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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. 2020 Census Data Products: Data Needs and Privacy Considerations: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25978.
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2020 Census Data Products
Data Needs and Privacy Considerations

Proceedings of a Workshop


Daniel L. Cork, Constance F. Citro, and Nancy J. Kirkendall, Rapporteurs

Committee on National Statistics

Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education

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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. 2020 Census Data Products: Data Needs and Privacy Considerations: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25978.
×

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The project that is the subject of this report was supported by the U.S. Census Bureau through Contract No. YA1323-14-CN-0033. Support of the work of the Committee on National Statistics is provided by a consortium of federal agencies through a grant from the National Science Foundation (No. SES-1024012). Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect the views of the organizations or agencies that provided support for the project.

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Suggested citation: National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. (2020). 2020 Census Data Products: Data Needs and Privacy Considerations: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. https://doi.org/10.17226/25978.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. 2020 Census Data Products: Data Needs and Privacy Considerations: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25978.
×

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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. 2020 Census Data Products: Data Needs and Privacy Considerations: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25978.
×

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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. 2020 Census Data Products: Data Needs and Privacy Considerations: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25978.
×

PLANNING COMMITTEE FOR THE WORKSHOP ON 2020 CENSUS DATA PRODUCTS

V. JOSEPH HOTZ (Cochair), Duke University

JOSEPH J. SALVO (Cochair), New York City Department of City Planning

CATHERINE FITCH, Minnesota Population Center

DANIEL GOROFF, Alfred P. Sloan Foundation

EDDIE HUNSINGER, Transamerica

LINDA JACOBSEN, Population Reference Bureau

MICHAEL MCDONALD, University of Florida

C. MATTHEW SNIPP, Stanford University

DANIEL CORK, Study Director

CONTTANCE F. CITRO, Senior Scholar

ANTHONY MANN, Senior Program Associate

BRIAN HARRIT-KOJETIN, Director, Committee on National Statistics

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. 2020 Census Data Products: Data Needs and Privacy Considerations: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25978.
×

COMMITTEE ON NATIONAL STATISTICS

ROBERT M. GROVET (Chair), Office of the Provost, Department of Mathematics and Statistics, and Department of Sociology, Georgetown University

ANNE C. CATE, Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs, Princeton University

MICK P. COUPER, Institute for Social Research, University of Michigan

JANET CURRIE, Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs, Princeton University

DIANA FARRELL, JPMorgan Chase Institute, Washington, D.C.

ROBERT GOERGE, Chapin Hall at the University of Chicago

ERICA L. GROTHEN, The ILR School, Cornell University

HILARY HOYNET, Goldman School of Public Policy and Department of Economics, University of California, Berkeley

DANIEL KIFER, Department of Computer Science, Pennsylvania State University

SHARON LOHR, School of Mathematical and Statistical Sciences, Arizona State University emerita

JEROME P. REITER, Department of Statistical Science, Duke University

JUDITH A. SELTZER, Department of Sociology, University of California, Los Angeles

C. MATTHEW SNIPP, Department of Sociology, Stanford University

ELIZABETH A. STUART, Department of Mental Health, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health

JEANNETTE WING, Data Science Institute and Computer Science Department, Columbia University

BRIAN HARRIT-KOJETIN, Director

CONTTANCE F. CITRO, Senior Scholar

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. 2020 Census Data Products: Data Needs and Privacy Considerations: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25978.
×

Acknowledgments

These proceedings are the main product of the workshop. This report was prepared by a rapporteur whose charter was to distill the gist of the presentations and the essence of the discussions. The planning committee’s role was limited to planning and convening the workshop. The views contained in this report are those of individual workshop participants and do not necessarily represent the views of all workshop participants, the planning committee, or the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine.

This Proceedings of a Workshop was reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine in making each published proceedings as sound as possible and ensure that it meets the institutional standards for quality, objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the process.

We thank the following individuals for their review of this proceedings: Linda A. Jacobsen, U.S. Programs, Population Reference Bureau, and Timothy A. Kuhn, Boyd Center for Business and Economic Research, The University of Tennessee, Knoxville.

Although the reviewers listed above provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the content of the proceedings nor did they see the final draft before its release. The review of this proceedings was overseen by Judith A. Seltzer, Department of Sociology, University of California, Los Angeles. She was responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this proceedings was carried out in accordance with the standards of the National Academies and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content rests entirely with the rapporteur and the National Academies.

