National Academies Press: OpenBook

A Pandemic Playbook for Transportation Agencies (2020)

Chapter: Chapter Notes

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Page 61
Suggested Citation:"Chapter Notes." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. A Pandemic Playbook for Transportation Agencies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25993.
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Page 62
Suggested Citation:"Chapter Notes." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. A Pandemic Playbook for Transportation Agencies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25993.
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Page 62
Page 63
Suggested Citation:"Chapter Notes." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. A Pandemic Playbook for Transportation Agencies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25993.
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Page 63
Page 64
Suggested Citation:"Chapter Notes." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. A Pandemic Playbook for Transportation Agencies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25993.
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Page 64
Page 65
Suggested Citation:"Chapter Notes." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. A Pandemic Playbook for Transportation Agencies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25993.
×
Page 65
Page 66
Suggested Citation:"Chapter Notes." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. A Pandemic Playbook for Transportation Agencies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25993.
×
Page 66
Page 67
Suggested Citation:"Chapter Notes." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. A Pandemic Playbook for Transportation Agencies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25993.
×
Page 67
Page 68
Suggested Citation:"Chapter Notes." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. A Pandemic Playbook for Transportation Agencies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25993.
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Page 68

Below is the uncorrected machine-read text of this chapter, intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text of each book. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

Chapter Notes Introduction p.3 …assembled “while the plane was in flight”… Based on quotation from Joaquin Mixto, CDOT during interview with researcher team. Pandemic Basics: Key Facts p.4 …pandemic is a “global disease outbreak…“ NCHRP Report 769, A Guide for Public Transportation Pandemic Planning and Response, National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine, 2014. p.4. ..now “living in a time of viruses.” World Health Organization (WHO), WHO website, www.who.int Impacts on Transportation p.5 Pandemics “cause significant absenteeism, disrupt essential services and operations, change patterns of commerce, and interrupt supply chains.” NCHRP Report 769, A Guide for Public Transportation Pandemic Planning and Response p.5 “Public transit faces a near-perfect storm….”COVID is pushing some transit systems to the brink,” Aarlam Marshall, Wired, July 21, 2020. Approaches to Pandemic p.5 A Continuity of Operations Plan (COOP) – TCRP Report 86/NCHRP Report 525 Volume 8: Continuity of Operations (COOP) Planning Guidelines for Transportation Agencies, National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine, 2005. p.5 They “sustain transportation services, mitigate adverse economic impacts, meet societal needs, and move emergency relief personal and commodities.” NCHRP Report 769, A Guide for Public Transportation Pandemic Planning and Response, National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine, 2014. Pandemic Planning p.7 Based on NCHRP Report 769, A Guide for Public Transportation Pandemic Planning and Response, National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine, 2014. Challenges: Fear/Loss of confidence p. 13 According to Dr. Thomas Matte, Senior Science Advisor for Environmental Health at Vital Strategies, a global public health organization, “the public perceptions and press coverage of COVID-19 transmission risk in transit has created more fear than is warranted by the evidence.” August 5, 2020 Interview by Sam Swartz with Dr. Thomas Matte, included in Public Transit and COVID-19: Global Research and Best Practices¸ Sam Swartz Consulting, September 2020 p.13 American Public Transportation Association (APTA) … recommend. COVID-19 Pandemic Public Transportation Responds: Safeguarding Riders and Employees, American Public Transportation Association, 2020. A Pandemic Playbook for Transportation Agencies 55

p. 13 Maryland Department of Transportation – Maryland Transit Administration (MDOT MTA) had a registered nurse… Based on interviews with MDOT MTA by research team. p. 14 APTA launched a national “Health and Safety Commitments Program” for transit agencies. “APTA, Public Transportation Industry, Unveil Nationwide “Health and Safety Commitments” Program. APTA Press Release, September 9, 2020. p.14 New York MTA, along with the New York Port Authority and New Jersey Transit, implemented “Operation Respect… MTA Launches ‘Operation Respect’ to Promote Universal Mask Compliance Systemwide, MTA press release, July 20, 2020 Morale and trust p.14 Most agencies have had very good outcomes… Based on DOT and transit agency interviews with research team. p.14 …existing safety hotline MDOT MTA used. Based on interview with MDOT MTA by research team. p.15 Providing “pizza days” … COVID-19 – Emergency Management Tips and Practices for Bus Transit Systems, Center for Urban Transportation Research, Published April 1, 2020, Revision, August 26, 2020 Stress and psychological impacts p.15 Trauma causes us to “go to the emotional basement” Janet Benini, Emergency Management Leadership Course , George Washington University. p.16 Guidance is available from national health organizations, such as the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) and National Drug & Alcohol Screening Association (NDASA). “Coping with Stress”, Center of Disease Control COVID-19 Website, https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/daily-life-coping/ managing-stress-anxiety.html#responders and “It’s like this right now…. Staying safe- and sober - in self-quarantine,” National Drug & Alcohol Screening Association, https://ndasa.com/wp-content/ uploads/2020/05/Coping-with-Anxiety-through-COVID.pdf Funding p.16 For COVID-19, ER funding was expanded.. COVID-19 – Emergency Management Tips and Practices for Bus Transit Systems, Center for Urban Transportation Research, Published April 1, 2020, Revision, August 26, 2020 p.16 Coronavirus Aid, Relief, and Economic Security (CARES) Act, H.R. 748 — 116th Congress: Coronavirus Aid, Relief, and Economic Security Act. Unintended consequences p.17 Concerns arose that the free services were encouraging undesired behaviors. Transit Agencies’ Challenge Is to Balance Service with Safety, Andrea Noble, Route Fifty, April 9, 2020 p.17 In Cincinnati, officials reinstituted fares to discourage people from violating the state’s stay-at-home order. Transit Agencies’ Challenge Is to Balance Service with Safety Route, Andrea Noble, Route Fifty, April 9, 2020 A Pandemic Playbook for Transportation Agencies 56

