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Prepublication Copy – Subject to Further Editorial Correction Empowering the Defense Acquisition Workforce to Improve Mission Outcomes Using Data Science Committee on Improving Defense Acquisition Workforce Capability in Data Use Board on Mathematical Sciences and Analytics Committee on Applied and Theoretical Statistics Air Force Studies Board Computer Science and Telecommunications Board Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences Board on Higher Education and Workforce Policy and Global Affairs Committee on National Statistics Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education A Consensus Study Report of PREPUBLICATION COPY – SUBJECT TO FURTHER EDITORIAL CORRECTION

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 This activity was supported by contract FA8650-19-F-9301 between the National Academy of Sciences and the Department of Defense. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect the views of any organization or agency that provided support for the project. International Standard Book Number-13: 978-0-309-XXXXX-X International Standard Book Number-10: 0-309-XXXXX-X Digital Object Identifier: https://doi.org/10.17226/25979 This publication is available from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, NW, Keck 360, Washington, DC 20001; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313; http://www.nap.edu. Copyright 2021 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America Suggested citation: National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Empowering the Defense Acquisition Workforce to Improve Mission Outcomes Using Data Science. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. https://doi.org/10.17226/25979. PREPUBLICATION COPY – SUBJECT TO FURTHER EDITORIAL CORRECTION

The National Academy of Sciences was established in 1863 by an Act of Congress, signed by President Lincoln, as a private, nongovernmental institution to advise the nation on issues related to science and technology. Members are elected by their peers for outstanding contributions to research. Dr. Marcia McNutt is president. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to bring the practices of engineering to advising the nation. Members are elected by their peers for extraordinary contributions to engineering. Dr. John L. Anderson is president. The National Academy of Medicine (formerly the Institute of Medicine) was established in 1970 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to advise the nation on medical and health issues. Members are elected by their peers for distinguished contributions to medicine and health. Dr. Victor J. Dzau is president. The three Academies work together as the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine to provide independent, objective analysis and advice to the nation and conduct other activities to solve complex problems and inform public policy decisions. The National Academies also encourage education and research, recognize outstanding contributions to knowledge, and increase public understanding in matters of science, engineering, and medicine. Learn more about the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine at www.nationalacademies.org. PREPUBLICATION COPY – SUBJECT TO FURTHER EDITORIAL CORRECTION

Consensus Study Reports published by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine document the evidence-based consensus on the study’s statement of task by an authoring committee of experts. Reports typically include findings, conclusions, and recommendations based on information gathered by the committee and the committee’s deliberations. Each report has been subjected to a rigorous and independent peer-review process and it represents the position of the National Academies on the statement of task. Proceedings published by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine chronicle the presentations and discussions at a workshop, symposium, or other event convened by the National Academies. The statements and opinions contained in proceedings are those of the participants and are not endorsed by other participants, the planning committee, or the National Academies. For information about other products and activities of the National Academies, please visit www.nationalacademies.org/about/whatwedo. PREPUBLICATION COPY – SUBJECT TO FURTHER EDITORIAL CORRECTION

COMMITTEE ON IMPROVING DEFENSE ACQUISITION WORKFORCE CAPABILITY IN DATA USE WENDY M. MASIELLO, U.S. Air Force (retired), Co-Chair REBECCA NUGENT, Carnegie Mellon University, Co-Chair PHILIP S. ANTON, Stevens Institute of Technology TRILCE ESTRADA, University of New Mexico MILLARD FIREBAUGH, University of Maryland (until December 2019) STEPHEN FORREST, NAE,1 University of Michigan CHRISTINE FOX, Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory MELVIN GREER, Intel Corporation CHARLES ISBELL, Georgia Institute of Technology PETER LEVINE, Institute for Defense Analyses ANN McKENNA, Arizona State University ALYSON WILSON, North Carolina State University JUN ZHUANG, University at Buffalo Staff LIDA BENINSON, Senior Program Officer, Study Co-Director TYLER KLOEFKORN, Senior Program Officer, Study Co-Director CARL-GUSTAV ANDERSON, Program Officer STEVEN DARBES, Program Officer SELAM ARAIA, Senior Program Assistant ADRIANNA HARGROVE, Finance Business Partner (until December 2020) HEATHER LOZOWSKI, Senior Finance Business Partner MICHELLE SCHWALBE, Board Director BEN WATZAK, Research Assistant 1 Member, National Academy of Engineering. PREPUBLICATION COPY – SUBJECT TO FURTHER EDITORIAL CORRECTION v

