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Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Committee and Staff Bios." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Report Series: Committee on Planetary Protection: Planetary Protection for the Study of Lunar Volatiles. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26029.
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E

Committee and Staff Bios

JOSEPH K. ALEXANDER, Chair, is a consultant in science and technology policy. He was a senior program officer with the Space Studies Board (SSB) of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine from 2005 until 2013, and he served as SSB director from 1998 until 2005. Prior to joining the National Academies, he was deputy assistant administrator for science in EPA’s Office of Research and Development where he coordinated a broad spectrum of environmental science and led strategic planning. From 1993 to 1994, he was associate director of space sciences at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) and served concurrently as acting chief of the Laboratory for Extraterrestrial Physics. From 1987 until 1993, he was assistant associate administrator at NASA’s Office of Space Science and Applications where he coordinated planning and provided oversight of all scientific research programs. He also served from 1992 to 1993 as acting director of life sciences. Prior positions have included deputy NASA chief scientist, senior policy analyst at the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy, and research scientist at NASA GSFC. His research interests were in radio astronomy and space physics. He has a B.A. and M.A. in physics from the College of William and Mary. His book, Science Advice to NASA: Conflict, Consensus, Partnership, Leadership, was published in 2017. He has served on multiple National Academies’ committees, including the Committee to Review the Report of the NASA Planetary Protection Independent Review Board (chair), the Committee on the Review of Planetary Protection Policy Development Processes (chair), and the Committee on the Review of NASA’s Planetary Science Division’s Restructured Research and Analysis Programs (member).

ANGEL ABBUD-MADRID is the director of the Center for Space Resources at the Colorado School of Mines, where he leads a research program focused on the human and robotic exploration of space and the utilization of its resources. Dr. Abbud-Madrid is also the director of the Space Resources Graduate Program aimed at educating scientists, engineers, economists, entrepreneurs, and policy makers in the field of extraterrestrial resources. He has more than 30 years of experience conducting experiments in NASA’s low-gravity facilities, such as drop towers, parabolic-flight aircraft, the space shuttle, and the International Space Station and received the NASA Astronauts’ Personal Achievement Award for his contributions to the success of human spaceflight. He is currently the president of the Space Resources Roundtable, an international organization focused on lunar, asteroidal, and planetary resources studies. In addition, Dr. Abbud-Madrid is an observer and technical panel member of The Hague International Space Resources Governance Working Group. He received his Ph.D. in mechanical and aerospace engineering from the University of Colorado, Boulder.

ANTHONY COLAPRETE is a planetary scientist at NASA Ames Research Center in the Space Sciences Division. His research interests include planetary exploration, in situ resource utilizations, volatiles, and radiative transfer. With more than 20 years of experience, Dr. Colaprete has worked on a variety of space projects ranging from sounding rockets and space shuttle flights, to micro and small satellites. Prior to joining NASA Ames, he was a principle investigator at the SETI Institute, a National Research Council associate at NASA Ames, and a space scientist at the Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics and the Colorado Space Grant Consortium. Dr. Colaprete is the recipient of the 2016 H. Julian Allen Award.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Committee and Staff Bios." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Report Series: Committee on Planetary Protection: Planetary Protection for the Study of Lunar Volatiles. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26029.
×

He received his Ph.D. in astrophysical, planetary, and atmospheric science from the University of Colorado, Boulder.

MICHAEL J. DALY is a professor in the Department of Pathology at the Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences School of Medicine in Bethesda, Maryland. Dr. Daly is an expert in the study of bacteria belonging to the family Deinococcaceae, which are some of the most radiation-resistant organisms yet discovered. He received his Ph.D. in molecular biology at Queen Mary University of London. He has served on multiple National Academies’ committees, including the Committee on Planetary Protection Requirements for Sample-Return Missions from Martian Moons, the Committee for the Planetary Protection Standards for Icy Bodies in the Outer Solar System, the Committee on Planetary Protection Requirements for Venus Missions, the Committee on the Origins and Evolution of Life, the Committee on the Astrophysical Context of Life, and the Task Group on the Forward Contamination of Europa.

DAVID P. FIDLER is an adjunct senior fellow for cybersecurity and global health at the Council on Foreign Relations and is the James Louis Calamaras Professor of Law (emeritus) at the Indiana University Maurer School of Law. He works on international law and global governance issues across many policy areas, including cyberspace, global health, outer space, national security, environmental protection, terrorism, and weapons of mass destruction. Current activities include research on the COVID-19 pandemic, cybersecurity law, and emerging challenges in global space governance. He is the recipient of a Fulbright New Century Scholar Award. Fidler received his J.D. from Harvard Law School. He has served on numerous National Academies’ committees, including the Committee to Review the Report of the NASA Planetary Protection Independent Review Board and the Committee to Review Planetary Protection Policy Development Processes.