p.17 In Philadelphia, the Southeastern Pennsylvania Transportation Authority (SEPTA) changed its approach to enforcing mask requirements after a widely shared video of a passenger being removed from a bus for not wearing a face covering. SEPTA’s ‘social distancing coaches’ are the newest part of your commute, By Patricia Madej , The Philadelphia Inquirer, Aug 17th, 2020 Planning, Training & Exercises p. 19 Most employees (70%) wish they could get more training about pandemics. Karl Kim, “Factors Associated with Differences in Pandemic Preparedness and Response: Findings from a Nationwide Survey in the United States," Paper submitted to TRB, July 28, 2020 Colorado DOT – based on interview with CDOT by research team. Caltrans - based on interview with California DOT by research team. Employee Impact p.21 “Understand the life issues of your work force.” Dana Hendrix, Caltrans from interview with California DOT by research team. Kansas DOT- based on interview with KDOT by research team. Vermont Agency of Transportation- based on interview with Vermont AOT by research team. Louisiana DOTD- based on interview with LA DODT by research team. Caltrans- based on interview with Caltrans by research team. Charlevoix County Transit- based on interview with agency by research team. MDOT MTA- based on interview with Maryland DOT MTA by research team. Pandemic Protective Actions p. 23 “Controlling exposures to occupational hazards is the fundamental method of protecting workers.” CDC COVID-19 website, https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/index.html Pandemic Public Transit Protective Actions p.25 “Just as riders rely on us, we rely on our passengers to protect themselves and one another by respecting these commitments.” APTA, Public Transportation Industry, Unveil Nationwide “Health and Safety Commitments” Program. APTA Press Release, September 9, 2020. Paratransit organization split … “Paratransit Operations Response Plan for Coronavirus COVID-19,” APTA COVID-19 Webinar, July 2020 Oahu Transit- based on interview with transit agency by research team. MDOT MTA - based on interview with Maryland DOT MTA by research team. Central Midlands Regional Transit Authority (COMET) Transit - based on interview with The COMET by research team. A Pandemic Playbook for Transportation Agencies 57

TriMet, Portland, Oregon - Public Transit and COVID-19: Global Research and Best Practices¸ Sam Swartz Consulting, September 2020, p.39. https://news.trimet.org/2020/07/trimet-to-adjust-passenger-limits- onboard-after-putting-numerous-safetymeasures-in-place/ Vancouver’s TransLink - Public Transit and COVID-19: Global Research and Best Practices¸ Sam Swartz Consulting, September 2020, p.39. Based on APTA 2020 Sustainability and Multimodal Planning Workshop. July 30 and 31, 2020. The COMET, SC - based on interview with The COMET by research team. Situational Awareness and Reporting p.29 “It’s what you know, what you learn, and what you can confirm.” Shelton Shaw, Utah Transit Authority. From interview with transit agency by research team. Vermont AOT - based on interview with agency by research team. Utah DOT - based on interview with agency by research team. Caltrans - based on interview with California DOT by research team. New York MTA - Returning to Work on the Subway? Here’s What You Need to Know, By Christina Goldbaum, New York Times, Published June 8, 2020, Updated Aug. 26, 2020 Communications p.32 “Overcommunications is your best friend – when people are stressed and fearful, they have a hard time absorbing information.” Dana Hendrix, Caltrans From interview with California DOT by research team. MDOT MTA - based on interview with agency by research team. Kaiser Hospitals Zoom lunchroom – Webinar, American Public Health Association, Toward the New Normal, May 13, 2020 Kansas DOT - based on interview with agency by research team. Caltrans - based on interview with agency by research team. Oahu Transit- based on interview with agency by research team. Restore Public Confidence p.36 “Winning riders back is a process, not a one-time action,” Phil Washington, Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transportation Authority, APTA COVID-19 Webinar, July 2020 RTD Denver - After Coronavirus Slashed Ridership, Colorado’s Transit Agencies Prep For A Long Trip Back, Nathaniel Minor, CPR News, April 30, 2020 Bay area transit agencies – “Bay area transit agencies release joint plan to bolster trust in transit”, Mischa Wanek-Libman, Mass Transit Magazine, Aug 20th, 2020 APTA developed a Health and Safety Commitments Program - APTA, Public Transportation Industry, Unveil Nationwide “Health and Safety Commitments” Program. APTA Press Release, September 9, 2020. A Pandemic Playbook for Transportation Agencies 58