BOARD ON MATHEMATICAL SCIENCES AND ANALYTICS Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences MARK L. GREEN, University of California, Los Angeles, Chair HÉLÈNE BARCELO, Mathematical Sciences Research Institute RUSSEL E. CAFLISCH, NAS,1 New York University DAVID S.C. CHU, Institute for Defense Analyses RONALD R. COIFMAN, NAS, Yale University JAMES (JIM) CURRY, University of Colorado, Boulder RONALD D. FRICKER, JR., Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University SHAWNDRA HILL, Facebook TRACHETTE JACKSON, University of Michigan LYDIA KAVRAKI, NAM,2 Rice University TAMARA KOLDA, NAE,3 Sandia National Laboratories PETER KOUMOUTSAKOS, ETH Zurich RACHEL KUSKE, Georgia Institute of Technology JILL PIPHER, Brown University YORAM SINGER, WorldQuant TATIANA TORO, University of Washington LANCE WALLER, Emory University KAREN E. WILLCOX, University of Texas, Austin Staff MICHELLE SCHWALBE, Director CARL-GUSTAV ANDERSON, Program Officer SELAM ARAIA, Senior Program Assistant LINDA CASOLA, Associate Program Officer (until December 2019) ADRIANNA HARGROVE, Finance Business Partner (until December 2020) TYLER KLOEFKORN, Senior Program Officer HEATHER LOZOWSKI, Senior Finance Business Partner BEN WATZAK, Research Assistant (until September 2020) 1 Member, National Academy of Sciences. 2 Member, National Academy of Medicine. 3 Member, National Academy of Engineering. PREPUBLICATION COPY – SUBJECT TO FURTHER EDITORIAL CORRECTION vi

COMMITTEE ON APPLIED AND THEORETICAL STATISTICS Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences NICHOLAS J. HORTON, Amherst College, Co-Chair LANCE WALLER, Emory University, Co-Chair F. DUBOIS BOWMAN, University of Michigan ALICIA CARRIQUIRY, NAM,1 Iowa State University RONG CHEN, Rutgers University, The State University of New Jersey WEI CHEN, NAE,2 Northwestern University MICHAEL J. DANIELS, University of Florida AMY H. HERRING, Duke University TIM HESTERBERG, Google, Inc. REBECCA A. HUBBARD, University of Pennsylvania KRISTIN LAUTER, Microsoft Research DAVID MADIGAN, Columbia University XIAO-LI MENG, Harvard University RAQUEL PRADO, University of California, Santa Cruz NANCY M. REID, NAS,3 University of Toronto CYNTHIA RUDIN, Duke University AARTI SINGH, Carnegie Mellon University ELIZABETH A. STUART, Johns Hopkins University JONATHAN WAKEFIELD, University of Washington ALYSON G. WILSON, North Carolina State University Staff TYLER KLOEFKORN, Director CARL-GUSTAV ANDERSON, Program Officer SELAM ARAIA, Senior Program Assistant LINDA CASOLA, Associate Program Officer (until December 2019) ADRIANNA HARGROVE, Finance Business Partner (until December 2020) HEATHER LOZOWSKI, Senior Finance Business Partner MICHELLE SCWALBE, Board Director BEN WATZAK, Research Assistant (until September 2020) 1 Member, National Academy of Medicine. 2 Member, National Academy of Engineering. 3 Member, National Academy of Sciences. PREPUBLICATION COPY – SUBJECT TO FURTHER EDITORIAL CORRECTION vii