SARAH A. GAVIT is the deputy division manager for the Communications, Radar and Tracking Division at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). She has more than 35 years of engineering and management experience. Previous assignments at JPL include serving as the assistant director for engineering and science, the project manager for the Dawn mission and the Deep Space 2 Mars Microprobe Project, the project system engineer for the Prometheus and Kepler missions, the fault protection system engineer for the Cassini mission, and as the Mars System Sterilization Study lead. Early in her career at Martin Marietta, Ms. Gavit was a mission and system engineer for the Magellan mission to Venus. She operated her own business as a private consultant to NASA for spacecraft system engineering and project management and frequently served on technical, management, and cost panels for space mission evaluations. Ms. Gavit received her M.S. in aeronautical and astronautical engineering from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

AMANDA R. HENDRIX is a senior scientist with the Planetary Science Institute. Her research interests focus on moons and small bodies in the solar system to understand composition, activity, and evolution. Dr. Hendrix is the director of NASA’s SSERVI TREX node, previously a co-investigator on the Cassini UVIS and Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter LAMP teams, was a co-investigator on the Galileo UVS team and served as the Cassini deputy project scientist. In 2016, she published a book with co-author Charles Wohlforth, Beyond Earth: Our Path to a New Home in the Planets, a discussion of the technological, medical, and social hurdles to overcome in considering a human space establishment in the outer solar system. Dr. Hendrix is co-chair of the Roadmaps to Ocean Worlds group, serves as a steering committee member of the Outer Planets Assessment Group (OPAG), and is a member of the Hubble Space Telescope Europa Advisory Committee. She earned her Ph.D. in aerospace engineering with an emphasis in planetary science from the University of Colorado, Boulder. Dr. Hendrix has served on various National Academies’ committees, including the Committee on the Review of Progress Toward Implementing the Decadal Survey Vision and Voyages for Planetary Sciences.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Committee and Staff Bios." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Report Series: Committee on Planetary Protection: Planetary Protection for the Study of Lunar Volatiles. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26029.
×

ANDREW D. HORCHLER is the principal research scientist at Astrobotic, where he leads the research and development of robotics hardware and software for advanced space applications. Dr. Horchler has fielded more than a dozen mobile robot platforms over the past 20 years and has published over 60 papers, proceedings, and patents. His robots have been tested on simulated lunar regolith at NASA Glenn Research Center’s SLOPE laboratory, on tortuous rubble piles and desert terrain for NASA and NIST field tests, and have flown in caves and icy lava tubes. He leads the development of a navigation sensor for precision landing that will fly on Astrobotic’s first lunar mission and a hazard detection sensor that will safely land NASA’s VIPER rover on the south pole of the Moon in 2023. Dr. Horchler also supports rover system development and served as principal investigator for Astrobotic’s lunar “CubeRover” platform as well as software to aid mission planners in formulating rover missions under the unique lighting conditions at the poles of the Moon. Prior to joining Astrobotic, he was the technical lead for Case Western Reserve University’s self-driving car team for DARPA’s Urban Challenge where he led the creation and testing of driving behaviors and developed real time trajectory planning and mapping algorithms.

DAVID M. KARL is a professor of oceanography at the University of Hawaii. His research interests include marine microbial ecology, biogeochemistry, long-term time-series studies of climate and ecosystem variability, and the ocean’s role in regulating the global concentration of CO2 in the atmosphere. Dr. Karl is a member of the National Academy of Sciences and has been a member of the National Academies Polar Research Board since 2002 and served on the Committee on a Science Plan for the North Pacific Research Board and the Planning Committee for the International Polar Year 2007-2008, Phase 2, the NAKFI Steering Committee Discovering the Deep Blue Sea: Research, Innovation, Social Engagement (chair), and the Committee on Principles of Environmental and Scientific Stewardship for the Exploration and Study of Subglacial Lake Environments. He received his Ph.D. in oceanography in 1978 from the Scripps Institution of Oceanography at the University of California, San Diego. He currently serves on the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences editorial board.