Page viii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. 2020 Census Data Products: Data Needs and Privacy Considerations: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25978.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. 2020 Census Data Products: Data Needs and Privacy Considerations: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25978.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. 2020 Census Data Products: Data Needs and Privacy Considerations: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25978.
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6.2.1 Totals

6.2.2 Consistency Checks

6.2.3 Characteristics

6.2.4 Concluding Remarks

6.3 Calculating Floodplain Weights and Benchmarking Needs

6.3.1 Floodplain Housing Estimates

6.3.2 Benchmarking Existing Home Sales

6.4 Floor Discussion

7 Use as Denominators for Rates and Baseline for Estimates

7.1 Public Health and Health Equity Questions

7.1.1 Denominators

7.1.2 Census-Derived Area-Based Metrics

7.1.3 Time Trends

7.1.4 Population Health and Health Equity

7.2 Rates of Cancer Incidence and Mortality

7.2.1 Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Result (SEER) Program

7.2.2 Features of Population Estimates

7.2.3 Implications of Differential Privacy

7.3 Impact on Critical Rate Calculations, Particularly for Small Areas and Demographic Communities

7.3.1 Effects of Differential Privacy on Mortality Rates

7.3.2 Socioeconomic Analysis

7.3.3 Concluding Comments

7.4 Housing and Population Counts: Implications for Local Estimates and Projections

7.4.1 State-Produced Population Estimates

7.4.2 Households with Different Service Needs

7.4.3 Concluding Comments and Questions

7.5 Floor Discussion

8 Identification of Rural and Special Populations: American Indians and Alaska Natives

8.1 Population Counts on American Indian Reservations and Alaska Native Villages, With and Without the Application of Differential Privacy

8.1.1 Differences for American Indians on Reservations

8.1.2 Differences for Alaska Natives in Villages

8.1.3 Differences for Native Hawaiians and Other Pacific Islanders (NHOPI)

8.1.4 Concluding Comments

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. 2020 Census Data Products: Data Needs and Privacy Considerations: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25978.
×
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. 2020 Census Data Products: Data Needs and Privacy Considerations: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25978.
×

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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. 2020 Census Data Products: Data Needs and Privacy Considerations: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25978.
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List of Figures and Tables

FIGURES

2.1 Hierarchy of census geographic entities, with reference to generation of the 2010 Demonstration Data Products.

2.2 Confirmed reidentification as a percentage of total population in the 2010 Census, based on reprising simulated database reconstruction attack on synthetic Microdata Detail File.

2.3 Effect of privacy-loss budget ϵ on estimated percentage difference between Disclosure Avoidance System-generated Microdata Detail File and true 2010 Census results, counties in Virginia.

2.4 Effect of privacy-loss budget ϵ on distribution of percentage difference in population between Disclosure Avoidance System-generated Microdata Detail File and true 2010 Census results, by true population size, counties in Virginia.

2.5 Effect of privacy-loss budget ϵ on age pyramids, Fairfax County, Virginia.

3.1 Deviations of 10 percent or greater between 2010 Census published data and 2010 Demonstration Data Products by selected demographic groups and geographic levels.

3.2 Assessment of spatial pattern in differences between 2010 Census Summary File 1 and 2010 Census Demonstration Data Products, by census tract, using Moran’s I.

3.3 Change in real per capita allocation of state sales and use tax revenue in Tennessee between 2010 Summary File 1 and 2010 Demonstration Data Products by 2010 population, places in Tennessee.

3.4 2010 Census Summary File 1 estimates and 2010 Demonstration Data Product estimates of school-age children populations, school districts in Knox County, Tennessee.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. 2020 Census Data Products: Data Needs and Privacy Considerations: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25978.
×

4.1 Proposed 2011 redistricting plan for New Rochelle, New York, displaying demographic characteristics from 2010 census published data and contrast with deviations from “ideal” (average) size using 2010 Demonstration Data Products (“synthetic” data).

4.2 Percentage population differences between 2010 Census published data and 2010 Demonstration Data Products, for census blocks in 2011 proposed districts in New Rochelle, New York.

5.1 Percent change between 2010 Census published data and 2010 Demonstration Data Products for selected groups, tracts and block groups in Cambridge, Massachusetts.

5.2 Rate of vacant housing units in California counties, 2010 Census published data and 2010 Demonstration Data Products.

5.3 Median absolute error as a function of empirical privacy loss for county-level stratified counts, Census TopDown Algorithm versus simple random sampling.

8.1 Population change in the American Indian and Alaska Native (AIAN) populations on AIAN reservations between 2010 Census published data and 2010 Demonstration Data Products, by size of AIAN-alone population in the 2010 Census.

8.2 Change in American Indian and Alaska Native-alone population between 2010 Census published data and 2010 Demonstration Data Products in California census tracts.

9.1 Place-level populations in Alaska relative to the nation.

9.2 Net change in revenue received under Alaska Community Assistance Program, between 2010 Census published data and 2010 Demonstration Data Products.

9.3 Observed change in elementary school enrollment for New York State school districts between 2009/2010 and 2015/2016, by census-derived predictor of enrollment change calculated using 2010 Census published data and 2010 Demonstration Data Products.

9.4 Population aged 75 and over, Hurricane Sandy inundation areas in New York City, using 2010 Census published data and 2010 Demonstration Data Products.

9.5 Age distribution for Crown Heights South neighborhood, New York City in 2010 Census published data and 2010 Demonstration Data Products.

11.1 Effect of different categorization and topcoding on age pyramids, Lyon County, Minnesota.

11.2 Percentage of total households whose householder race is Native Hawaiian and Pacific Islander alone, 2010 Census published data and 2010 Demonstration Data Products, U.S. counties.

