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SPINE = 0.243" Print 3-Page Spread to generate full cover Background There are over 4,000 airports in the country and most of these airports are owned by governments. A 2003 sur- vey conducted by Airports Council InternationalâNorth America concluded that city ownership accounts for 38 percent, followed by regional airports at 25 percent, single county at 17 percent, and multi-jurisdictional at 9 percent. Primary legal services to these airports are, in most cases, provided by municipal, county, and state attorneys. Research reports and summaries produced by the Airport Continuing Legal Studies Project and published as ACRP Legal Research Digests are developed to assist these attorneys seeking to deal with the myriad of legal problems encountered during airport development and operations. Such substantive areas as eminent domain, environmental concerns, leasing, contracting, securi- ty, insurance, civil rights, and tort liability present cut- ting-edge legal issues where research is useful and in- deed needed. Airport legal research, when conducted through the TRBâs legal studies process, either collects primary data that usually are not available elsewhere or performs analysis of existing literature. Foreword Commercial ground transportation at United States airports includes public transit, door-to-door shuttle van service, charter buses, limousines, rental cars, taxi- cabs, hotel courtesy shuttles, wheel chair services, and courier operators. Technological developments, such as transportation network companies (TNCs), car-sharing operat ions, and driverless cars, have added more options and challenges for airport ground transportation opera- tions. These ground transportation carriers may be gov- erned by state/local statutes and ordinances and/or air- port contracts and be required to comply with federal, state, and local rules and regulations. GPS, geo-fencing capabilities, web-based apps, and digital fee transactions also have raised new issues for airports to address. Since the security status of any U.S. airport is sub- ject to change without advance notice, directives issued may be altered by law enforcement personnel, feder- al Transportation Security Administration officers, or airport emergency safety personnel at any time. Local regulations also may contain penalty and enforcement provisions and grievance procedures, which vary in detail depend ing on the size, use, and individual charac- teristics of the subject airport. This legal digest builds on ACRP LRD 3: Survey of Laws and Regulations of Airport Commercial Ground Transportation (2008), and synthesizes available guidance, including regulations, statutes, policies, and case decisions (administrative or court) pertaining to commercial ground transportation. The digest includes an updated survey of federal, state, and local commer- cial ground transportation statutes, ordinances, rules and regulations, with extensive examples of each. The digest includes a summary of litigation, sample permits, and contracts and will be an important resource for air- port administrative and legal staff. Updated Survey of Laws and Regulations Applicable to Airport Commercial Ground Transportation This digest was prepared under ACRP Project 11-01, âLegal Aspects of Airport Programs,â for which the Transportation Research Board (TRB) is the agency coordinating the research. Under Topic 10-04, this digest was prepared by Carlos Sun, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO. The opinions and conclusions expressed or implied in this digest are those of the researchers who performed the research and are not necessarily those of the Transportation Research Board; the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine; or the program sponsors. The responsible program officer is Theresia Schatz. NOVEMBER 2020 AIRPORT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM ACRP LRD39LEGAL RESEARCH DIGEST 033000 ACRP LRD 39 Final cover.indd 1-3 11/3/20 9:10 AM