.73 7.35 8.55 Suicide 2.25 1.85 1.67 2.93 1.73 1.36 1.28 1.78 Mental & Behavioral Disorders 4.16 2.38 0.79 1.65 8.47 5.16 5.47 6.48 Other Body System Diseases & Disorders Nervous System 4.37 5.51 5.89 7.16 11.30 18.33 19.39 21.48 Genitourinary System 3.28 4.40 5.40 4.71 18.90 28.09 26.87 25.33 Respiratory System 8.51 7.61 7.10 7.26 44.19 43.72 39.24 45.96 Digestive System* 7.29 5.59 4.45 4.68 28.37 28.03 23.61 23.29 Other Causes of Death Homicides 19.26 9.89 7.92 8.39 7.50 3.96 3.79 4.27 Transport Injuries 10.24 9.24 8.15 9.20 10.27 10.78 6.89 9.69 Other External Causes 5.04 4.05 3.28 4.35 8.85 10.29 9.48 9.44 All Other Causes of Death 17.12 21.27 17.42 18.00 31.11 38.61 34.10 33.53 *Changes in the International Classification of Diseases (ICD)-10 code for diseases of the digestive system in 2006 affected the comparability of both digestive system deaths and alcohol-induced deaths before and after that year. More information is provided in Chapter 5. NOTE: The table shows the all-cause and cause-specific mortality rates among non-Hispanic Black working-age females in large fringe metropolitan areas by age group (25–44 and 45–64). These causes of death are exhaustive of all underlying cause-of-death codes and are based on the International Classification of Diseases (ICD)-9 (1990–1998) and A-54 Prepublication copy, uncorrected proofs

ICD-10 (1999–2017) codes. Mortality rates within each age group are age-adjusted by single-year of age groups to match the age distribution of the U.S. population in 2000 in order to improve comparability over time. More information about the classification of causes of death can be found in Chapter 5. SOURCE: Data from: https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/nvss/nvss-restricted-data.htm A-55 Prepublication copy, uncorrected proofs

TABLE A-37 Cause-Specific Mortality Rates (Deaths/100,000): Non-Hispanic Black Females Ages 25-64 Living in Small/Medium Metropolitan Areas Ages 25-44 Ages 45-64 1990-93 2000-02 2009-11 2015-17 1990-93 2000-02 2009-11 2015-17 All-Cause Mortality 217.28 211.02 183.95 184.40 948.43 874.21 743.91 762.33 Cause-Specific Mortality Infectious & Parasitic Diseases HIV/AIDS 11.73 14.17 7.01 4.70 5.69 9.09 7.77 7.36 Non-HIV/AIDS 8.04 10.57 9.18 5.73 21.74 30.21 29.65 33.05 Cancers Liver 0.49 0.57 0.51 0.48 3.71 5.00 5.39 5.90 Lung 4.72 3.91 2.30 1.20 66.07 55.59 47.56 39.12 All Other Cancers 40.52 37.26 28.60 29.42 237.09 194.15 171.68 165.56 Cardio and Metabolic Diseases Endocrine, Nutrition, & Metabolic Diseases 8.88 10.78 12.49 17.33 60.47 71.83 54.03 56.82 Hypertensive Heart Disease 4.26 4.65 7.43 8.47 39.47 32.62 34.27 34.99 Ischemic & Other Circulatory Diseases 48.93 44.68 38.09 32.25 324.87 272.19 196.43 196.95 Substance Use and Mental Health Drug Poisonings 3.16 5.85 7.62 13.82 1.27 4.44 9.78 15.28 Alcohol-Induced* 4.78 3.09 1.29 2.17 10.92 7.07 7.43 6.86 Suicide 1.53 1.86 1.35 2.37 1.87 0.99 1.03 0.88 Mental & Behavioral Disorders 3.66 2.37 1.92 1.73 9.92 8.05 5.45 6.42 Other Body System Diseases & Disorders Nervous System 4.84 5.15 6.88 7.29 13.46 13.74 18.28 23.69 Genitourinary System 3.51 4.86 6.31 4.96 20.46 30.94 29.24 29.21 Respiratory System 10.82 8.17 7.41 8.85 39.68 40.86 43.70 52.69 Digestive System* 7.11 5.87 5.79 5.03 30.19 27.47 25.36 26.47 Other Causes of Death Homicides 16.84 10.52 6.10 6.70 5.81 3.31 3.29 4.22 Transport Injuries 11.18 12.91 8.96 8.20 10.08 12.17 8.87 9.32 Other External Causes 6.76 4.54 4.55 3.65 14.40 12.24 10.72 9.73 All Other Causes of Death 15.53 19.24 20.15 20.06 31.27 42.26 34.00 37.81 *Changes in the International Classification of Diseases (ICD)-10 code for diseases of the digestive system in 2006 affected the comparability of both digestive system deaths and alcohol-induced deaths before and after that year. More information is provided in Chapter 5. NOTE: The table shows the all-cause and cause-specific mortality rates among non-Hispanic Black working-age females in small/medium metropolitan areas by age group (25–44 and 45–64). These causes of death are exhaustive of all underlying cause-of-death codes and are based on the International Classification of Diseases (ICD)-9 (1990–1998) and A-56 Prepublication copy, uncorrected proofs