EUGENE H. LEVY is the Andrew Hays Buchanan professor of Astrophysics in the Department of Physics and Astronomy at Rice University. His research interests focus on theoretical cosmic physics, with emphasis on elucidating mechanisms and processes that underlie physical phenomena in planetary and astrophysical systems. Dr. Levy’s research also includes the generation and influences of magnetic fields in natural bodies, including the Earth, Sun, and planets, the theory of cosmic rays, and the theory of physical processes associated with the formation of the solar system, stars, and other planetary systems. Prior to joining Rice University, he served in various capacities at the University of Arizona, including dean of the College of Science, head of the Planetary Science Department and director of the Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, and professor of planetary science. Dr. Levy has won multiple awards, including the Alexander von Humboldt-Stiftung Senior Scientist Award by the Federal Republic of Germany, the Martin Luther King, Jr. Distinguished Leadership Award through the University of Arizona, and the NASA Distinguished Public Service Medal. He received his Ph.D. in physics from the University of Chicago. Dr. Levy has served on various committees at the National Academies, including the Committee on the Review of Planetary Protection Policy Development Processes, the Committee for US-USSR Workshop on Planetary Sciences, the Panel on Mars Sample Return, and the Planetary and Lunar Exploration Task Group.

ROBERT E. LINDBERG, JR., is an independent consultant with over 35 years of experience as an accomplished aerospace executive and entrepreneur that spans government, aerospace industry, start-ups, academic, and nonprofit sectors. Dr. Lindberg’s background and experience includes spacecraft and launch vehicle design; entry, descent, and landing; and planetary protection. Prior to his current position, he served as vice president of two small space companies: Moon Express and Vector Launch. From 2003 to 2012, he was the president and executive director of the National Institute of Aerospace (NIA). Prior to co-founding NIA, he was senior vice president with Orbital Sciences Corporation (now a division of

Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Committee and Staff Bios." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Report Series: Committee on Planetary Protection: Planetary Protection for the Study of Lunar Volatiles. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26029.
×

Northrop Grumman Corp). Dr. Lindberg was a former member of the NASA Advisory Council Science Committee and chaired its Planetary Protection Subcommittee. He is affiliated with the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (fellow) and the American Astronautical Society (fellow and past president). He received numerous honors, including the Egleston Medal from Columbia University and the Engineering Achievement Award from the University of Virginia. He has served on committees and panels for NASA, the Naval Studies Board of the National Academies, the National Security Space Architect, the Federal Aviation Administration, and the International Council on Science’s Committee on Space Research (COSPAR). Dr. Lindberg received his Eng.Sc.D. in mechanical engineering from Columbia University. He served on the National Academies’ Committee on the Navy’s Needs in Space for Providing Future Capabilities (member).

MARGARITA M. MARINOVA is an independent consultant with experience in space and planetary exploration, in both science and engineering capacities, with the overarching goal to advance human exploration through science and technology. Dr. Marinova has worked on improving rocket capabilities and reusability, gaining deeper understanding of Earth and its planetary neighbors, and applying these advancements to improve life on Earth. She has worked at Airbus Space Propulsion in engine nozzle research and development and at NASA Ames Research Center as a planetary scientist and has studied a diverse variety of extreme environments, including the High Arctic, the Sahara Desert in Egypt, and the Dry Valleys of Antarctica. Most recently she was at SpaceX as a propulsion systems responsible engineer for the vertical takeoff and landing F9R-Dev vehicle, vehicle responsible engineer for internal research and the reusability program, and senior Mars development engineer working on mission architecture and vehicle design for the Starship vehicle and its planetary missions. Dr. Marinova received her Ph.D. in planetary science from the California Institute of Technology. She served on the National Academies Committee to Review the Report of NASA’s Planetary Protection Independent Review Board.

A. DEANNE ROGERS is an associate professor with the Department of Geosciences at Stony Brook University and editor of the Journal of Geophysical Research—Planets. Prior to joining Stony Brook, Dr. Rogers was a postdoctoral fellow at the California Institute of Technology. Her research interests include using remote sensing techniques, statistical methods, laboratory spectroscopy, and thermal modeling to investigate a wide range of planetary surface processes. She manages the Earth and Planetary Remote Sensing Laboratory under the Stony Brook Center for Planetary Exploration. Dr. Rogers is the recipient of numerous awards, including the NASA Planetary Science Division Early Career Fellow, the NASA Group Achievement Award for Mars Exploration Rovers, and the NASA Group Achievement Award for the 2001 Odyssey THEMIS. She received her Ph.D. in geological sciences from Arizona State University.

