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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Options for Reducing Lead Emissions from Piston-Engine Aircraft. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26050.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Options for Reducing Lead Emissions from Piston-Engine Aircraft. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26050.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Options for Reducing Lead Emissions from Piston-Engine Aircraft. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26050.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Options for Reducing Lead Emissions from Piston-Engine Aircraft. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26050.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Options for Reducing Lead Emissions from Piston-Engine Aircraft. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26050.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Options for Reducing Lead Emissions from Piston-Engine Aircraft. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26050.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Options for Reducing Lead Emissions from Piston-Engine Aircraft. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26050.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Options for Reducing Lead Emissions from Piston-Engine Aircraft. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26050.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Options for Reducing Lead Emissions from Piston-Engine Aircraft. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26050.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Options for Reducing Lead Emissions from Piston-Engine Aircraft. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26050.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Options for Reducing Lead Emissions from Piston-Engine Aircraft. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26050.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Options for Reducing Lead Emissions from Piston-Engine Aircraft. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26050.
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Below is the uncorrected machine-read text of this chapter, intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text of each book. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

PREPUBLICATION COPY – Uncorrected Proofs Transportation Research Board Special Report 336 Options for Reducing Lead Emissions from Piston-Engine Aircraft Committee on Lead Emissions from Piston-Powered General Aviation Aircraft A Consensus Study Report of

PREPUBLICATION COPY – Uncorrected Proofs ii Transportation Research Board Special Report 336 Subscriber Categories Aviation; policy Transportation Research Board publications are available by ordering individual publications directly from the TRB Business Office, through the Internet at www.TRB.org or nationalacademies.org/trb, or by annual subscription through organizational or individual affiliation with TRB. Affiliates and library subscribers are eligible for substantial discounts. For further information, contact the Transportation Research Board Business Office, 500 Fifth Street, NW, Washington, DC 20001 (telephone 202-334-3213; fax 202-334-2519; or e-mail TRBsales@nas.edu). Copyright 2021 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America This publication was reviewed by a group other than the authors according to the procedures approved by a Report Review Committee consisting of members of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the National Academy of Medicine. This study was supported by Contract No. 693KA9-19-P-00025 by the Federal Aviation Administration. International Standard Book Number-13: International Standard Book Number-10: Digital Object Identifier: Library of Congress Control Number:

PREPUBLICATION COPY – Uncorrected Proofs iii The National Academy of Sciences was established in 1863 by an Act of Congress, signed by President Lincoln, as a private, nongovernmental institution to advise the nation on issues related to science and technology. Members are elected by their peers for outstanding contributions to research. Dr. Marcia McNutt is president. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to bring the practices of engineering to advising the nation. Members are elected by their peers for extraordinary contributions to engineering. Dr. John L. Anderson is president. The National Academy of Medicine (formerly the Institute of Medicine) was established in 1970 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to advise the nation on medical and health issues. Members are elected by their peers for distinguished contributions to medicine and health. Dr. Victor J. Dzau is president. The three Academies work together as the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine to provide independent, objective analysis and advice to the nation and conduct other activities to solve complex problems and inform public policy decisions. The National Academies also encourage education and research, recognize outstanding contributions to knowledge, and increase public understanding in matters of science, engineering, and medicine. Learn more about the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine at www.nationalacademies.org. The Transportation Research Board is one of seven major programs of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. The mission of the Transportation Research Board is to provide leadership in transportation improvements and innovation through trusted, timely, impartial, and evidence-based information exchange, research, and advice regarding all modes of transportation. The Board’s varied activities annually engage about 8,000 engineers, scientists, and other transportation researchers and practitioners from the public and private sectors and academia, all of whom contribute their expertise in the public interest. The program is supported by state departments of transportation, federal agencies including the component administrations of the U.S. Department of Transportation, and other organizations and individuals interested in the development of transportation. Learn more about the Transportation Research Board at www.TRB.org.

PREPUBLICATION COPY – Uncorrected Proofs iv Consensus Study Reports published by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine document the evidence-based consensus on the study’s statement of task by an authoring committee of experts. Reports typically include findings, conclusions, and recommendations based on information gathered by the committee and the committee’s deliberations. Each report has been subjected to a rigorous and independent peer-review process and it represents the position of the National Academies on the statement of task. Proceedings published by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine chronicle the presentations and discussions at a workshop, symposium, or other event convened by the National Academies. The statements and opinions contained in proceedings are those of the participants and are not endorsed by other participants, the planning committee, or the National Academies. For information about other products and activities of the National Academies, please visit www.nationalacademies.org/about/whatwedo.

