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Updated Survey of Laws and Regulations Applicable to Airport Commercial Ground Transportation (2020)

Chapter: UPDATED SURVEY OF LAWS AND REGULATIONS APPLICABLE TO AIRPORT COMMERCIAL GROUND TRANSPORTATION

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Suggested Citation:"UPDATED SURVEY OF LAWS AND REGULATIONS APPLICABLE TO AIRPORT COMMERCIAL GROUND TRANSPORTATION." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Updated Survey of Laws and Regulations Applicable to Airport Commercial Ground Transportation. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26003.
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Suggested Citation:"UPDATED SURVEY OF LAWS AND REGULATIONS APPLICABLE TO AIRPORT COMMERCIAL GROUND TRANSPORTATION." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Updated Survey of Laws and Regulations Applicable to Airport Commercial Ground Transportation. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26003.
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ACRP LRD 39 3 UPDATED SURVEY OF LAWS AND REGULATIONS APPLICABLE TO AIRPORT COMMERCIAL GROUND TRANSPORTATION Carlos Sun, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO. SUMMARY This survey is a summary of the airport commercial ground transportation laws and regulations in the United States. This legal digest provides an overview of the current regulatory framework for airport practitioners, including airport attorneys, managers, operators, and ground transportation providers. This is an update of the 2008 ACRP LRD 3: Survey of Laws and Regu- lations Applicable to Airport Commercial Ground Transporta- tion. One significant change related to airport ground transpor- tation in the past decade involves the advent of affordable and powerful computing technology in the form of smart phones and the associated rise of Transportation Network Companies (TNCs). The current updated legal digest delves into the evolu- tion of ground transportation regulatory framework in adapting to this rapidly increasing form of ground transportation. Scope As a survey of airports across the United States, this digest is not intended to be an exhaustive compilation of all laws and regulations related to commercial ground transportation. There are a wide range of applicable laws and regulations stemming from all levels of government, including federal, state, county, municipal, and airport. Unlike surface transportation, where states have the primary jurisdiction, air transportation has sig- nificant federal jurisdiction related to the national airspace and interstate commerce. Nor is the survey a comprehensive review of all primary commercial airports in the National Plan of Inte- grated Airport Systems (NPIAS).1 The NPIAS contains 3,328 1 NATIONAL PLAN OF INTEGRATED AIRPORT SYSTEMS (NPIAS) 2019- 2023, (Federal Aviation Administration, 2018). airports (3,321 existing and 7 proposed). Three-hundred eighty (380) of these are primary airports (30 large hubs, 31 medium hubs, 72 small hubs, and 247 nonhub primary commercial air- ports). The 380 primary airports are those with scheduled air carrier service of 10,000 or more enplanements. The primary airports account for 99.83% of the total enplanements in the United States. The hub classification, according to percentage of total U.S. passenger enplanement, is as follows: large accounts for 1% or more, medium accounts for 0.25% to 1%, small ac- counts for 0.05% to 0.25%, and nonhub accounts for less than 0.05%. This survey is a highlight of the most important laws and regulations from various agencies as well as a representative sample of primary commercial airports from all four hub classi- fications. The current report covers some of the busiest airports in the United States, but also airports with moderate passenger activity that offer significant commercial ground transportation service. As shown in Table 1, the 49 airports surveyed include 26 large, 8 medium, 9 small, and 6 nonhub airports. Columns H in Table 1 corresponds to the hub designation of L for large, M for medium, S for small, and N for nonhub. The 49 airports involve 44 states. Even the states without a surveyed airport are often represented by airports in the metropolitan region from another state. For example, Kansas City International Airport services the bi-state metropolitan region of Kansas and Missouri, and Philadelphia International Airport services the tri-state re- gion, specifically the Delaware River Valley. The wide cover- age in the present LRD, both in terms of NPIAS airport type and geography, makes this LRD applicable to all airports where there is significant commercial ground transportation activity. This digest covers all the traditional modes of commercial ground transportation at airports, including taxicabs, courtesy vehicles, limousines, charter buses, and public transit. This Table 1. List of Surveyed Airports State Airport Locator ID H AK Ted Stevens Anchorage International Airport ANC M AL None none AR None none AZ Phoenix Sky Harbor International PHX L CA Los Angeles International Airport, San Francisco International Airport LAX, SFO L CO Denver International Airport DEN L CT Bradley International Airport BDL M continued

4 ACRP LRD 39 DE None none FL Orlando International Airport, Miami International Airport MCO, MIA L GA Hartsfield-Jackson Atlanta International Airport ATL L HI Daniel K. Inouye International Airport HNL L IA Des Moines International Airport DSM S ID Boise Airport Gowen Field BOI S IL O’Hare International Airport ORD L IN Indianapolis International Airport IND M KS None none KY Louisville Muhammad Ali International Airport SDF S LA Louis Armstrong New Orleans International Airport MSY M MA Boston Logan International Airport BOS L MD Baltimore/Washington International Thurgood Marshall Airport BWI L ME Bangor International Airport BGR N MI Detroit Metropolitan Wayne County Airport DTW L MN Minneapolis-St. Paul International Airport MSP L MO St. Louis Lambert International Airport, Kansas City International Airport STL, MCI M MS Gulfport-Biloxi International Airport GPT N MT Billings Logan International Airport BIL N NC Charlotte Douglas Airport CLT L ND Fargo Hector International Airport FAR N NE Omaha Eppley Airfield OMA M NH Manchester-Boston Regional Airport MHT S NJ Newark Liberty International Airport EWR L NM Albuquerque International Sunport ABQ M NV McCarran International Airport LAS L NY John F. Kennedy International Airport JFK L OH Cleveland Hopkins International Airport CLE M OK Will Rogers World Airport OKC S OR Portland International Airport PDX L PA Philadelphia International Airport PHL L RI T. F. Green Airport PVD S SC Charleston International Airport CHS S SD none none TN Memphis International Airport MEM S TX Dallas-Fort Worth International Airport, George Bush Intercontinental Airport DFW, IAH L UT Salt Lake City International Airport SLC L VA Reagan National Airport, Norfolk International Airport DCA, ORF L, S VT none none WA Seattle-Tacoma International Airport SEA L WI General Mitchell International Airport MKE M WV Yeager Airport CRW N WY Jackson Hole Airport JAC N Table 1. Continued

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Commercial ground transportation at U.S. airports includes public transit, door-to-door shuttle van service, charter buses, limousines, rental cars, taxicabs, hotel courtesy shuttles, wheel chair services, and courier operators. Technological developments, such as transportation network companies, car-sharing operations, and driverless cars, have added more options and challenges for airport ground transportation operations.

The TRB Airport Cooperative Research Program'sACRP Legal Research Digest 39: Updated Survey of Laws and Regulations Applicable to Airport Commercial Ground Transportation builds on ACRP LRD 3: Survey of Laws and Regulations of Airport Commercial Ground Transportation from 2008 and synthesizes available guidance, including regulations, statutes, policies, and case decisions (administrative or court) pertaining to commercial ground transportation.

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