New York MTA, Boston MBTA – “Silent trains to masks: U.S. cities fight to revive public transport”, Ellen Wulfhorst, Reuters, August 25, 2020 Reuters SEPTA –“SEPTA’s ‘social distancing coaches’ are the newest part of your commute”, Patricia Madej, The Philadelphia Inquirer, Aug 17th, 2020 Traffic Management p.38 “Develop a broader view.” PennDOT’s Response to COVID-19, Pennsylvania Department of Transportation website, Updated July 8, 2020 https://www.penndot.gov/Documents/PennDOT-COVID-Response.pdf Many states and local transportation agencies – based on interviews with multiple state DOTs by research team. Florida DOT – COVID-19 – Emergency Management Tips and Practices for Bus Transit Systems, Center for Urban Transportation Research, Published April 1, 2020, Revision, August 26, 2020 Hawaii DOT – “You don’t need a reason: Ige urges residents to participate in free COVID-19 testing,” Hawaii News Now Staff, August 27, 2020 - Updated September 1 at 7:08 PM Westchester County, NY - based on interview with Joan McDonald, County Chief Operating Officer by research team. Kansas DOT - based on interview with agency by research team. Penn DOT - PennDOT’s Response to COVID-19, Pennsylvania Department of Transportation website, Updated July 8, 2020 https://www.penndot.gov/Documents/PennDOT-COVID-Response.pdf Service Operations Adjustments p.40 “As a public service provider, you don’t restore your service just to restore your service, you try to identify where you can accomplish the most good.” Carl Sedoryk, CEO of the Monterey-Salinas Transit District,” Rural California Transit Agency Reinvents Itself During COVID”, Governing Magazine, https://www. governing.com/now/Rural-California-Transit-Agency-Reinvents-Itself-During-COVID.html Oahu Transit - based on interview with agency by research team. Rogue Valley Transit, OR - based on interview with agency by research team. The COMET, SC - based on interview with agency by research team. Miami-Dade Transit Authority - Transit Innovation in the Time of COVID, ENO Center of Transportation webinar, August 4, 2020 Northern Arizona Intergovernmental Public Transportation Authority (NAIPTA), Flagstaff, AZ - Public Transit and COVID-19: Global Research and Best Practices¸ Sam Swartz Consulting, September 2020 p.46. Based on agency website https://mountainline.az.gov/health/ Boston MBTA - Transit Authority Looks to Bus Lanes to Reduce Crowding, Encourage Social Distancing, Kate Elizabeth Queram, Route Fifty, September 2, 2020 Chicago Transit Authority - Covid Flight From Transit Forces Shift to Riders Without Choices, Courtney Rozen, Bloomberg Government, August 17, 2020 A Pandemic Playbook for Transportation Agencies 59

SEPTA - Public Transit and COVID-19: Global Research and Best Practices¸ Sam Swartz Consulting, September 2020 p.45 Evacuations/Shelter-in-Place: Pandemic Impact p.43 “We’re planning for evacuation buses and mobilizing our people, but from a pandemic perspective, we’re also having to take into account screening people and providing PPE,” Dr. Shawn Wilson, secretary of the Louisiana Department of Transportation and Development. “Dual Disaster Handbook Offers Practical Guidance Amidst Chaos”, AASHTO Press Release, June 26, 2020 FDOT - Dual Disaster Handbook, American Public Health Association and the American Flood Coalition, 2020 Louisiana DOTD - Dual Disaster Handbook, American Public Health Association and the American Flood Coalition, 2020 Financial Management p.45 “With limited resources, an agency needs to think differently, more creatively.” Laura Mester, Michigan DOT. Roundtable session held at MASHTO Regional Meeting, 2018 Vermont AOT – based on interview with agency by research team. Utah DOT – based on interview with agency by research team. MDOT MTA – based on interview with agency by research team. Charlevoix County Transit – based on interview with agency by research team. Cincinnati sales tax – “Covid Flight From Transit Forces Shift to Riders Without Choices,” Courtney Rozen, Bloomberg Government, August 17, 2020 Seattle sale tax – “Covid Flight From Transit Forces Shift to Riders Without Choices,” Courtney Rozen, Bloomberg Government, August 17, 2020 Metropolitan Transportation Authority, New York …, San Francisco and Los Angeles are considering -“Covid Flight From Transit Forces Shift to Riders Without Choices,” Courtney Rozen, Bloomberg Government, August 17, 2020 Emergency Support Function 1 (ESF-1) and Community Support p.47 ”It’s important work that transit agencies are doing right now, even if it looks different than what we normally see.” Ann Rejewski with the Colorado Association of Transit Agencies. After Coronavirus Slashed Ridership, Colorado’s Transit Agencies Prep For A Long Trip Back, Nathaniel Minor, CPR News, April 30, 2020 National Response Framework – Federal Emergency Management Agency, https://www.fema.gov/ emergency-managers/national-preparedness/frameworks/response Some DOTs licensed food trucks – based on interviews with transportation agencies conducted by the research team. A Pandemic Playbook for Transportation Agencies 60