PREPUBLICATION COPY – Uncorrected Proofs v COMMITTEE ON LEAD EMISSIONS FROM PISTON-POWERED GENERAL AVIATION AIRCRAFT AMY R. PRITCHETT, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Chair BRIAN J. GERMAN, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta JACK D. GRIFFITH (NAS), University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill KIMBERLY A. KENVILLE, University of North Dakota, Grand Forks MARIE LYNN MIRANDA, University of Notre Dame, South Bend, IN ROBERT A. K. MITCHELL (NAE), Northrop Grumman Aerospace Systems (retired), Alpine, CA GLENN W. PASSAVANT, Ingevity Corporation (retired), Tecumseh, MI BERNARD I. ROBERTSON (NAE), Daimler Chrysler Corporation (retired), Bloomfield Hills, MI JAY R. TURNER, Washington University, St. Louis, MO ASCIATU J. WHITESIDE, Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport, Arlington, TX Staff RAYMOND A. WASSEL, Scholar THOMAS R. MENZIES, JR., Director, Consensus and Advisory Studies MICAH HIMMEL, Senior Program Officer, Consensus and Advisory Studies CLAUDIA SAULS, Program Coordinator, Consensus and Advisory Studies

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PREPUBLICATION COPY – Uncorrected Proofs vii Preface In Section 177 of the FAA Reauthorization Act of 2018 (P.L. 115-254), Congress called on the Secretary of Transportation to arrange for a study of aviation gasoline by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine (the National Academies). Congress indicated that the study should include assessment of: (1) Existing non-leaded fuel alternatives to the aviation gasoline used by piston-powered general aviation aircraft; (2) Ambient lead concentrations at and around airports where piston- powered general aviation aircraft are used; and (3) Mitigation measures to reduce ambient lead concentrations, including increasing the size of run-up areas, relocating run-up areas, imposing restrictions on aircraft using aviation gasoline, and increasing the use of motor gasoline in piston-powered general aviation aircraft. Chapter 1 of this report provides additional information about the committee’s Statement of Task. To carry out that congressional request, the National Academies formed a committee of 10 members providing expertise in air pollution modeling and monitoring, airport planning and operations, regulation of aviation fuels and emissions, exposure and health risk assessment, statistics, mechanical and aviation engineering, transportation systems analysis, aviation fuel performance, and general aviation piloting. Six members are currently affiliated with academic institutions; four are currently with or retired from the private sector; two have held positions in government agencies. Several members are or have been active pilots. (Committee biographical information is provided in Appendix A.) In the course of preparing its report, the committee held public information-gathering sessions on November 19-20, 2019, and February 18-19, 2020, to hear presentations from and have discussions with: Raymond Best, Textron Aviation; Elliott Black, Boyd Rodeman, Warren Gillette, Monica Merritt, and Mark Rumizen, Federal Aviation Administration; Christopher Cooper, Aircraft Owners and Pilots Association; Chris D’Acosta, Swift Fuels; Megan Eisenstein, National Air Transportation Association; Philip Fine, South Coast Air Quality Management District, CA; Walter Desrosier and Lowell Foster, General Aviation Manufacturers Association; Amanda Giang, University of British Columbia; Marion Hoyer, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency; Jeffrey Knutson, Cirrus Aircraft; Mike Kraft and Jennifer Miller, Lycoming Engines; Ryan Manor, Phillips 66; Doug Macnair, Experimental Aircraft Association; Jeremy Roesler, University of North Dakota; Tim Shea, Shell. (See Appendix B for meeting agendas.) In addition, the committee is grateful to the other individuals who provided written materials to the committee. Amy R. Pritchett, Chair Committee on Lead Emissions from Piston-Powered General Aviation Aircraft

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PREPUBLICATION COPY – Uncorrected Proofs ix Reviewers This Consensus Study Report was reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine in making each published report as sound as possible and to ensure that it meets the institutional standards for quality, objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We thank the following individuals for their review of this report: FRED CORNFORTH, ConocoPhillips (retired) SHANETTA GRIFFIN, Columbus Regional Airport Authority BRUCE LANPHEAR, Simon Fraser University LOURDES MAURICE, DLM Global Solutions NEIL PATON (NAE), Howmet Corporation (retired) ROBERT OLISLAGERS, Centennial Airport ANN RICHART, Nebraska Department of Transportation NOELLE ECKLEY SELIN, Massachusetts Institute of Technology ALAN WASHBURN (NAE), U.S. Naval Postgraduate School (retired) RON WILKINSON, AvSouth LLC Although the reviewers listed above provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions or recommendations of this report nor did they see the final draft before its release. The review of this report was overseen by DAVID ALLEN (NAE), The University of Texas at Austin, and CHRIS HENDRICKSON (NAE), Carnegie Mellon University. They were responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with the standards of the National Academies and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content rests entirely with the authoring committee and the National Academies.