ICD-10 (1999–2017) codes. Mortality rates within each age group are age-adjusted by single-year of age groups to match the age distribution of the U.S. population in 2000 in order to improve comparability over time. More information about the classification of causes of death can be found in Chapter 5. SOURCE: Data from: https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/nvss/nvss-restricted-data.htm A-57 Prepublication copy, uncorrected proofs

TABLE A-38 Cause-Specific Mortality Rates (Deaths/100,000): Non-Hispanic Black Females Ages 25-64 Living in Nonmetropolitan Areas Ages 25-44 Ages 45-64 1990-93 2000-02 2009-11 2015-17 1990-93 2000-02 2009-11 2015-17 All-Cause Mortality 231.14 239.93 213.17 217.15 951.95 915.63 783.66 805.23 Cause-Specific Mortality Infectious & Parasitic Diseases HIV/AIDS 10.68 14.39 9.74 5.52 3.92 7.83 9.85 8.56 Non-HIV/AIDS 6.49 12.12 11.24 9.44 17.63 25.04 30.39 29.28 Cancers Liver 0.60 0.65 0.64 0.38 4.75 4.65 5.48 7.59 Lung 3.10 4.01 1.55 1.14 49.89 52.01 45.84 37.48 All Other Cancers 44.45 41.53 35.40 28.03 214.76 209.98 177.46 172.96 Cardio and Metabolic Diseases Endocrine, Nutrition, & Metabolic Diseases 9.67 11.73 15.76 18.90 72.21 71.91 65.39 68.63 Hypertensive Heart Disease 4.53 7.01 8.82 7.98 34.84 31.42 33.41 37.78 Ischemic & Other Circulatory Diseases 54.54 50.62 43.44 47.43 361.26 311.70 217.62 215.50 Substance Use and Mental Health Drug Poisonings 1.91 3.72 6.79 8.67 1.12 2.28 6.41 11.27 Alcohol-Induced* 4.90 2.49 1.23 1.31 9.90 8.91 6.50 6.64 Suicide 1.70 1.83 1.62 2.47 1.66 0.98 1.19 1.35 Mental & Behavioral Disorders 4.31 2.44 1.42 1.18 6.60 4.61 5.49 5.81 Other Body System Diseases & Disorders Nervous System 4.85 5.94 6.03 7.66 12.48 16.47 19.09 24.38 Genitourinary System 4.02 5.13 6.34 7.69 24.78 32.11 30.64 30.86 Respiratory System 9.55 10.70 9.51 9.20 41.08 39.08 41.47 54.55 Digestive System* 6.85 6.95 6.40 5.43 27.14 25.92 22.34 26.01 Other Causes of Death Homicides 17.55 10.62 7.62 8.92 6.78 4.67 4.51 3.65 Transport Injuries 18.21 18.89 13.46 19.05 16.09 15.36 13.86 12.80 Other External Causes 7.07 6.54 5.22 5.57 13.21 13.37 12.65 11.08 All Other Causes of Death 16.16 22.62 20.92 21.19 31.85 37.33 34.06 39.06 *Changes in the International Classification of Diseases (ICD)-10 code for diseases of the digestive system in 2006 affected the comparability of both digestive system deaths and alcohol-induced deaths before and after that year. More information is provided in Chapter 5. NOTE: The table shows the all-cause and cause-specific mortality rates among non-Hispanic Black working-age females in nonmetropolitan areas by age group (25–44 and 45– 64). These causes of death are exhaustive of all underlying cause-of-death codes and are based on the International Classification of Diseases (ICD)-9 (1990–1998) and ICD-10 A-58 Prepublication copy, uncorrected proofs

