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Last Mile in General Aviationâ Courtesy Vehicles and Other Forms of Ground Transportation A Synthesis of Airport Practice Shaun J. Germolus AirportAdmin, LLC Kissimmee, FL 2020 Research sponsored by the Federal Aviation Administration Subscriber Categories Aviation A I R P O R T C O O P E R A T I V E R E S E A R C H P R O G R A M ACRP SYNTHESIS 111
ACRP SYNTHESIS 111 Project 11-03, Topic S01-22 ISSN 1935-9187 ISBN 978-0-309-67347-1 Library of Congress Control Number 2020945641 Â© 2020 National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. COPYRIGHT INFORMATION Authors herein are responsible for the authenticity of their materials and for obtaining written permissions from publishers or persons who own the copyright to any previously published or copyrighted material used herein. Cooperative Research Programs (CRP) grants permission to reproduce material in this publication for classroom and not-for-profit purposes. Permission is given with the understanding that none of the material will be used to imply TRB, AASHTO, FAA, FHWA, FTA, GHSA, NHTSA, or TDC endorsement of a particular product, method, or practice. It is expected that those reproducing the material in this document for educational and not-for-profit uses will give appropriate acknowledgment of the source of any reprinted or reproduced material. For other uses of the material, request permission from CRP. Cover photo: Gaylord Regional Airport, MI, Courtesy Car (Source: Printed with permission of Gaylord Regional Airport). NOTICE The report was reviewed by the technical panel and accepted for publication according to procedures established and overseen by the Transportation Research Board and approved by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. The opinions and conclusions expressed or implied in this report are those of the researchers who performed the research and are not necessarily those of the Transportation Research Board; the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine; or the program sponsors. The Transportation Research Board; the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine; and the sponsors of the Airport Cooperative Research Program do not endorse products or manufacturers. Trade or manufacturersâ names appear herein solely because they are considered essential to the object of the report. Published reports of the AIRPORT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM are available from Transportation Research Board Business Office 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 and can be ordered through the Internet by going to https://www.nationalacademies.org and then searching for TRB Printed in the United States of America AIRPORT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM Airports are vital national resources. They serve a key role in trans- portation of people and goods and in regional, national, and interna- tional commerce. They are where the nationâs aviation system connects with other modes of transportation and where federal responsibility for managing and regulating air traffic operations intersects with the role of state and local governments that own and operate most airports. Research is necessary to solve common operating problems, to adapt appropriate new technologies from other industries, and to introduce innovations into the airport industry. The Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) serves as one of the principal means by which the airport industry can develop innovative near-term solutions to meet demands placed on it. The need for ACRP was identified in TRB Special Report 272: Airport Research Needs: Cooperative Solutions in 2003, based on a study spon- sored by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). ACRP carries out applied research on problems that are shared by airport operating agen- cies and not being adequately addressed by existing federal research programs. ACRP is modeled after the successful National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP) and Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP). ACRP undertakes research and other technical activi- ties in various airport subject areas, including design, construction, legal, maintenance, operations, safety, policy, planning, human resources, and administration. ACRP provides a forum where airport operators can cooperatively address common operational problems. ACRP was authorized in December 2003 as part of the Vision 100â Century of Aviation Reauthorization Act. The primary participants in the ACRP are (1) an independent governing board, the ACRP Oversight Committee (AOC), appointed by the Secretary of the U.S. Department of Transportation with representation from airport operating agencies, other stakeholders, and relevant industry organizations such as the Airports Council International-North America (ACI-NA), the American Associa- tion of Airport Executives (AAAE), the National Association of State Aviation Officials (NASAO), Airlines for America (A4A), and the Airport Consultants Council (ACC) as vital links to the airport community; (2) TRB as program manager and secretariat for the governing board; and (3) the FAA as program sponsor. In October 2005, the FAA executed a contract with the National Academy of Sciences formally initiating the program. ACRP benefits from the cooperation and participation of airport professionals, air carriers, shippers, state and local government officials, equipment and service suppliers, other airport users, and research organi- zations. Each of these participants has different interests and responsibili- ties, and each is an integral part of this cooperative research effort. Research problem statements for ACRP are solicited periodically but may be submitted to TRB by anyone at any time. It is the responsibility of the AOC to formulate the research program by identifying the highest priority projects and defining funding levels and expected products. Once selected, each ACRP project is assigned to an expert panel appointed by TRB. Panels include experienced practitioners and research specialists; heavy emphasis is placed on including airport professionals, the intended users of the research products. The panels prepare project statements (requests for proposals), select contractors, and provide technical guidance and counsel throughout the life of the project. The process for developing research problem statements and selecting research agencies has been used by TRB in managing coop- erative research programs since 1962. As in other TRB activities, ACRP project panels serve voluntarily without compensation. Primary emphasis is placed on disseminating ACRP results to the intended users of the research: airport operating agencies, service pro- viders, and academic institutions. ACRP produces a series of research reports for use by airport operators, local agencies, the FAA, and other interested parties; industry associations may arrange for workshops, training aids, field visits, webinars, and other activities to ensure that results are implemented by airport industry practitioners.
