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2020 N A T I O N A L C O O P E R A T I V E H I G H W A Y R E S E A R C H P R O G R A M NCHRP RESEARCH REPORT 950 Proposed AASHTO Guides for Bridge Preservation Actions George Hearn University of Colorado Boulder, CO Subscriber Categories Bridges and Other Structures Research sponsored by the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials in cooperation with the Federal Highway Administration
NATIONAL COOPERATIVE HIGHWAY RESEARCH PROGRAM Systematic, well-designed, and implementable research is the most effective way to solve many problems facing state departments of transportation (DOTs) administrators and engineers. Often, highway problems are of local or regional interest and can best be studied by state DOTs individually or in cooperation with their state universities and others. However, the accelerating growth of highway transporta- tion results in increasingly complex problems of wide interest to high- way authorities. These problems are best studied through a coordinated program of cooperative research. Recognizing this need, the leadership of the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO) in 1962 ini- tiated an objective national highway research program using modern scientific techniquesâthe National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP). NCHRP is supported on a continuing basis by funds from participating member states of AASHTO and receives the full cooperation and support of the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), United States Department of Transportation, under Agree- ment No. 693JJ31950003. The Transportation Research Board (TRB) of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine was requested by AASHTO to administer the research program because of TRBâs recognized objectivity and understanding of modern research practices. TRB is uniquely suited for this purpose for many reasons: TRB maintains an extensive com- mittee structure from which authorities on any highway transportation subject may be drawn; TRB possesses avenues of communications and cooperation with federal, state, and local governmental agencies, univer- sities, and industry; TRBâs relationship to the National Academies is an insurance of objectivity; and TRB maintains a full-time staff of special- ists in highway transportation matters to bring the findings of research directly to those in a position to use them. The program is developed on the basis of research needs iden- tified by chief administrators and other staff of the highway and transportation departments, by committees of AASHTO, and by the FHWA. Topics of the highest merit are selected by the AASHTO Special Committee on Research and Innovation (R&I), and each year R&Iâs recommendations are proposed to the AASHTO Board of Direc- tors and the National Academies. Research projects to address these topics are defined by NCHRP, and qualified research agencies are selected from submitted proposals. Administration and surveillance of research contracts are the responsibilities of the National Academies and TRB. The needs for highway research are many, and NCHRP can make significant contributions to solving highway transportation problems of mutual concern to many responsible groups. The program, however, is intended to complement, rather than to substitute for or duplicate, other highway research programs. Published research reports of the NATIONAL COOPERATIVE HIGHWAY RESEARCH PROGRAM are available from Transportation Research Board Business Office 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 and can be ordered through the Internet by going to https://www.nationalacademies.org and then searching for TRB Printed in the United States of America NCHRP RESEARCH REPORT 950 Project 14-36 ISSN 2572-3766 (Print) ISSN 2572-3774 (Online) ISBN 978-0-309-67357-0 Library of Congress Control Number 2020947848 Â© 2020 National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. COPYRIGHT INFORMATION Authors herein are responsible for the authenticity of their materials and for obtaining written permissions from publishers or persons who own the copyright to any previously published or copyrighted material used herein. Cooperative Research Programs (CRP) grants permission to reproduce material in this publication for classroom and not-for-profit purposes. Permission is given with the understanding that none of the material will be used to imply TRB, AASHTO, FAA, FHWA, FTA, GHSA, NHTSA, or TDC endorsement of a particular product, method, or practice. It is expected that those reproducing the material in this document for educational and not-for-profit uses will give appropriate acknowledgment of the source of any reprinted or reproduced material. For other uses of the material, request permission from CRP. NOTICE The research report was reviewed by the technical panel and accepted for publication according to procedures established and overseen by the Transportation Research Board and approved by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. The opinions and conclusions expressed or implied in this report are those of the researchers who performed the research and are not necessarily those of the Transportation Research Board; the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine; the FHWA; or the program sponsors. The Transportation Research Board; the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine; and the sponsors of the National Cooperative Highway Research Program do not endorse products or manufacturers. Trade or manufacturersâ names appear herein solely because they are considered essential to the object of the report.
The National Academy of Sciences was established in 1863 by an Act of Congress, signed by President Lincoln, as a private, non- governmental institution to advise the nation on issues related to science and technology. Members are elected by their peers for outstanding contributions to research. Dr. Marcia McNutt is president. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to bring the practices of engineering to advising the nation. Members are elected by their peers for extraordinary contributions to engineering. Dr. John L. Anderson is president. The National Academy of Medicine (formerly the Institute of Medicine) was established in 1970 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to advise the nation on medical and health issues. Members are elected by their peers for distinguished contributions to medicine and health. Dr. Victor J. Dzau is president. The three Academies work together as the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine to provide independent, objective analysis and advice to the nation and conduct other activities to solve complex problems and inform public policy decisions. The National Academies also encourage education and research, recognize outstanding contributions to knowledge, and increase public understanding in matters of science, engineering, and medicine. Learn more about the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine at www.nationalacademies.org. The Transportation Research Board is one of seven major programs of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. The mission of the Transportation Research Board is to provide leadership in transportation improvements and innovation through trusted, timely, impartial, and evidence-based information exchange, research, and advice regarding all modes of transportation. The Boardâs varied activities annually engage about 8,000 engineers, scientists, and other transportation researchers and practitioners from the public and private sectors and academia, all of whom contribute their expertise in the public interest. The program is supported by state transportation departments, federal agencies including the component administrations of the U.S. Department of Transportation, and other organizations and individuals interested in the development of transportation. Learn more about the Transportation Research Board at www.TRB.org.
