THE ENDLESS FRONTIER
The Next 75 Years in Science
Steve Olson, Rapporteur
THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS
THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001
This activity was supported by the National Academy of Sciences, The Kavli Foundation, and the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect the views of any organization or agency that provided support for the project.
International Standard Book Number-13: 978-0-309-68531-3
International Standard Book Number-10: 0-309-68531-1
Digital Object Identifier: https://doi.org/10.17226/25990
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Suggested citation: National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. The Endless Frontier: The Next 75 Years in Science. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. https://doi.org/10.17226/25990.
The National Academy of Sciences was established in 1863 by an Act of Congress, signed by President Lincoln, as a private, nongovernmental institution to advise the nation on issues related to science and technology. Members are elected by their peers for outstanding contributions to research. Dr. Marcia McNutt is president.
The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to bring the practices of engineering to advising the nation. Members are elected by their peers for extraordinary contributions to engineering. Dr. John L. Anderson is president.
The National Academy of Medicine (formerly the Institute of Medicine) was established in 1970 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to advise the nation on medical and health issues. Members are elected by their peers for distinguished contributions to medicine and health. Dr. Victor J. Dzau is president.
The three Academies work together as the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine to provide independent, objective analysis and advice to the nation and conduct other activities to solve complex problems and inform public policy decisions. The National Academies also encourage education and research, recognize outstanding contributions to knowledge, and increase public understanding in matters of science, engineering, and medicine.
Learn more about the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine at www.nationalacademies.org.
The Kavli Foundation is dedicated to advancing science for the benefit of humanity, strengthening the connection between science and society, and supporting scientists and their work. Founded in 2000 by Fred Kavli, a Norwegian-American physicist, entrepreneur, and philanthropist, the foundation disperses $36 million annually. The Kavli Foundation’s unique approach to giving follows an endowment model that has created a constellation of Kavli Institutes—some of the most influential research institutes in astrophysics, nanoscience, neuroscience, and theoretical physics globally. The foundation’s endowment, combined with those of the institute and others within the Kavli enterprise, totals $1 billion. The foundation’s mission is implemented through the Kavli Institutes, initiatives and symposia in the four scientific fields, the biennially awarded Kavli Prize, and a program in public engagement with science. Learn more at kavlifoundation.org and follow @kavlifoundation.
The Alfred P. Sloan Foundation is a not-for-profit, mission-driven grantmaking institution dedicated to improving the welfare of all through the advancement of scientific knowledge. Founded in 1934 by industrialist Alfred P. Sloan, Jr., the Foundation disburses approximately $80 million in grants each year in four broad areas: direct support of research in science, technology, engineering, mathematics, and economics; initiatives to increase the quality and diversity of scientific institutions and the science workforce; projects to develop or leverage technology to empower research; and efforts to enhance and deepen public engagement with science and scientists. Sloan Foundation grantmaking helped create some of the country’s most influential and enduring scientific institutions, including the Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Sloan School of Management, and the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. Sloan support has also played a critical role in the early development of many scientific fields, including cognitive science, behavioral economics, and indoor microbial ecology. The Foundation strives to be guided in all its actions by the values of the scientific enterprise: impartiality, empiricism, curiosity, rigor, and the conviction that a reasoned, systematic understanding of the forces of nature and society, when applied inventively and wisely, can lead to a better world for all.
ACKNOWLEDGMENT OF REVIEWERS
This Proceedings of a Symposium was reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine in making its published proceedings as sound as possible and to ensure that it meets the institutional standards for quality, objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the process.
We thank the following individuals for their review of this proceedings: Ann Arvin, Stanford University; and Mary Sue Coleman, University of Michigan (retired). Although they provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the content of the proceedings, nor did they see the final draft before its release. Responsibility for the final content rests entirely with the rapporteur and the National Academies.