(1999–2017) codes. Mortality rates within each age group are age-adjusted by single-year of age groups to match the age distribution of the U.S. population in 2000 in order to improve comparability over time. More information about the classification of causes of death can be found in Chapter 5. SOURCE: Data from: https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/nvss/nvss-restricted-data.htm A-59 Prepublication copy, uncorrected proofs

TABLE A-39 Cause-Specific Mortality Rates (Deaths/100,000): Hispanic Females Ages 25-64 Living in Large Central Metropolitan Areas Ages 25-44 Ages 45-64 1990-93 2000-02 2009-11 2015-17 1990-93 2000-02 2009-11 2015-17 All-Cause Mortality 90.29 71.96 56.99 60.57 368.11 336.42 276.55 266.90 Cause-Specific Mortality Infectious & Parasitic Diseases HIV/AIDS 14.51 4.70 1.05 0.48 8.19 5.66 2.76 1.49 Non-HIV/AIDS 2.90 2.79 1.88 1.22 8.36 12.08 12.35 9.05 Cancers Liver 0.25 0.34 0.27 0.38 3.36 4.40 4.77 5.25 Lung 1.06 1.01 0.80 0.57 14.62 13.65 11.34 10.20 All Other Cancers 20.51 19.35 15.99 16.80 117.23 106.74 90.67 87.30 Cardio and Metabolic Diseases Endocrine, Nutrition, & Metabolic Diseases 2.21 2.29 2.47 2.39 22.72 26.39 18.19 18.86 Hypertensive Heart Disease 0.92 0.88 0.95 1.01 8.00 7.87 7.44 8.27 Ischemic & Other Circulatory Diseases 9.72 8.28 6.35 6.48 97.02 74.03 50.63 45.44 Substance Use and Mental Health Drug Poisonings 2.92 3.80 4.74 6.67 2.49 3.47 6.55 7.90 Alcohol-Induced* 2.07 1.36 1.22 1.95 7.60 5.27 6.45 7.32 Suicide 2.20 1.58 1.72 2.43 2.09 1.62 1.55 2.03 Mental & Behavioral Disorders 1.33 1.19 0.67 0.80 1.88 2.13 2.39 2.40 Other Body System Diseases & Disorders Nervous System 1.45 1.51 1.44 1.60 4.79 5.95 6.18 7.62 Genitourinary System 0.99 0.93 0.82 0.94 6.91 7.63 7.05 6.86 Respiratory System 3.60 2.36 2.29 1.78 17.93 15.94 14.33 14.24 Digestive System* 2.31 2.14 1.70 1.75 17.47 15.12 14.42 13.26 Other Causes of Death Homicides 6.70 3.15 2.39 2.29 3.58 1.91 1.30 1.21 Transport Injuries 6.93 6.01 4.02 4.50 8.64 8.22 4.43 4.87 Other External Causes 1.71 1.26 1.34 1.52 3.30 3.66 3.88 3.65 All Other Causes of Death 5.98 7.03 4.87 5.00 11.93 14.66 9.89 9.69 *Changes in the International Classification of Diseases (ICD)-10 code for diseases of the digestive system in 2006 affected the comparability of both digestive system deaths and alcohol-induced deaths before and after that year. More information is provided in Chapter 5. NOTE: The table shows the all-cause and cause-specific mortality rates among Hispanic working-age females in large central metropolitan areas by age group (25–44 and 45–64). These causes of death are exhaustive of all underlying cause-of-death codes and are based on the International Classification of Diseases (ICD)-9 (1990–1998) and ICD-10 (1999– A-60 Prepublication copy, uncorrected proofs