AIR FORCE STUDIES BOARD Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences ELLEN M. PAWLIKOWSKI, NAE,1 U.S. Air Force (retired), Chair KEVIN G. BOWCUTT, NAE, The Boeing Company CLAUDE R. CANIZARES, NAS,2 Massachusetts Institute of Technology MARK COSTELLO, Georgia Institute of Technology WESLEY HARRIS, NAE, Massachusetts Institute of Technology JAMES E. HUBBARD JR., NAE, Texas A&M University LESTER L. LYLES, U.S. Air Force (retired) WENDY M. MASIELLO, U.S. Air Force (retired) LESLIE ANN MOMODA, HRL Laboratories, LLC OZDEN OCHOA, Texas A&M University HON F. WHITTEN PETERS, Williams & Connolly, LLP HENDRICK RUCK, Edaptive Computing, Inc. JULIE J.C.H. RYAN, Wyndrose Technical Group MICHAEL D. SCHNEIDER, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory GRANT H. STOKES, MIT Lincoln Laboratory Staff ELLEN CHOU, Director GEORGE COYLE, Senior Program Officer RYAN MURPHY, Program Officer ADRIANNA HARGROVE, Finance Business Partner MARGUERITE SCHNEIDER, Administrative Coordinator EVAN ELWELL, Research Assistant 1 Member, National Academy of Engineering. 2 Member, National Academy of Sciences. PREPUBLICATION COPY – SUBJECT TO FURTHER EDITORIAL CORRECTION viii

COMPUTER SCIENCE AND TELECOMMUNICATIONS BOARD Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences LAURA HAAS, NAE,1 University of Massachusetts, Amherst, Chair DAVID E. CULLER, NAE, University of California, Berkeley ERIC HORVITZ, NAE, Microsoft Research CHARLES ISBELL, Georgia Institute of Technology ELIZABETH MYNATT, Georgia Institute of Technology CRAIG PARTRIDGE, Colorado State University DANIELA RUS, NAE, Massachusetts Institute of Technology FRED B. SCHNEIDER, NAE, Cornell University MARGO I. SELTZER, NAE, University of British Columbia NAMBIRAJAN SESHADRI, NAE, University of California, San Diego MOSHE Y. VARDI, NAS2/NAE, Rice University Staff JON EISENBERG, Senior Board Director SHENAE BRADLEY, Administrative Assistant RENEE HAWKINS, Financial and Administrative Manager LYNETTE I. MILLETT, Associate Director KATIRIA ORTIZ, Associate Program Officer BRENDAN ROACH, Program Officer 1 Member, National Academy of Engineering. 2 Member, National Academy of Sciences. PREPUBLICATION COPY – SUBJECT TO FURTHER EDITORIAL CORRECTION ix

BOARD ON HIGHER EDUCATION AND WORKFORCE Policy and Global Affairs KUMBLE R. SUBBASWAMY, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, Chair ANGELA BYARS-WINSTON, University of Wisconsin, Madison JAIME CURTIS-FISK, The Dow Chemical Company MARIELENA DESANCTIS, Broward College APRILLE J. ERICSSON, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center JOAN FERRINI-MUNDY, University of Maine GABRIELA GONZALEZ, NAS,1 Louisiana State University TASHA R. INNISS, Spelman College SALLY K. MASON, University of Iowa DOUGLAS S. MASSEY, NAS, Princeton University RICHARD K. MILLER, NAE,2 Olin College of Engineering PATRICIA SILVEYRA, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill KATE STOLL, Massachusetts Institute of Technology Washington Office MEGHNA TARE, University of Texas MARY WOOLLEY, NAM,3 President and CEO, Research! America Staff LEIGH MILES JACKSON, Acting Director THOMAS RUDIN, Director (until November 2020) AUSTEN APPLEGATE, Senior Program Assistant ARIELLE BAKER, Associate Program Officer ASHLEY BEAR, Senior Program Officer LIDA BENINSON, Senior Program Officer FRAZIER BENYA, Senior Program Officer IMANI BRAXTON-ALLEN, Senior Program Assistant (until April 2021) MARIA LUND DAHLBERG, Senior Program Officer ALEX HELMAN, Program Officer REBEKAH HUTTON, Program Officer PRIYANKA NALAMADA, Associate Program Officer LAYNE A. SCHERER, Senior Program Officer JOHN VERAS, Senior Program Assistant MARQUITA WHITING, Senior Program Assistant 1 Member, National Academy of Sciences. 2 Member, National Academy of Engineering. 3 Member, National Academy of Medicine. PREPUBLICATION COPY – SUBJECT TO FURTHER EDITORIAL CORRECTION x

