National Academies Press: OpenBook

Space Nuclear Propulsion for Human Mars Exploration (2021)

Chapter: Appendix D: Acronyms

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Suggested Citation:"Appendix D: Acronyms." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Space Nuclear Propulsion for Human Mars Exploration. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25977.
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Page 91
Suggested Citation:"Appendix D: Acronyms." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Space Nuclear Propulsion for Human Mars Exploration. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25977.
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Page 92

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D Acronyms AC alternating current AEPS Advanced Electric Propulsion System ANL Argonne National Laboratory B4C boron carbide BeO beryllium oxide cercer ceramic-ceramic cermet ceramic-metal DARPA Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency DART Double Asteroid Redirection Test DC direct current DoD Department of Defense DOE Department of Energy EP electric propulsion FRC field reversed configuration FSP Fission Surface Power program HALEU high assay low enriched uranium (i.e., uranium enriched to contain from between 5 and 20 percent uranium-235) HEU highly enriched uranium (i.e., uranium enriched to contain from more than 20 percent uranium-235) Isp specific impulse JIMO Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter PREPUBLICATION COPY—SUBJECT TO FURTHER EDITORIAL CORRECTION 91

92 SPACE NUCLEAR PROPULSION FOR HUMAN MARS EXPLORATION kWe kilowatt-electric LH2 liquid hydrogen LiH lithium hydride LOX liquid oxygen M&S modeling and simulation Mo molybdenum MPD magnetoplasmadynamic MWe megawatt electric MWt megawatt thermal NaK sodium-potassium alloy NbC niobium carbide NEP nuclear electric propulsion NERVA Nuclear Engine for Rocket Vehicle Application program NEXT-C NASA’s Evolutionary Xenon Thruster–Commercial NextSTEP Next Space Technologies for Exploration Partnerships NSTAR NASA Solar Technology Application Readiness NTP nuclear thermal propulsion PMAD power management and distribution PMS propellant management system PPU power processing unit SEP solar electric propulsion SNAP Systems for Nuclear Auxiliary Power SNTP Space Nuclear Thermal Propulsion program Ta tantalum Te (reactor) exit temperature TFE thermionic fuel element TOPAZ Thermionic Operating Reactor Active Zone UC uranium carbide UC2 uranium dicarbide UCO uranium oxycarbide UN uranium nitride UO2 uranium dioxide W tungsten WUO2 tungsten uranium dioxide ZPC zero-power critical ZrC zirconium carbide ZrH zirconium hydride PREPUBLICATION COPY—SUBJECT TO FURTHER EDITORIAL CORRECTION

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Space Nuclear Propulsion for Human Mars Exploration identifies primary technical and programmatic challenges, merits, and risks for developing and demonstrating space nuclear propulsion technologies of interest to future exploration missions. This report presents key milestones and a top-level development and demonstration roadmap for performance nuclear thermal propulsion and nuclear electric propulsion systems and identifies missions that could be enabled by successful development of each technology.

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