2017) codes. Mortality rates within each age group are age-adjusted by single-year of age groups to match the age distribution of the U.S. population in 2000 in order to improve comparability over time. More information about the classification of causes of death can be found in Chapter 5. SOURCE: Data from: https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/nvss/nvss-restricted-data.htm A-61 Prepublication copy, uncorrected proofs

TABLE A-40 Cause-Specific Mortality Rates (Deaths/100,000): Hispanic Females Ages 25-64 Living in Large Fringe Metropolitan Areas Ages 25-44 Ages 45-64 1990-93 2000-02 2009-11 2015-17 1990-93 2000-02 2009-11 2015-17 All-Cause Mortality 84.27 79.31 66.67 77.35 402.60 378.29 325.52 327.26 Cause-Specific Mortality Infectious & Parasitic Diseases HIV/AIDS 6.03 2.60 0.85 0.43 1.65 3.23 1.39 1.04 Non-HIV/AIDS 1.77 2.66 2.18 2.19 9.08 14.45 15.83 13.86 Cancers Liver 0.31 0.40 0.30 0.42 4.51 3.66 4.37 5.63 Lung 0.97 0.93 0.75 0.92 16.26 12.07 10.86 9.58 All Other Cancers 22.43 19.31 15.82 16.97 122.30 110.41 96.54 94.24 Cardio and Metabolic Diseases Endocrine, Nutrition, & Metabolic Diseases 2.79 3.33 3.36 3.70 36.11 34.91 22.79 25.98 Hypertensive Heart Disease 0.55 0.61 0.87 1.05 5.86 7.05 6.65 8.00 Ischemic & Other Circulatory Diseases 11.21 10.30 7.16 8.47 108.58 88.62 62.90 56.56 Substance Use and Mental Health Drug Poisonings 2.77 4.21 7.03 9.14 1.34 4.81 9.05 11.70 Alcohol-Induced* 2.08 1.62 1.49 2.44 6.61 5.91 6.80 7.25 Suicide 2.25 1.53 1.59 2.84 1.08 1.45 2.43 2.58 Mental & Behavioral Disorders 0.89 1.63 0.56 0.93 2.58 2.67 2.48 3.40 Other Body System Diseases & Disorders Nervous System 1.80 1.30 2.08 2.34 5.42 6.76 7.80 10.00 Genitourinary System 0.90 1.09 1.24 1.02 8.58 10.79 9.58 9.30 Respiratory System 2.86 2.42 3.29 2.23 17.33 17.40 17.39 18.05 Digestive System* 2.57 2.61 2.58 3.00 23.32 20.09 21.48 20.86 Other Causes of Death Homicides 4.51 3.59 2.32 2.73 2.66 2.25 1.64 2.07 Transport Injuries 10.70 9.55 5.88 7.66 11.07 10.79 7.14 7.59 Other External Causes 1.74 2.43 1.81 1.92 3.84 3.83 4.45 4.87 All Other Causes of Death 5.15 7.18 5.51 6.96 14.42 17.16 13.96 14.71 *Changes in the International Classification of Diseases (ICD)-10 code for diseases of the digestive system in 2006 affected the comparability of both digestive system deaths and alcohol-induced deaths before and after that year. More information is provided in Chapter 5. NOTE: The table shows the all-cause and cause-specific mortality rates among Hispanic working-age females in large fringe metropolitan areas by age group (25–44 and 45–64). These causes of death are exhaustive of all underlying cause-of-death codes and are based on the International Classification of Diseases (ICD)-9 (1990–1998) and ICD-10 (1999– A-62 Prepublication copy, uncorrected proofs

2017) codes. Mortality rates within each age group are age-adjusted by single-year of age groups to match the age distribution of the U.S. population in 2000 in order to improve comparability over time. More information about the classification of causes of death can be found in Chapter 5. SOURCE: Data from: https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/nvss/nvss-restricted-data.htm A-63 Prepublication copy, uncorrected proofs