Some DOTs defer commercial – based on interviews with transportation agencies conducted by the research team. Florida DOT - COVID-19 – Emergency Management Tips and Practices for Bus Transit Systems, Center for Urban Transportation Research, Published April 1, 2020, Revision, August 26, 2020 Utah Transit Authority – based on interview with agency by research team. Charlevoix Transit, MI – based on interview with agency by research team. The COMET, SC – based on interview with agency by research team. Kansas DOT – based on interview with agency by research team. Louisiana DOTD– based on interview with agency by research team. Utah DOT – based on interview with agency by research team. Monterey-Salinas Transit (MST) -” Rural California Transit Agency Reinvents Itself During COVID”, Governing Magazine, https://www.governing.com/now/Rural-California-Transit-Agency-Reinvents-Itself- During-COVID.html Agency Stabilization p.49 “Normal functions wouldn’t return until a tested vaccine is available for everyone, the Stabilization Plan is a ‘working document’ that will change”. Pauletta Tonilas, Agency spokeswoman, Denver Regional Transportation District (RTD). After Coronavirus Slashed Ridership, Colorado’s Transit Agencies Prep For A Long Trip Back, Nathaniel Minor, CPR News, April 30, 2020 Utah DOT – based on interview with agency by research team. Denver RTD - After Coronavirus Slashed Ridership, Colorado’s Transit Agencies Prep For A Long Trip Back, Nathaniel Minor, CPR News, April 30, 2020 Concurrent Emergencies with Pandemics p.51 “It’s really a juggling act and you’re juggling some very fragile crystal balls,” Dr. Shawn Wilson, secretary of the Louisiana Department of Transportation and Development Utah DOT – based on interview with agency by research team. Vermont AOT – based on interview with agency by research team. Conclusions p.53 “in-flight missile repair” – Interview with CDOT agency by research team. “an intense training exercise…”– Interview with transportation agency by research team. A Pandemic Playbook for Transportation Agencies 61

Silver Lining p.53 “As the head of MST put it…” - Rural California Transit Agency Reinvents Itself During COVID, Governing Magazine, https://www.governing.com/now/Rural-California-Transit-Agency-Reinvents-Itself-During- COVID.html “They see us … Rural California Transit Agency Reinvents Itself During COVID, Governing Magazine, https://www.governing.com/now/Rural-California-Transit-Agency-Reinvents-Itself-During-COVID.html Moving forward p.54 “Pandemic resilience requires…” Based on Transportation During Coronavirus in NYC, NYU: Wagner Rudin Center for Transportation, and Sam Schwartz Transportation Consultants, July 2020 “As a Jacksonville local transportation agency...” Covid Flight From Transit Forces Shift to Riders Without Choices, Courtney Rozen, Bloomberg Government, August 17, 2020 A Pandemic Playbook for Transportation Agencies 62

Next: Appendices »
A Pandemic Playbook for Transportation Agencies Get This Book
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Understanding pandemics, their impacts to transportation, and potential effective response has become more important, not only for the response to COVID-19, but also if, as the World Health Organization warns, we are now “living in a time of viruses.”

TRB's National Cooperative Highway Research Program and Transit Cooperative Research Program have jointly issued this pre-publication draft of NCHRP Research Report 963/TCRP Research Report 225: A Pandemic Playbook for Transportation Agencies, which was created to improve transportation agency responses to a pandemic.

The Playbook concentrates on what needs to be done, when and by whom. It briefly addresses planning for a pandemic, a topic addressed in greater depth in NCHRP Report 769: A Guide for Public Transportation Pandemic Planning and Response. It summarizes effective practices currently used by transportation agencies based on interviews with state departments of transportation and transit agency leaders and operational personnel, supplemented with national and international research results.

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