The National Academy of Sciences was established in 1863 by an Act of Congress, signed by President Lincoln, as a private, non- governmental institution to advise the nation on issues related to science and technology. Members are elected by their peers for outstanding contributions to research. Dr. Marcia McNutt is president. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to bring the practices of engineering to advising the nation. Members are elected by their peers for extraordinary contributions to engineering. Dr. John L. Anderson is president. The National Academy of Medicine (formerly the Institute of Medicine) was established in 1970 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to advise the nation on medical and health issues. Members are elected by their peers for distinguished contributions to medicine and health. Dr. Victor J. Dzau is president. The three Academies work together as the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine to provide independent, objective analysis and advice to the nation and conduct other activities to solve complex problems and inform public policy decisions. The National Academies also encourage education and research, recognize outstanding contributions to knowledge, and increase public understanding in matters of science, engineering, and medicine. Learn more about the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine at www.nationalacademies.org. The Transportation Research Board is one of seven major programs of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. The mission of the Transportation Research Board is to provide leadership in transportation improvements and innovation through trusted, timely, impartial, and evidence-based information exchange, research, and advice regarding all modes of transportation. The Boardâs varied activities annually engage about 8,000 engineers, scientists, and other transportation researchers and practitioners from the public and private sectors and academia, all of whom contribute their expertise in the public interest. The program is supported by state transportation departments, federal agencies including the component administrations of the U.S. Department of Transportation, and other organizations and individuals interested in the development of transportation. Learn more about the Transportation Research Board at www.TRB.org.
CRP STAFF FOR ACRP SYNTHESIS 111 Christopher J. Hedges, Director, Cooperative Research Programs Lori L. Sundstrom, Deputy Director, Cooperative Research Programs Marci A. Greenberger, Manager, Airport Cooperative Research Program Gail R. Staba, Senior Program Officer Demisha Williams, Senior Program Assistant Eileen P. Delaney, Director of Publications Natalie Barnes, Associate Director of Publications ACRP PROJECT 11-03 PANEL Joshua D. Abramson, Tupelo Regional Airport, Tupelo, MS (Chair) Debbie K. Alke, Helena, MT Gloria G. Bender, TransSolutions, LLC, Fort Worth, TX David A. Byers, Quadrex Aviation LLC, Melbourne, FL Traci Clark, Allegheny County Airport Authority, West Mifflin, PA David N. Edwards, Jr., GreenvilleâSpartanburg Airport Commission, Greer, SC Brenda L. Enos, Burns & McDonnell, Newton, MA Arlyn Purcell, Port of Seattle Sea-Tac Airport, Seattle, WA Patrick Magnotta, FAA Liaison Liying Gu, Airports Council InternationalâNorth America Liaison Adam Williams, Aircraft Owners & Pilots Association Liaison Christine L. Gerencher, TRB Liaison TOPIC S01-22 PANEL Debbie K. Alke, Helena, MT Kreg Anderson, Alexandria Municipal Airport-Chandler Field (KAXN), Alexandria, MN Kimberly Fabend, C&S Companies, Syracuse, NY Clayton Lee Stambaugh, Illinois Department of Transportation, Springfield, IL Walt Stringer, Mineta Transportation Institute, Carlsbad, CA William Reinhardt, FAA Liaison Claire Randall, TRB Liaison C O O P E R A T I V E R E S E A R C H P R O G R A M S