C O O P E R A T I V E R E S E A R C H P R O G R A M S CRP STAFF FOR NCHRP RESEARCH REPORT 950 Christopher J. Hedges, Director, Cooperative Research Programs Lori L. Sundstrom, Deputy Director, Cooperative Research Programs Waseem Dekelbab, Senior Program Officer Tyler Smith, Senior Program Assistant Eileen P. Delaney, Director of Publications Natalie Barnes, Associate Director of Publications Kami Cabral, Editor NCHRP PROJECT 14-36 PANEL Field of MaintenanceâArea of Maintenance of Way and Structures Paul N. Cooley, California Department of Transportation, Sacramento, CA Bruce V. Johnson, Oregon Department of Transportation, Salem, OR (retired) Richard I. Kerr, Florida Department of Transportation, Tallahassee, FL (retired) Sarah M. Wilson, Illinois Department of Transportation, Schaumburg, IL Anwar S. Ahmad, FHWA Liaison James W. Bryant, Jr., TRB Liaison
NCHRP Research Report 950: Proposed AASHTO Guides for Bridge Preservation Actions presents the development of two AASHTO guides for bridge preservation, including a general guide to preservation of highway bridges and a guide to preservation of highway bridge decks. Both guides are based on comprehensive data collection, cost and benefit analyses, and the development of catalogs of bridge element preservation actions. The material in this report can be implemented into any bridge management system and will be of immediate interest to bridge engineers to ensure public safety and preserve bridges. Many transportation departments have significant practical experience with bridge preservation and have developed conclusions regarding the effectiveness of bridge preser- vation actions based on those experiences. However, limited efforts have been made to identify, measure, evaluate, and document the short- and long-term performance of specific bridge preservation actions. Bridge preservation consists of actions to deter or correct deterioration of a bridge to extend its useful service life and does not entail struc- tural or operational improvements beyond the originally designed strength or capacity of the bridge. Often practitioners apply preservation strategies on the basis of judgment or common sense using available resources. However, it is difficult to translate these strategies into coherent and convincing arguments in the absence of a quantitative measurement of bridge preservation effectiveness. Research was performed under NCHRP Project 14-36 by the University of Colorado Boulder to develop bridge and deck preservation guides for possible adoption by AASHTO. The proposed AASHTO guides were developed based on data collected from representative agencies and include (1) catalogs of bridge element preservation actions and (2) the criteria and selection methodologies of bridge preservation actions, with associated costs and benefits for use in life-cycle cost analysis and possible integration into a bridge management system. F O R E W O R D By Waseem Dekelbab Staff Officer Transportation Research Board
1 Chapter 1 Overview 2 Chapter 2 Bridge Preservation 2 Definition of Bridge Preservation 3 Bridge Components 3 Preservation Actions 4 Basis of Preservation Action 4 Benefits of Preservation 10 Chapter 3 Current Practice in Bridge Preservation 10 Literature Search 10 Method of Search 11 Review 12 State Summaries of Current Practice in Bridge Preservation 12 Definitions of Bridge Preservation and Related Terms 15 Selection of Preservation Actions for Bridges 17 Actions for Bridges 17 Intervals for Actions 17 Costs of Actions 17 Methods, Procedures, and Specifications for Actions 18 Performance Measures 19 Chapter 4 Context, Performance, and Cost of Bridge Preservation Actions 19 Information on Bridge Actions from State DOTs 19 State DOT Bridge Preservation Data 21 Use of State Data on Bridge Actions 21 Performance of Actions 23 State DOTs and Data on Preservation Actions 25 Highway Bridge Deck Treatments 26 Performance of Treatments of Bridge Decks 27 Unit Costs of Preservation Actions 28 Chapter 5 Guides to Preservation 28 List of Articles: Guide to Bridge Preservation Actions 33 List of Articles: Guide to Preservation of Highway Bridge Decks 38 References and Other Resources 41 Acronyms, Abbreviations, Notations, and Symbols C O N T E N T S
42 Appendix A Detailed Information on the Current Practice in Bridge Preservation 84 Appendix B Summaries of Information from State DOTs 85 Appendix C Detailed Information on the Context, Performance, and Cost of Bridge Preservation Actions 115 Appendix D Bridge Guide 116 Appendix E Deck Guide Note: Photographs, figures, and tables in this report may have been converted from color to grayscale for printing. The electronic version of the report (posted on the web at www.trb.org) retains the color versions.