National Academies Press: OpenBook

Guide for Quantitative Approaches to Systemic Safety Analysis (2020)

Chapter: Appendix A - Flyer to Promote the Implementation of Systemic Safety Analysis

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Page 93
Suggested Citation:"Appendix A - Flyer to Promote the Implementation of Systemic Safety Analysis." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Guide for Quantitative Approaches to Systemic Safety Analysis. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26032.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A - Flyer to Promote the Implementation of Systemic Safety Analysis." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Guide for Quantitative Approaches to Systemic Safety Analysis. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26032.
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Page 94
Page 95
Suggested Citation:"Appendix A - Flyer to Promote the Implementation of Systemic Safety Analysis." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Guide for Quantitative Approaches to Systemic Safety Analysis. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26032.
×
Page 95
Page 96
Suggested Citation:"Appendix A - Flyer to Promote the Implementation of Systemic Safety Analysis." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Guide for Quantitative Approaches to Systemic Safety Analysis. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26032.
×
Page 96

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A-1 Flyer to Promote the Implementation of Systemic Safety Analysis A P P E N D I X A This flyer is intended to serve as marketing material to promote the implementation of systemic safety management approaches. This flyer explains the concept of systemic safety analysis, tools, and resources available to implement systemic safety and the benefits of systemic safety analysis. This flyer can be distributed at conferences and meetings to promote the implementation of quantitative approaches to systemic safety analysis.

What is systemic safety management? Systemic safety management is a proactive, data-driven safety management approach that helps highway agencies program safety improvements at locations with the greatest potential for reducing crashes. Generally, one or more low-cost, proven countermeasures are implemented to address a specific crash type. Sites are prioritized for improvement using either a rating system to estimate crash potential based on the presence or absence of crash contributing factors or through the use of safety performance functions (SPFs) to estimate predicted, expected, or excess crash frequencies. With systemic safety management, sites are prioritized for safety improvement based on potential of future crashes, not crash history. How does systemic safety management di er from traditional safety management approaches? Systemic safety management diers from “hot spot” analysis in that the focus is not on addressing high-crash locations on the system often using expensive countermeasures tailored to those specific locations, but rather on low-cost countermeasures to remedy the target crash types and locations on the system where future crashes are likely to occur are mitigated with that treatment. Systemic safety management diers from a policy-based approach in that the countermeasures are not applied to all eligible locations based on policy, but are installed first at locations with the greatest potential for future crashes. What are the benefits of using a systemic safety management approach? • Adaptable to agency’s available data and resources and can be • Sites can be prioritized for improvement even without a recent history of crashes. implemented in the absence of reliable location-specic crash data. • Addresses crash types that are spread across the network rather than grouped at a few sites. • Ability to program projects further into the future based on the presence/absence of crash contributing factors that do not change frequently from year to year, like crash history. • Software tools like Safety Analyst and ViDA are available to support a systemic safety management approach. • Complements a traditional “hot spot” approach to programming safety projects. SYSTEMIC SAFETY MANAGEMENT What crash types can be addressed with a systemic safety approach? A systemic safety management approach is ideal for addressing common crash types that occur throughout the network but are not necessarily prevalent at high-crash locations. Focus crash types frequently cited in State Highway Safety Plans that can be addressed using systemic safety management include: • Lane departure • Speed-related • Rollover • Younger driver • Fixed object • Impaired driving • Head on • Pedestrians • Angle • Bicyclists • Nighttime What types of countermeasures are appropriate for systemic safety analysis? Generally, systemic safety approaches focus on applying low-cost, proven countermeasures across a number of sites on the roadway network. Examples include: Roadway segments: • Rumble strips (both shoulder and centerline) • Cable median barrier • SafetyEdgeSM • High friction surface treatments • Enhanced pavement markings • Curve warning signs • Chevrons/delineators • Lane/shoulder widening • Speed feedback signs • Tree/clear zone removal Intersections: • Signal backplates • Crosswalk enhancements – striping, signing, rectangular rapid ashing beacons • Countdown pedestrian signals • Pedestrian refuge islands • Curb extensions • Reective strips on sign posts • Mini-roundabouts • Lighting TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH BOARD National Cooperative Highway Research Program Project 17-77: Guide for Quantitative Approaches to Systemic Safety Analysis