TABLE A-41 Cause-Specific Mortality Rates (Deaths/100,000): Hispanic Females Ages 25-64 Living in Small/Medium Metropolitan Areas Ages 25-44 Ages 45-64 1990-93 2000-02 2009-11 2015-17 1990-93 2000-02 2009-11 2015-17 All-Cause Mortality 86.95 74.88 67.59 77.73 416.57 360.21 324.47 309.09 Cause-Specific Mortality Infectious & Parasitic Diseases HIV/AIDS 3.28 1.86 0.78 0.31 1.07 1.35 1.37 0.48 Non-HIV/AIDS 1.44 2.49 2.31 1.76 6.37 11.45 14.37 13.89 Cancers Liver 0.39 0.25 0.10 0.31 3.11 6.36 5.19 4.60 Lung 0.94 0.55 1.18 1.46 17.87 16.75 10.28 11.48 All Other Cancers 22.82 16.89 13.88 17.18 123.42 104.18 87.21 82.49 Cardio and Metabolic Diseases Endocrine, Nutrition, & Metabolic Diseases 3.26 4.18 2.91 4.05 39.85 34.41 25.03 24.60 Hypertensive Heart Disease 0.22 0.53 0.58 0.78 5.58 5.17 6.89 6.31 Ischemic & Other Circulatory Diseases 8.56 8.67 7.27 6.97 111.60 79.19 66.42 53.50 Substance Use and Mental Health Drug Poisonings 3.63 5.95 7.92 10.85 1.43 2.75 9.11 9.58 Alcohol-Induced* 2.39 1.24 1.72 2.51 6.19 6.23 8.13 8.50 Suicide 2.62 1.41 1.66 3.93 1.82 0.80 1.65 3.65 Mental & Behavioral Disorders 0.30 0.60 0.54 0.71 4.25 2.33 2.79 4.34 Other Body System Diseases & Disorders Nervous System 2.25 1.45 2.11 1.89 5.51 8.70 8.50 9.07 Genitourinary System 0.65 0.99 1.34 1.18 10.51 8.51 10.71 9.48 Respiratory System 4.02 2.30 2.99 2.25 17.23 13.88 17.57 18.33 Digestive System* 3.38 2.44 3.07 2.63 25.91 19.21 22.66 19.76 Other Causes of Death Homicides 5.08 3.02 1.62 2.75 2.54 3.81 0.59 1.72 Transport Injuries 15.25 11.52 7.51 7.35 12.25 12.62 6.08 8.90 Other External Causes 2.71 3.25 2.49 2.63 5.14 5.72 5.35 4.90 All Other Causes of Death 3.76 5.28 5.62 6.23 14.94 16.80 14.58 13.52 *Changes in the International Classification of Diseases (ICD)-10 code for diseases of the digestive system in 2006 affected the comparability of both digestive system deaths and alcohol-induced deaths before and after that year. More information is provided in Chapter 5. NOTE: The table shows the all-cause and cause-specific mortality rates among Hispanic working-age females in small/medium metropolitan areas by age group (25–44 and 45– 64). These causes of death are exhaustive of all underlying cause-of-death codes and are based on the International Classification of Diseases (ICD)-9 (1990–1998) and ICD-10 A-64 Prepublication copy, uncorrected proofs

(1999–2017) codes. Mortality rates within each age group are age-adjusted by single-year of age groups to match the age distribution of the U.S. population in 2000 in order to improve comparability over time. More information about the classification of causes of death can be found in Chapter 5. SOURCE: Data from: https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/nvss/nvss-restricted-data.htm A-65 Prepublication copy, uncorrected proofs

