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13 Communities around the United States are exploring the potential for LSAVs and how these vehicles can help them achieve their transportation, mobility, and economic development goals. LSAV projects range from short pilots with simple use cases to multiphase deployment strategies in which cities are using LSAVs as a key part of the transportation system. Further, LSAVs are being deployed in a variety of operating environments or ODDs. This section aims to capture recent developments with LSAVs as they are being used across the United States (Figure 3.1). In July 2018, the research team identified only 11 LSAV projects, of which three were completed. As of October 2019, the team identified 73 projects in the United States that are in active plan- ning or implementation stages, including 11 completed projects. These projects are presented in Table 3.1. Table 3.1 includes projects of 2 to 15 months duration and notes one of three pos- sible current statuses: (1) planning, or projects in active concept development, route planning, or approvals before the official launch, including testing; (2) operational, or projects currently transporting passengers or otherwise fulfilling program goals; or (3) complete, or projects that have finished and are no longer operating. The research team identified nearly 50 other LSAV projects (including 25 in Canada that are listed in Appendix F), some subject to nondisclosure agreements, and others on military bases that have hosted the testing and piloting of automated ground transportation systems. In addition to the LSAV projects identified by the research team, other community projects to deploy automated vehicles, including LSAVs, have been in discussion for the past few years. Seventy-five percent of applications to the U.S. DOT Smart Cities Challenge launched in 2015 had an automated vehicle component. The terminology in the grant applications was generic but, in context, many proposals included LSAV options. Since the challenge, many cities have developed mobility innovation plans that include LSAV taxis and shuttles, and some MPOs have included LSAV projects in their federally required LRTPs and transportation improvement programs (TIPs). Many cities are including automated vehicles (encompassing LSAVs) in new smart mobility chapters of their comprehensive plans, corridor plans, transportation master plans, and requests for proposals (RFPs) for micromobility hubs. C H A P T E R 3 LSAV Projects
14 Low-Speed Automated Vehicles (LSAVs) in Public Transportation Figure 3.1. LSAV project use cases. Table 3.1. LSAV projects in the United States (as of October 2019). City/State Name Description Status Tempe, Arizona ASU SAV Feasibility Study and Concept Plan Concept plan for first/last mile shuttle/campus circulator serving Arizona State University Tempe campus and one of their light-rail transit stations. Planning Dublin, California LAVTA First/Last Mile Shuttle to BART station First/Last Mile shuttle to East Dublin/Pleasanton BART station on mixed-traffic roads. Planning Fairfield, California Paradise Valley Estates Shuttle Optimus Ride shuttle in a continuing care retirement community campus. Planning Miramar, California MCAS Miramar Modern Installation Mobility Active testing and planning for additional deployment on the military base and in surrounding areas. Launched February 2019. Operational Mountain View, California VTA North Bayshore Transit Connection Connection between VTA light rail and North Bayshore (a.k.a. Googleplex, a business park including Microsoft and other employers). Planning San Francisco, California Treasure Island LSAV Taxi San Francisco County Transportation Authority LSAV taxi project on Treasure Island. Planning San Jose, California The Villages/Voyage On- Demand LSAV Retirement community on-demand service. Phase 1 completed. Phase 2 testing. Planning San Ramon, California Bishop Ranch/GoMentum LSAV Testing Phase 1: Business park circulator to test signal prioritization/performance. Phase 2: First/last mile service. Testing began March 2018. Planning Denver, Colorado 61st Street AV Shuttle LSAV shuttle connecting RTD East Line 61st and Pena Station to office park where Panasonic is located. Completed August 2019. Complete
LSAV Projects 15 (continued on next page) Table 3.1. (Continued). Doraville, Georgia Assembly Yards AV Circulator LSAV mixed-use development service, first/last mile from Doraville MARTA station. Operational Honolulu, Hawaii DTS East Kapolei LSAV fixed route that includes first/last mile connections to metro stations. Planning Honolulu, Hawaii Hawaii DOT Honolulu Airport LSAV airport shuttle to rental car facility. Planning Bloomington, Indiana IU East Healthcare and Campus Circulator LSAV shuttles to serve Indiana University Health Bloomington at the Regional Academic Health Center and campus (incorporated within Bloomington transit operational assessment). Planning Tampa, Florida HART Transitway AV Shuttle LSAV shuttle route along the Marion Street Transitway, from Hillsborough Area Regional Transit Authorityâs main transit hub to downtown. Planning Tampa, Florida University of South Florida Shuttle LSAV campus circulator to run on off- street pathways at University of South Florida. Weeklong test conducted February 2019. Planning The Villages, Florida Voyage On-Demand LSAV Taxi Service On-demand LSAV taxi service and paratransit service for retirement community. Service moving to fully autonomous service 2020. Operational Atlanta, Georgia Ponce City Market AV Shuttle Connection between MARTA North Avenue station and Ponce City Market. Planning Chamblee, Georgia Downtown Chamblee AV Circulators LSAV circulator and first/last mile service (to MARTA) for a suburban downtown area (3â5 potential routes). Planning New Haven, Connecticut New Haven Fully Autonomous Vehicle Testing Pilot Program Fully Autonomous Vehicle Testing Pilot Program