COMMITTEE ON NATIONAL STATISTICS Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education ROBERT M. GROVES, NAS1/NAM,2 Georgetown University, Chair LAWRENCE D. BOBO, NAS, Harvard University ANNE C. CASE, NAS/NAM, Princeton University MICK P. COUPER, University of Michigan JANET CURRIE, NAS/NAM, Princeton University DIANA FARRELL, JPMorgan Chase Institute, Washington, DC ROBERT GOERGE, University of Chicago ERICA L. GROSHEN, Cornell University HILARY HOYNES, University of California, Berkeley DANIEL KIFER, Pennsylvania State University SHARON LOHR, Arizona State University JEROME P. REITER, Duke University JUDITH A. SELTZER, University of California, Los Angeles C. MATTHEW SNIPP, Stanford University ELIZABETH A. STEWART, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health JEANETTE M. WING, Columbia University Staff BRIAN HARRIS-KOJETIN, Director TARA BECKER, Program Officer CONSTANCE F. CITRO, Senior Scholar MICHAEL L. COHEN, Senior Program Officer DANIEL L. CORK, Senior Program Officer STUART ELLIOTT, Scholar MARY GHITELMAN, Senior Program Assistant NANCY J. KIRKENDALL, Senior Program Officer REBECCA KRONE, Program Coordinator CHRISTOPHER D. MACKIE, Senior Program Officer MALAY MAJMUNDAR, Senior Program Officer ANTHONY S. MANN, Program Associate KRISZTINA MARTON, Senior Program Officer MICHAEL J. SIRI, Associate Program Officer JORDYN WHITE, Program Officer 1 Member, National Academy of Sciences. 2 Member, National Academy of Medicine. PREPUBLICATION COPY – SUBJECT TO FURTHER EDITORIAL CORRECTION xi

Preface The ability to use analytical tools to collect and analyze data is rapidly expanding and bringing along new challenges and opportunities. Following the National Academies report on Data Science for Undergraduates: Opportunities and Options and Roundtable on Data Science Postsecondary Education— and in recognition of the rapidly evolving premium on data and its power—the Department of Defense requested this study to determine how it could prepare its acquisition workforce to embrace and exploit the rapidly evolving promise of data science. To carry out the task, the National Academies appointed a committee of 13 members. The committee was extraordinary in its makeup, with experts in Defense acquisition processes, policies, analyses, and workforce management; leading industry data scientists; and academic experts in engineering, mathematics, statistics, computer science, data science, and education. Over the course of the study, the committee came to appreciate the complexity and diversity of the DoD acquisition and personnel systems and processes, as well as the multitude of ways industry and government counterparts have addressed the upskilling of their workforces. In the end, the committee concluded that embracing data science and the possibilities for insight at the acquisition level must be driven by leadership. It will take time to upskill the entire acquisition workforce, but the tools, training, and supplemental skills are available today. Deliberate commitment, resources, and clear priorities across DoD will be required to make it happen. We thank all of the members of the committee for their intensive effort and collaborative spirit in crafting this report. We were aided by remarkably talented co-study directors, Lida Beninson and Tyler Kloefkorn, and an able group of staff, including Carl-Gustav Anderson, Selam Araia, Steven Darbes, Adrianna Hargrove, Heather Lozokowski, Katiria Ortiz, Michelle Schwalbe, and Ben Watzak. It was our pleasure and honor to be a part of this study. We look forward to seeing the DoD acquisition community harness data to address today’s challenges and opportunities as well those on the horizon, both in the acquisition process and in the products that system delivers. Wendy M. Masiello and Rebecca Nugent, Co-Chairs Committee on Improving Defense Acquisition Workforce Capability in Data Use PREPUBLICATION COPY – SUBJECT TO FURTHER EDITORIAL CORRECTION xii