ABOUT THE ACRP SYNTHESIS PROGRAM Airport administrators, engineers, and researchers often face problems for which information already exists, either in documented form or as undocumented experience and practice. This infor- mation may be fragmented, scattered, and unevaluated. As a consequence, full knowledge of what has been learned about a problem may not be brought to bear on its solution. Costly research findings may go unused, valuable experience may be overlooked, and due consideration may not be given to recommended practices for solving or alleviating the problem. There is information on nearly every subject of concern to the airport industry. Much of it derives from research or from the work of practitioners faced with problems in their day-to-day work. To provide a systematic means for assembling and evaluating such useful information and to make it available to the entire airport community, the Airport Cooperative Research Program authorized the Transportation Research Board to undertake a continuing project. This project, ACRP Project 11-03, âSynthesis of Information Related to Airport Practices,â searches out and synthesizes useful knowl- edge from all available sources and prepares concise, documented reports on specific topics. Reports from this endeavor constitute an ACRP report series, Synthesis of Airport Practice. This synthesis series reports on current knowledge and practice, in a compact format, without the detailed directions usually found in handbooks or design manuals. Each report in the series provides a compendium of the best knowledge available on those measures found to be the most successful in resolving specific problems. FOREWORD By Gail R. Staba Staff Officer Transportation Research Board This synthesis of airport practice compiles options, practices and tools for airports to use to develop a sustainable âlast mileâ strategy to connect users of small general aviation airports to the communities that they serve. Information described in this study was acquired through literature review, survey of 39 airports and interviews from 8 airport managers. Shaun Germolus, AirportAdmin, LLC, synthesized the information and wrote the report. The members of the topic panel are acknowledged on page iv. This synthesis is an immediately useful document that records the practices that were acceptable within the limitations of the knowledge available at the time of its preparation. As progress in research and practice continues, new knowl- edge will be added to that now at hand.
AUTHOR ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The researchers wish to acknowledge the generous sharing of time and experience by the airport experts who helped by identifying the right person for the survey, completing the survey questionnaire, being interviewed, and/or providing documentation. Airport Contributors Alexandria Municipal AirportâChandler Field (AXN) Kreg Anderson Atlanta Regional AirportâFalcon Field (FFC) Michael Melton Aztec Municipal Airport (N19) Wallace Begay Belle Plaine Municipal Airport (TZT) Bruce Gapstur Burlington Municipal Airport (BUU) Gary Meisner Cambridge-Dorchester Regional Airport (CGE) Meighan Chisholm Concord Municipal Airport (CON) David Rolla Devils Lake Regional Airport (DVL) John M. Nord Dewitt Spain Airport (MO1) Jason McBride Gaylord Regional Airport (GLR) Matthew Barresi George T. Lewis Airport (CDK) Judy Bason Greeley-Weld County Airport (GXY) Cooper Anderson, C.M. Grove Regional Airport (GMJ) Lisa Jewett Guntersville Municipal Airport (8A1) Gary McIlquham Havre City-County Airport (HVR) Tony Dolphay Higginsville Municipal Airport (HIG) Donna Brown Hillsdale Municipal Airport (JYM) Ginger Moore Joseph State Airport (JSY) Wup Winn Kirsch Municipal Airport (IRS) Andrew Kuk Lakeland Linder International Airport (LAL) Adam Lunn, C.M., ACE Livingston County Airport (OZW) Mark Johnson Mason City Municipal Airport (MCW) Pamela M. Osgood Miami-Opa Locka Executive