GERHARD H. SCHWEHM has more than 30 years of experience working for the European Space Agency (ESA; retired) in various positions. This includes serving as the Rosetta Mission Manager from 2004 to 2013, the head of Solar System Science Operations Division at ESA-ESAC from 2007 to 2011, and the head of Planetary Missions Division at ESA-ESTEC from 2001 to 2007. During his time at ESA, Dr. Schwehm served as a member of the Interagency Space Debris Working Group, the ESA representative for the NASA Planetary Protection subgroup, and a member of the ESA Planetary Protection Working Group. He is an ex-officio of numerous mission and payload reviews and selection panels for ESA, NASA, and DLR. Dr. Schwehm received his Ph.D. in applied physics from the RuhrUniversitat Bochum.

TRISTA VICK-MAJORS is an assistant professor in the Biological Sciences Department at Michigan Technological University and a member of the SALSA (Subglacial Antarctic Lakes Scientific Access) science team. Dr. Vick-Majors currently serves on the science advisory board for the United States Ice Drilling Program. Prior to joining Michigan Technological University, she was a postdoctoral research scientist at l’Université du Québec à Montréal and at the University of Montana’s Flathead Lake Biological Station. Her main research interests focus on microbial life and biogeochemical processes in

Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Committee and Staff Bios." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Report Series: Committee on Planetary Protection: Planetary Protection for the Study of Lunar Volatiles. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26029.
×

and under ice, microbial growth under oligotrophic and energy-limited conditions in aquatic systems, and clean access to pristine subglacial aquatic environments. She has participated in three research expeditions to study permanently ice-covered lakes in the Antarctic McMurdo Dry Valleys, including the only study of the region during the onset of the austral winter, and three that accessed subglacial water under ~1 km of ice on the West Antarctic Ice Sheet and Ross Ice Shelf as part of the SALSA and WISSARD (Whillans Ice Stream Subglacial Access Research and Drilling) projects. She earned her Ph.D. in ecology and environmental sciences from Montana State University. Dr. Vick-Majors served on the National Academies Committee to Review the Report of the NASA Independent Review Board and participated in a workshop of experts convened by the Division on Earth and Life Studies on Understanding and Responding to Global Health Security Risks from Microbial Threats in the Arctic.

Staff

DANIEL NAGASAWA, Study Director, joined the SSB in 2019 and is a program officer. Before joining the SSB, he was a graduate research assistant specializing in stellar astrophysics, measuring the abundance of elements in the atmospheres of very old, metal-poor stars. Dr. Nagasawa began his research career as an undergraduate research assistant for the Cryogenic Dark Matter Search. When he began graduate school, he transitioned to designing and evaluating astronomical instrumentation, specifically ground-based spectrographs. He went on to specialize in high-resolution stellar spectroscopy and applied these techniques on stars in ultra-faint dwarf satellite galaxies of the Milky Way to study the chemical history of the Galaxy as part of the Dark Energy Survey (DES). He also developed skills in education and public outreach by teaching an observational astronomy course and writing for an outreach initiative for DES. Dr. Nagasawa earned his Ph.D. in astronomy and his M.S in physics at Texas A&M University; he earned his B.S. in physics with a concentration in astrophysics from Stanford University.

KATHERINE BOWMAN is a senior program officer with the Board on Life Sciences of the National Academies. Her activities focus on the potential implications of developments in science and technology. Dr. Bowman served as co-director of the International Commission on the Clinical Use of Human Germline Genome Editing with colleagues at the Royal Society and as director of the 2017 report Human Genome Editing: Science, Ethics, and Governance. Other recent studies in which she was involved include Biodefense in the Age of Synthetic Biology (2018) and Microbiomes of the Built Environment: A Research Agenda for Indoor Microbiology, Human Health, and Buildings (2017). She also takes part in international activities, many conducted collaboratively with the InterAcademy Partnership, that explore advances in science and their potential impacts for biological and chemical security. She received her Ph.D. in biomedical engineering from Johns Hopkins University.

MIA BROWN joined the SSB as a research associate in 2016. She comes to SSB with experience in both the civil and military space sectors and has primarily focused on policies surrounding U.S. space programs in the international sector. Some of these organizations include NASA’s Office of International and Interagency Relations, Arianespace, the United Nations Office for Disarmament Affairs (Austria), and the U.S. Department of State. From 2014 to 2015, Ms. Brown was the managing editor of the International Affairs Review. She received her M.A. in international space policy from the Space Policy Institute at the Elliott School of International Affairs at George Washington University. Prior to entering the Space Policy Institute, Ms. Brown received her M.A. in historical studies from the University of Maryland, Baltimore County, where she concentrated in the history of science, technology, and medicine and defended a thesis on the development of the 1967 Outer Space Treaty.