Acknowledgments The committee would like to thank the following individuals for providing input to this study. Brij Agrawal, Naval Postgraduate School Darryl Ahner, Air Force Institute of Technology Jonathan Alt, Naval Postgraduate School Darin Ashley, Air Force Contracting Center Mike Baylor, Lockheed Martin Bethany Blakey, General Services Administration Gary Bliss, Institute for Defense Analyses Steve Brady, Air Force Contracting Center Dan Boger, Naval Postgraduate School Stacy Bostjanick, Office of the Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition and Sustainment John Bottega, EDMCouncil Mark Breckenridge, Department of Defense Office of People Analytics Yisroel Brumer, Cost Assessment and Program Evaluation David Cadman, Department of Defense Matthew Carlyle, Naval Postgraduate School Yu-Chu Chen, Naval Postgraduate School Michael Conlin, Department of Defense Stacy Cummings, Department of Defense Jesse Cunha, Naval Postgraduate School Robert Dell, Naval Postgraduate School Lisa Disbrow, John Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory Bess Dopkeen, U.S. House Committee on Armed Services Eric Eckstrand, Naval Postgraduate School Tammy Foster, Lockheed Martin Michael Gilmore, Institute for Defense Analyses Vance Gilstrap, Defense Acquisition University James Greene, Naval Postgraduate School Mary Hauber, Air Force Contracting Center Pete Herrmann, Air Force Contracting Center Hans Jerrell, Defense Acquisition University Sallie Ann Keller, University of Virginia Mark Krzysko, Department of Defense Bruce Litchfield, Lockheed Martin Megan McKernan, RAND Corporation Sears Merritt, MassMutual Robert Mortlock, Naval Postgraduate School William Muir, Naval Postgraduate School Paul Nielsen, Optum Technologies Walter Owen, Naval Postgraduate School PREPUBLICATION COPY – SUBJECT TO FURTHER EDITORIAL CORRECTION xiv

Sezin Palmer, John Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory William Parker, Defense Acquisition University Renee Pasman, Lockheed Martin Matthew Rattigan, University of Massachusetts Amherst Rene Rendon, Naval Postgraduate School David Robinson, Defense Acquisition University Thomas Sasala, U.S. Navy Clyde Scandrett, Naval Postgraduate School James Scrofani, Naval Postgraduate School Garry, Shafovaloff, Human Capitals Initiative Heidi Shyu, VK Integrated Systems Jaeki Song, Texas Tech University Nancy Spruill, Department of Defense (ret.) Luis Stevens, Target Corporation Carol Tisone, Defense Acquisition University Darlene Urquhart, Defense Acquisition University Eileen Vidrine, U.S. Air Force Maryann Watson, Defense Acquisition University Rebecca Weirick, Office of the Deputy Assistant Secretary of the Army Roger Westermeyer, Air Force Contracting Center PREPUBLICATION COPY – SUBJECT TO FURTHER EDITORIAL CORRECTION xv

Acknowledgment of Reviewers This Consensus Study Report was reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine in making each published report as sound as possible and to ensure that it meets the institutional standards for quality, objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We thank the following individuals for their review of this report: Ben Baumer, Smith College, Wesley Bush, NAE, Northrop Grumman Corporation, David Chu, Institute for Defense Analyses, Bakari Dale, Office of the Secretary of the Army-OBT, Robert Dell, Naval Postgraduate School, Ronald Fricker, Virginia Tech, Sallie Ann Keller, NAE, University of Virginia, General Lester Lyles, NAE, Independent Consultant, Brandeis Marshall, Spelman College, Katharina McFarland, Independent Consultant, Cherry Murray, NAS/NAE, Harvard University (emerita) and University of Arizona, Fred Oswald, Rice University, The Honorable Sean J. Stackley, L3Harris Technologies, Kristin Tolle, University of Washington, and Lawrence Woolf, General Atomics Aeronautical Systems. Although the reviewers listed above provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions or recommendations of this report nor did they see the final draft before its release. The review of this report was overseen by Stephen M. Robinson, NAE, University of Wisconsin, Madison. He was responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with the standards of the National Academies and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content rests entirely with the authoring committee and the National Academies. PREPUBLICATION COPY – SUBJECT TO FURTHER EDITORIAL CORRECTION xvi