Airport (OPF) Nelson Mejias Mt. Sterling Montgomery County Airport (IOB) Daniel R. Hill Morse State Airport (DDH) Robert Luther Music City Executive Airport (XNX) Chris Davidson OâNeill Municipal Airport (ONL) Jake Dvorak Palmer Municipal Airport (PAQ) Frank Kelly Phoenix Deer Valley Airport (DVT) Ed Faron Phoenix Goodyear Airport (GYR) Kenny Brock Polson Airport (8S1) Vinson Jennison Randolph County Airport (I22) Eric Livingston Range Regional Airport (HIB) Shaun Germolus, A.A.E. Smith Field Airport (SMD) Joe Marana, A.A.E., ACE Soldotna Municipal Airport (SXQ) Kyle Kornelis Spanish Peaks Huerfano County Airfield (4V1) Al Garcia Sugar Land Regional Airport (SGR) Denise Beckwith Talkeetna Airport (TKA) Peter McCullough Wasilla Municipal Airport (IYS) Archie Giddings Watsonville Municipal Airport (WVI) Rayvon Williams Western Nebraska Regional Airport (BFF) Raul Aguallo Wickenburg Municipal Airport (E25) Herschel Workman Idaho Aviation Association Andrew George Idaho Transportation Department, Div. of Aeronautics Dan Conner Montana Department of Transportation, Div. of Aeronautics Wade Cebulski
C O N T E N T S 1 Summary 3 Chapter 1 Introduction 3 Statement of Purpose 4 A Note on Airport Classification Terminology 4 Scope of This Study 5 Background on the Importance of Last Mile Connectivity 5 Study Methodology 8 Chapter 2 Survey Demographics 8 Demographic Data of Survey Respondents 8 States and FAA Regions 10 Findings 11 Chapter 3 Ground Transportation Alternatives and Findings at General Aviation Airports 11 Modes of Transportation 12 Primary Connectivity Demand by Ground Transportation at General Aviation Airports 13 Airport Self-Assessment of Ground Transportation Needs 14 Coordination Strategies with Potential Partners 15 Protocols to Manage Partnering Arrangements 16 Unique Strategies to Overcoming Challenges 18 Chapter 4 Findings About Airport Courtesy Vehicles 18 Benefits of Courtesy Vehicles 19 Procurement Sources 21 Types of Vehicles Used for Courtesy Vehicles 22 Insuring a Courtesy Vehicle and Liability 23 Maintenance and Facility Access Considerations 25 Reservation and Check-Out Procedures 25 Providing After-Hours Accessibility to Courtesy Vehicles 26 Guidelines of Use at General Aviation Airports 27 Limitations of Use 28 Marketing of Courtesy Vehicle 28 Advice from Other Airports
29 Chapter 5 Case Examples 29 Case Example 1âLivingston County Spencer J. Hardy Airport (OZW) 34 Case Example 2âOâNeill Municipal Airport (ONL) 37 Case Example 3âHillsdale Municipal Airport (JYM) 42 Case Example 4âKentucky Airmotive, Mt. Sterling Montgomery County Airport (IOB) 47 Case Example 5âAlexandria Municipal AirportâChandler Field (AXN) 52 Case Example 6âHigginsville Municipal Airport (HIG) 55 Case Example 7âState Courtesy Car Grant ProgramsâIdaho 56 Case Example 8âState Courtesy Car Grant ProgramsâMontana 59 Chapter 6 Conclusions 59 Key Findings 61 Glossary 62 Acronyms 63 Bibliography A-1 Appendix A Airport Respondents B-1 Appendix B Summary of Survey Responses C-1 Appendix C Checklist for Airport Courtesy Vehicle Procurement D-1 Appendix D Sample Courtesy Vehicle Check-Out Form Used by Higginsville Municipal Airport E-1 Appendix E Sample Guidelines for Courtesy Vehicle Use Policy F-1 Appendix F Checklist for Courtesy Vehicle Facilities/Maintenance G-1 Appendix G Sample Car Rental Franchise License Agreement Used by Livingston County Spencer J. Hardy Airport H-1 Appendix H Courtesy Car Information Sheet I-1 Appendix I Courtesy Car Agreement Used by Livingston County Spencer J. Hardy Airport J-1 Appendix J Courtesy Car Agreement Used by Alexandria Municipal Airport K-1 Appendix K Idaho Transportation Department Courtesy Car Program Documents Note: Photographs, figures, and tables in this report may have been converted from color to grayscale for printing. The electronic version of the report (posted on the web at www.trb.org) retains the color versions.