MEGAN CHAMBERLAIN joined the SSB and the Aeronautics and Space Engineering Board (ASEB) as a senior program assistant in September 2019. Ms. Chamberlain began her career at the National Academies in 2007 working for the Transportation Research Board in the Cooperative Research

Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Committee and Staff Bios." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Report Series: Committee on Planetary Protection: Planetary Protection for the Study of Lunar Volatiles. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26029.
×

Programs. She has assisted with meeting facilitation and administrative support of hundreds of research projects over the course of her career. Ms. Chamberlain attended the University of the District of Columbia and majored in psychology.

COLLEEN N. HARTMAN joined the National Academies in 2018, as director for both the SSB and the ASEB. After beginning her government career as a presidential management intern under Ronald Reagan, Dr. Hartman worked on Capitol Hill for House Science and Technology Committee Chairman Don Fuqua, as a senior engineer building spacecraft at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center and as a senior policy analyst at the White House. She has served as Planetary Division director, deputy associate administrator and acting associate administrator at NASA’s Science Mission Directorate, as deputy assistant administrator at NOAA, and as deputy center director and director of science and exploration at NASA Goddard. Dr. Hartman has built and launched scientific balloon payloads, overseen the development of hardware for a variety of Earth-observing spacecraft, and served as NASA program manager for dozens of missions, the most successful of which was the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE). Data from the COBE spacecraft gained two NASA-sponsored scientists the Nobel Prize in physics in 2006. She also played a pivotal role in developing innovative approaches to powering space probes destined for the solar system’s farthest reaches. While at NASA Headquarters, she spearheaded the selection process for the New Horizons probe to Pluto. She helped gain administration and congressional approval for an entirely new class of funded missions that are competitively selected, called “New Frontiers,” to explore the planets, asteroids, and comets in the solar system. She has several master’s degrees and a Ph.D. in physics. Dr. Hartman has received numerous awards, including two prestigious Presidential Rank Awards.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Committee and Staff Bios." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Report Series: Committee on Planetary Protection: Planetary Protection for the Study of Lunar Volatiles. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26029.
×
Page 43
Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Committee and Staff Bios." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Report Series: Committee on Planetary Protection: Planetary Protection for the Study of Lunar Volatiles. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26029.
×
Page 44
Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Committee and Staff Bios." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Report Series: Committee on Planetary Protection: Planetary Protection for the Study of Lunar Volatiles. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26029.
×
Page 45
Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Committee and Staff Bios." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Report Series: Committee on Planetary Protection: Planetary Protection for the Study of Lunar Volatiles. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26029.
×
Page 46
Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Committee and Staff Bios." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Report Series: Committee on Planetary Protection: Planetary Protection for the Study of Lunar Volatiles. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26029.
×
Page 47
Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Committee and Staff Bios." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Report Series: Committee on Planetary Protection: Planetary Protection for the Study of Lunar Volatiles. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26029.
×
Page 48
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Under U.S. policy and international treaty, the goals of planetary protection are to avoid both adverse changes in Earth’s environment caused by introducing extraterrestrial matter and harmful contamination of solar system bodies in order to protect their biological integrity for scientific study. The United States has long cooperated with other countries and relevant scientific communities through the Committee on Space Research (COSPAR) of the International Council for Science in developing planetary protection guidance for different categories of space missions. In the past, achieving planetary protection objectives through science-based, international-consensus guidelines proved relatively straightforward because a small number of spacefaring nations explored the solar system, predominantly through government-led and scientifically focused robotic missions.

However, interest in, and the capabilities to undertake, exploration and uses of outer space are evolving and expanding. More countries are engaging in space activities. Private-sector involvement is increasing. Planning is under way for human as well as robotic missions. As recent advisory reports have highlighted, the changes in the nature of space activities create unprecedented challenges for planetary protection.

This publication responds to NASA’s request for “a short report on the impact of human activities on lunar polar volatiles (e.g., water, carbon dioxide, and methane) and the scientific value of protecting the surface and subsurface regions of the Earth’s Moon from organic and biological contamination.” It provides an overview of the current scientific understanding, value, and potential threat of organic and biological contamination of permanently shadowed regions (PSRs), lunar research relevant to understanding prebiotic evolution and the origin of life, and the likelihood that spacecraft landing on the lunar surface will transfer volatiles to polar cold traps. It also assesses how much and which regions of the Moon’s surface and subsurface warrant protection from organic and biological contamination because of their scientific value.

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