SYSTEMIC SAFETY MANAGEMENT KEY DOCUMENTS FHWA Systemic Safety Project Selection Tool: Describes a process for implementing a systemic safety management approach. This resource provides step-by-step details on how to conduct systemic safety analysis and is intended for use by transportation safety practitioners at state, county, and local government agencies to plan, implement, and evaluate systemic safety improvement programs and projects that best meet their capabilities and needs. AASHTO Highway Safety Manual: Presents procedures and information useful for implementing the six steps of the roadway safety management process. The procedures can be used to support systemic analyses as the proce- dures use site characteristics to predict future crashes. http://www.highwaysafetymanual.org/Pages/default.aspx NCHRP Research Report 955: Guide for Quantitative Approaches to Systemic Safety Analysis: Clearly defines quantitative approaches to systemic safety analysis; contrasts systemic approaches to traditional crash-history- based and policy-based approaches; describes the tools available to highway agencies to implement systemic safety analysis; and defines the capabilities, advantages, disadvantages, and data requirements of each tool. NCHRP Research Report 893: Systemic Pedestrian Safety Analysis: Describes a seven-step process that includes compiling data, determining contributing factors, identifying treatment sites and countermeasures, and evaluating project impacts. The reference builds on the processes described in FHWA’s Systemic Safety Project Selection Tool, but includes additional steps unique to pedestrian crashes. http://onlinepubs.trb.org/online- pubs/nchrp/nchrp_rpt_893_Contractor.pdf WHAT TOOLS AND RESOURCES ARE AVAILABLE TO HELP IMPLEMENT A SYSTEMIC SAFETY MANAGEMENT APPROACH? Resources are available to help agencies implement a systemic safety management approach. They can help agencies tailor a systemic safety management program to the data and resources they have available, and provide guidance on identifying target crash types, focus facility types, applicable countermeasures, and criteria for prioritizing sites for treatment implementation. In addition, some software tools are available to conduct a systemic safety analysis. A few of the key resources include: Contributing Factors for Focus Crash Types and Facility Types: Quick Reference Guide: Assists state and local agencies interested in applying systemic safety management by providing common target crash types, their associated facility types, and contributing factors for use in a systemic safety analysis. It also provides information about specific countermeasures to address contributing factors for specific crash types on specific facility types. SOFTWARE TOOLS AASHTOWare Safety Analyst: Software for use by state and local highway agencies for highway safety management that incorporates state-of-the-art safety management approaches to identify safety improvement needs and develop a program of site-specific improvement projects. The software imple- ments the six steps of the roadway safety management process as outlined in HSM Part B and incorporates SPFs and statistical procedures to calculate average predicted, expected, and excess crash frequencies. The software provides the capability to select a countermeasure and identify the most cost-e‹ective sites for its implementation. http://www.safetyanalyst.org/ ViDA Software: Free software available through the U.S. Road Assessment Program (usRAP), used to rate the safety of individual roadway segments throughout the network based on an assessment of the presence and condition of roadway, roadside, and intersection design elements and to identify cost-e‹ective countermeasures to reduce fatal and serious-injury crashes. Free on-line training courses are available. http://www.usrap.org/ https://safety.”wa.dot.gov/systemic/”wasa13019/sspst.pdf

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Traditional approaches to safety have focused on identifying high-crash locations and implementing projects to address predominant concerns at these locations. The systemic approach to safety is a method of safety management that typically involves lower unit cost safety improvements that are widely implemented based on high risk factors.

The TRB National Cooperative Highway Research Program's NCHRP Research Report 955: Guide for Quantitative Approaches to Systemic Safety Analysis provides guidance to state departments of transportation (DOTs) and other transportation agencies on how to apply a systemic safety management approach for identifying safety improvement projects.

Material associated with the report includes NCHRP Web-Only Document 285: Developing a Guide for Quantitative Approaches to Systemic Safety Analysis and a PowerPoint of the summary of project findings and future research needs.

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