Page xviii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. 2020 Census Data Products: Data Needs and Privacy Considerations: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25978.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. 2020 Census Data Products: Data Needs and Privacy Considerations: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25978.
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Acronyms and Abbreviations

1TVD

One minus average total variation distance (metric used in assessing TDA runs, scaling between 0 and 1, corresponding roughly to the proportion of table entries in the Microdata Detail File, MDF, that are exactly as enumerated in the Census Edited File, CEF)

2010 DDP

See DDP

ACS

American Community Survey

AIAN

American Indian/Alaska Native

CEF

Census Edited File (the compiled set of census returns after performing editing and imputation that is the basis for census tabulation)

CNSTAT

Committee on National Statistics

CQR

Count Question Resolution

CUF

Census Unedited File (the compiled set of raw census returns prior to editing and imputation, the result of which is the Census Edited File, CEF)

DAS

Disclosure Avoidance System

DDP

Also 2010 DDP; 2010 Census Demonstration Data Products (the set of census tables released in October 2019, applying the proposed 2020 DAS to the 2010 Census CEF)

DHC

Demographics and Housing Characteristics (proposed name of core 2020 Census data product, replacing previous Summary File 1–2 nomenclature; differentiated as DHC-P for persons and DHC-H for housing)

DP

differential privacy (also described as formal privacy)

DSEP

Data Stewardship Executive Policy [Committee, of the U.S. Census Bureau]

FIPPs

Fair Information Practice Principles

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. 2020 Census Data Products: Data Needs and Privacy Considerations: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25978.
×

GQ

group quarters

HH

households

HU

housing units

MDF

Microdata Detail File (synthetic data file that is the output from applying the 2020 Disclosure Avoidance System, DAS, to the Census Edited File, CEF, and that serves as the input to census tabulation); after the workshop, the Census Bureau adopted revised terminology for these output files from the DAS, branding them Privacy-Protected Microdata Files (PPMF) instead

NHPI

Native Hawaiian and Pacific Islander

P.L. 94-171

Public Law 94-171 (enacted December 23, 1975, amending Title 13 of the U.S. Code to set the process for producing the decennial census data file used for legislative redistricting, requiring that those data be produced within one year of the census date; “P.L. 94-171 file” or variants are used as shorthand reference to the redistricting data files)

PLB

privacy-loss budget (denoted by the parameter ϵ [epsilon])

PPMF

Privacy-Protected Microdata Files (see MDF)

RHNA

[Housing Element and] Regional Housing Needs Allocation (fund allocation program to regional planning authorities, mandated by California law)

SF1, SF2

Summary File 1, Summary File 2 (name of major data products from the 2010 Census, the primary difference being that SF2 included more detailed tabulations by race and Hispanic origin categories)

TDA

TopDown Algorithm, more completely the 2020 Decennial Census TopDown Disclosure Limitation Algorithm (methodology of the 2020 Census Disclosure Avoidance System, DAS)

Title 13

Title 13 of the U.S. Code (the section of law governing the conduct of the census)

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. 2020 Census Data Products: Data Needs and Privacy Considerations: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25978.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. 2020 Census Data Products: Data Needs and Privacy Considerations: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25978.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. 2020 Census Data Products: Data Needs and Privacy Considerations: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25978.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. 2020 Census Data Products: Data Needs and Privacy Considerations: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25978.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. 2020 Census Data Products: Data Needs and Privacy Considerations: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25978.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. 2020 Census Data Products: Data Needs and Privacy Considerations: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25978.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. 2020 Census Data Products: Data Needs and Privacy Considerations: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25978.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. 2020 Census Data Products: Data Needs and Privacy Considerations: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25978.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. 2020 Census Data Products: Data Needs and Privacy Considerations: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25978.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. 2020 Census Data Products: Data Needs and Privacy Considerations: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25978.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. 2020 Census Data Products: Data Needs and Privacy Considerations: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25978.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. 2020 Census Data Products: Data Needs and Privacy Considerations: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25978.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. 2020 Census Data Products: Data Needs and Privacy Considerations: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25978.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. 2020 Census Data Products: Data Needs and Privacy Considerations: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25978.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. 2020 Census Data Products: Data Needs and Privacy Considerations: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25978.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. 2020 Census Data Products: Data Needs and Privacy Considerations: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25978.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. 2020 Census Data Products: Data Needs and Privacy Considerations: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25978.
×
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Page xviii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. 2020 Census Data Products: Data Needs and Privacy Considerations: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25978.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. 2020 Census Data Products: Data Needs and Privacy Considerations: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25978.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. 2020 Census Data Products: Data Needs and Privacy Considerations: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25978.
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The Committee on National Statistics of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine convened a 2-day public workshop from December 11-12, 2019, to discuss the suite of data products the Census Bureau will generate from the 2020 Census. The workshop featured presentations by users of decennial census data products to help the Census Bureau better understand the uses of the data products and the importance of these uses and help inform the Census Bureau's decisions on the final specification of 2020 data products. This publication summarizes the presentation and discussion of the workshop.

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