TABLE A-42 Cause-Specific Mortality Rates (Deaths/100,000): Hispanic Females Ages 25-64 Living in Nonmetropolitan Areas Ages 25-44 Ages 45-64 1990-93 2000-02 2009-11 2015-17 1990-93 2000-02 2009-11 2015-17 All-Cause Mortality 92.35 81.31 79.70 89.30 450.12 399.44 355.23 364.25 Cause-Specific Mortality Infectious & Parasitic Diseases HIV/AIDS 1.50 0.99 0.89 0.54 0.73 0.98 0.37 0.94 Non-HIV/AIDS 1.44 3.41 2.65 2.06 10.52 11.87 17.40 14.51 Cancers Liver 0.41 0.30 0.06 0.55 3.30 5.40 4.73 5.45 Lung 0.71 1.12 0.85 1.01 19.55 16.56 15.50 12.40 All Other Cancers 23.89 19.98 16.38 16.61 136.69 107.84 93.04 88.98 Cardio and Metabolic Diseases Endocrine, Nutrition, & Metabolic Diseases 4.18 2.47 4.64 4.90 47.78 41.87 26.47 31.46 Hypertensive Heart Disease 0.25 0.46 0.64 0.84 4.86 4.98 5.87 7.05 Ischemic & Other Circulatory Diseases 11.47 9.92 8.02 9.40 120.74 98.39 70.64 72.99 Substance Use and Mental Health Drug Poisonings 2.55 5.41 7.72 10.46 1.97 4.83 9.81 9.48 Alcohol-Induced* 1.02 1.65 1.87 3.30 3.43 4.08 7.03 8.91 Suicide 2.36 0.72 2.17 3.98 1.22 1.77 1.76 2.40 Mental & Behavioral Disorders 1.49 0.84 0.34 0.98 2.09 2.15 3.14 4.65 Other Body System Diseases & Disorders Nervous System 2.61 1.45 2.72 2.24 5.07 6.78 10.02 10.61 Genitourinary System 1.21 1.94 1.04 1.23 9.23 11.90 12.37 11.80 Respiratory System 2.91 1.27 3.44 2.72 19.80 16.32 16.89 19.89 Digestive System* 2.90 2.00 2.54 3.53 25.71 21.34 24.39 26.75 Other Causes of Death Homicides 7.18 3.68 2.64 2.96 2.59 4.08 1.51 1.94 Transport Injuries 16.18 15.72 11.98 12.41 14.16 15.21 13.45 11.31 Other External Causes 2.44 2.73 3.18 2.50 5.44 7.52 5.65 6.28 All Other Causes of Death 5.64 5.26 5.93 7.07 15.23 15.59 15.17 16.45 *Changes in the International Classification of Diseases (ICD)-10 code for diseases of the digestive system in 2006 affected the comparability of both digestive system deaths and alcohol-induced deaths before and after that year. More information is provided in Chapter 5. NOTE: The table shows the all-cause and cause-specific mortality rates among Hispanic working-age females in nonmetropolitan areas by age group (25–44 and 45–64). These causes of death are exhaustive of all underlying cause-of-death codes and are based on the International Classification of Diseases (ICD)-9 (1990–1998) and ICD-10 (1999–2017) A-66 Prepublication copy, uncorrected proofs

codes. Mortality rates within each age group are age-adjusted by single-year of age groups to match the age distribution of the U.S. population in 2000 in order to improve comparability over time. More information about the classification of causes of death can be found in Chapter 5. SOURCE: Data from: https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/nvss/nvss-restricted-data.htm A-67 Prepublication copy, uncorrected proofs

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High and Rising Mortality Rates Among Working-Age Adults Get This Book
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The past century has witnessed remarkable advances in life expectancy in the United States and throughout the world. In 2010, however, progress in life expectancy in the United States began to stall, despite continuing to increase in other high-income countries. Alarmingly, U.S. life expectancy fell between 2014 and 2015 and continued to decline through 2017, the longest sustained decline in life expectancy in a century (since the influenza pandemic of 1918-1919). The recent decline in U.S. life expectancy appears to have been the product of two trends: (1) an increase in mortality among middle-aged and younger adults, defined as those aged 25-64 years (i.e., "working age"), which began in the 1990s for several specific causes of death (e.g., drug- and alcohol-related causes and suicide); and (2) a slowing of declines in working-age mortality due to other causes of death (mainly cardiovascular diseases) after 2010.

High and Rising Mortality Rates among Working Age Adults highlights the crisis of rising premature mortality that threatens the future of the nation's families, communities, and national wellbeing. This report identifies the key drivers of increasing death rates and disparities in working-age mortality over the period 1990 to 2017; elucidates modifiable risk factors that could alleviate poor health in the working-age population, as well as widening health inequalities; identifies key knowledge gaps and make recommendations for future research and data collection to fill those gaps; and explores potential policy implications. After a comprehensive analysis of the trends in working-age mortality by age, sex, race/ethnicity, and geography using the most up-to-date data, this report then looks upstream to the macrostructural factors (e.g., public policies, macroeconomic trends, social and economic inequality, technology) and social determinants (e.g., socioeconomic status, environment, social networks) that may affect the health of working-age Americans in multiple ways and through multiple pathways.

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