Contents SUMMARY S-1 1 INTRODUCTION 1-1 Harnessing Data for Defense Acquisition, 1-1 Leadership Driving Change in a Data-Centric Organization, 1-6 Study Origin, Objectives, and Approach, 1-8 Report Outline, 1-9 References, 1-9 2 DEFENSE ACQUISITION PROCESS, DATA, AND WORKFORCE: THE SHORT VERSION 2-1 The Acquisition Process, 2-1 Acquisition Data Use and Context, 2-1 The Acquisition Workforce, 2-2 References, 2-3 3 DATA SCIENCE AND THE DATA LIFE CYCLE: THE SHORT VERSION 3-1 Data Science Is Collaborative and Cyclical, 3-1 The Data Life Cycle and Its Phases, 3-4 Data Ethics, Privacy, and Security, 3-6 References, 3-7 4 DATA SCIENCE IN DOD ACQUISITION 4-1 Opportunities for Improved Data Use in Defense Acquisition, 4-1 Defense Acquisition Functions and the Data Life Cycle, 4-2 References, 4-6 5 DATA LIFE CYCLE MINDSET, SKILLSET, TOOLSET: ROLES AND TEAMS 5-1 Mindset, 5-1 Skillset, 5-4 Data Literacy, 5-4 Six Roles for the Data Life Cycle, 5-6 Toolset, 5-8 Team Structures for Data Science, 5-9 References, 5-13 6 PREPARING AND SUSTAINING A DATA-CAPABLE WORKFORCE IN DEFENSE ACQUISITION 6-1 Overview of Training Approaches in Data Science and Analytics, 6-1 Data Use and Analysis Training Opportunities for Defense Acquisition Personnel—Current Programs, 6-5 PREPUBLICATION COPY – SUBJECT TO FURTHER EDITORIAL CORRECTION xviii

Industry and Government Training Approaches in Data Science and Analytics, 6-8 Envisioned Future for Training in Data Use Capabilities for Defense Acquisition Personnel, 6-9 References, 6-10 7 FINDINGS, CONCLUSIONS, AND RECOMMENDATIONS 7-1 Data Science in DoD Acquisition, 7-1 Data Life Cycle Mindset, Skillset, Toolset: Roles and Teams, 7-2 Preparing and Sustaining a Data-Capable Workforce, 7-3 Synopsis, 7-4 References, 7-4 APPENDIXES A Meeting and Workshop Agendas B Defense Acquisition Notes C Data Science Case Studies in Defense Acquisition D Data Acumen Skills and Concepts E Glossary of Terms, Abbreviations, and Acronyms F Committee Member Biographies PREPUBLICATION COPY – SUBJECT TO FURTHER EDITORIAL CORRECTION xix

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The effective use of data science - the science and technology of extracting value from data - improves, enhances, and strengthens acquisition decision-making and outcomes. Using data science to support decision making is not new to the defense acquisition community; its use by the acquisition workforce has enabled acquisition and thus defense successes for decades. Still, more consistent and expanded application of data science will continue improving acquisition outcomes, and doing so requires coordinated efforts across the defense acquisition system and its related communities and stakeholders. Central to that effort is the development, growth, and sustainment of data science capabilities across the acquisition workforce.

At the request of the Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition and Sustainment, Empowering the Defense Acquisition Workforce to Improve Mission Outcomes Using Data Science assesses how data science can improve acquisition processes and develops a framework for training and educating the defense acquisition workforce to better exploit the application of data science. This report identifies opportunities where data science can improve acquisition processes, the relevant data science skills and capabilities necessary for the acquisition workforce, and relevant models of data science training and education.

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