PREPUBLICATION COPY – Uncorrected Proofs x Contents Abbreviations and Acronyms xi Summary 1 1 Introduction 13 2 Background on the Piston-Engine Aircraft Fleet and Airports 23 3 General Aviation Lead Emissions and Their Potential Health Impacts 33 4 Changing Operations and Practices at Airports to Reduce Aviation Lead 59 5 Existing Fuel Options for Piston-Engine Aircraft to Reduce Lead 71 6 Potential Future Lead-Free Fuels and Propulsion Systems 85 7 Conclusion 101 Appendixes A Committee Member Biographies 113 B Open-Session Meeting Agendas 117 C Statutory Provisions 120 D Ethylene Dibromide 123 E Occupational Health 124

PREPUBLICATION COPY – Uncorrected Proofs xi Abbreviations and Acronyms 100LL 100 octane low lead aviation gasoline 100VLL 100 octane very low lead aviation gasoline AAAE American Association of Airport Executives AC advisory circular ACRP Airport Cooperative Research Program ADI anti-detonation injection AKI anti-knock index ANPRM advance notice of proposed rulemaking AOPA Aircraft Owners and Pilots Association ASTM American Society for Testing and Materials avgas aviation gasoline BLL blood lead level BMEP brake mean effective pressure CAA Clean Air Act CBOB conventional gasoline for oxygenate blending CDC Centers for Disease Control and Prevention CO carbon dioxide CRC Coordinating Research Council CWA Clean Water Act dL deciliter DOT U.S. Department of Transportation E0 ethanol free gasoline EAA Experimental Aircraft Association EDB ethylene dibromide EIA U.S. Energy Information Administration EM electron microscope EPA U.S. Environmental Protection Agency ETBE Ethyl tert-butyl ether FAA Federal Aviation Administration FADEC full authority digital engine control FBO fixed base operator FOE Friends of the Earth GA general aviation GAMA General Aviation Manufacturers Association

PREPUBLICATION COPY – Uncorrected Proofs xii GAMI General Aviation Modifications, Inc. GHG greenhouse gas HC hydrocarbon LTO landing and takeoff MMT Methylcyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl MOGAS motor gasoline MON lean motor octane number MSL mean sea level MTBE Methyl tert-butyl ether NAAQS National Ambient Air Quality Standards NAFI National Association of Flight Instructors NATA National Air Transportation Association NEI EPA’s National Emissions Inventory NHANES National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey NIEHS National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences NIOSH National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health nm nanometer NPDES National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System NPIAS National Plan of Integrated Airport Systems OEM original equipment manufacturer OSHA Occupational Safety and Health Administration OTM OSHA Technical Manual PAFI Piston Aviation Fuels Initiative PEL permissible exposure limit PEM proton exchange membrane PI principal investigator PPE personal protective equipment psi pounds per square inch RBOB reformulated gasoline for oxygenate blending RFS Renewable Fuel Standard RON research octane number RVP Reid Vapor Pressure SAB Science Advisory Board SAE sampling and analysis error SAFE Society of Aviation and Flight Educators SAIB Special Airworthiness Information Bulletin SAMA Small Aircraft Manufacturers Association

PREPUBLICATION COPY – Uncorrected Proofs xiii STC supplemental type certificate TC type certificate TEL tetraethyl lead TSCA Toxic Substances Control Act TWA time-weighted average UAT ARC Unleaded Avgas Transition Aviation Rulemaking Committee UL unleaded UNC University of North Carolina VOC volatile organic compound

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Small gasoline-powered aircraft are the single largest emitter of lead in the United States, as other major emission sources such as automobile gasoline have been previously addressed. A highly toxic substance that can result in an array of negative health effects in humans, lead is added to aviation gasoline to meet the performance and safety requirements of a sizable portion of the country’s gasoline-powered aircraft.

Significantly reducing lead emissions from gasoline-powered aircraft will require the leadership and strategic guidance of the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) and a broad-based and sustained commitment by other government agencies and the nation’s pilots, airport managers, aviation fuel and service suppliers, and aircraft manufacturers, according to a congressionally mandated report from the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine.

While efforts are underway to develop an unleaded aviation fuel that can be used by the entire gasoline-powered fleet, the uncertainty of success means that other steps should also be taken to begin reducing lead emissions and exposures, notes the report, titled TRB Special Report 336: Options for Reducing Lead Emissions from Piston-Engine Aircraft.

Piston-engine aircraft are critical to performing general aviation (GA) functions like aerial observation, medical airlift, pilot training, and business transport. Other GA functions, such as crop dusting, aerial firefighting, search and rescue, and air taxi service, have particular significance to communities in rural and remote locations.

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