between two hospital campuses in downtown New Haven. Planning Washington, D.C. The Yards Point-to-point shuttle with Brookfield mixed-use development; pivot to meal delivery during COVID-19. Planning Babcock Ranch, Florida Babcock Ranch Shuttle On-demand LSAVs serving residential community connecting to retail and other amenities. Launched November 2017. Operational Clearwater, Florida Pinellas Suncoast Transit Authority Self-Driving Shuttle Downtown LSAV circulator serving tourist destinations. Planning Dunedin, Florida Pinellas Suncoast Transit Authority Self-Driving Shuttle Downtown LSAV circulator serving tourist destinations. Planning Gainesville, Florida GAToRS AV pilot project Fixed-route LSAV service between downtown Gainesville and University of Florida campus. Planning Jacksonville, Florida Ultimate Urban Circulator Phase1 Off-street testing track for 3 automated shuttles, including public demonstrations and educational events. Launched December 2017. Operational Jacksonville, Florida Ultimate Urban Circulator Phase 2 Bay Street Innovation Corridor, providing fixed-route LSAV service along one main street in downtown Jacksonville. Planning Jacksonville, Florida Ultimate Urban Circulator Phase 3 Replacement of elevated people-mover system (Jacksonville Skyway) with LSAV shuttles, and extension into downtown- adjacent neighborhoods. Planning Lake Nona, Florida Move Nona AV Shuttle Community shuttle as part of Move Nona initiative run by Beep and Bestmile. Launched September 2019. Operational City/State Name Description Status
16 Low-Speed Automated Vehicles (LSAVs) in Public Transportation Las Vegas, Nevada GoMed AV Shuttle LSAV shuttle to connect downtown with nearby medical center district across I-15. Planning Las Vegas, Nevada Las Vegas Keolis-AAA Shuttle Downtown LSAV circulator near Fremont Street tourist area, on street in mixed traffic. Operated November 2017â October 2018. Complete New York, New York Optimus Ride AV Shuttle LSAV employee shuttle at the Brooklyn Navy Yards Industrial Park to New York City Ferry. Launched August 2019. Operational Columbus, Ohio Linden Community AV Shuttles Free LSAV shuttle service in Linden neighborhood to make jobs and services easier to reach. Planning Columbus, Ohio Smart Columbus Smart Circuit Downtown Columbus LSAV circulator that connects two sides of a river. Operated December 2018âSeptember 2019. Complete Toledo, Ohio TARTA Downtown Circulator Downtown LSAV circulator between businesses, attractions, and residential development. Planning Youngstown, Ohio Smart2 AV Shuttle LSAV shuttle that connects downtown Youngstown with an adjacent medical campus. Planning Tulsa, Oklahoma Tulsa AV Circulator Downtown LSAV circulator. Planning Fort Bragg, North Carolina ARIBO Project LSAV shuttle and circulator on Fort Bragg to transport veterans to medical appointments at Womack Army Medical Center. Operated January 2016âOctober 2017. Complete Michigan National Harbor, Maryland National Harbor AV Shuttle Local Motors LSAV shuttle for residents, employees, and tourists on public roads; testing in conjunction with Maryland DOT. Planning Boston, Massachusetts Boston Seaport District Circulator LSAV on-demand service in a mixed-use employment and retail district and surrounding area in conjunction with Aptiv, Local Motors, and Optimus Ride. Launched 2017. Operational Weymouth, Massachusetts Union Point AV Circulator Exclusive test track for accessible LSAV first/last mile and circulator service in Union Point mixed-use development. Complete Ann Arbor, Michigan Mcity AV Shuttle LSAV shuttle on North Campus, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor. Launched June 2018. Operational Detroit, Michigan Bedrock Downtown Parking Shuttle LSAV shuttle to transport employees from parking structures to work in Bedrock-owned buildings. Launched June 2018. Operational Grand Rapids, Michigan Grand Rapids Autonomous Vehicle Initiative Downtown LSAV circulator that connects two sides of river, along route of the existing DASH West bus. Launched July 2019. Operational Kalamazoo, Michigan Western Michigan University AV Campus Shuttle Campus LSAV shuttle serving those with disabilities on Western Michigan University campus. Launched October 2019. Operational Rochester/ Auburn Hills, Oakland University AV Campus Shuttle LSAV circulator on Oakland University campus. Operational City/State Name Description Status Table 3.1. (Continued).
LSAV Projects 17 Arlington, Texas Phase 3 Arlington AV Pilot On-demand LSAV shuttle serving downtown and the University of Texas at Arlington community, with potential paratransit service. The Arlington RAPID project (FTA IMI Grant-funding project in partnership with Via, May Mobility, and UTA) is in the development phase currently. Launch AV planned March 2021 five vehicle fleet, operating for 12 months. Planning Austin, Texas Capital Metro Driverless Bus Pilot Project LSAV circulator between Capital Metro downtown transit station at Convention Center and Central Library. Planning Austin, Texas Austin-Bergstrom International Airport Shuttle LSAV people-mover shuttle between terminal and rental car facility. Planning Bryan, Texas Downtown Bryan LSAV Shuttle LSAV shuttle deployment in downtown Bryan led by Texas A&M Universityâs Mechanical Engineering Department. Completed November 2018. Complete Bryan/College Station, Texas TTI/Texas A&M University LSAV Campus Shuttle Navya LSAV campus shuttle on Texas A&M Universityâs College Station campus. Launched August 2019. Operational Corpus Christi, Texas RTA-TAMUCC AV Shuttle Project Corpus Christi Regional Transportation Authority (RTA) and Texas A&M University campus LSAV circulator at Texas A&M University (Corpus Christi). Planning Corpus Christi, Texas RTA Paratransit On-demand LSAV paratransit. Planning DFW Airport, Texas Dallas-Fort Worth International Airport Parking Lot Shuttle Shuttle from remote parking lot to main parking area at DFW airport. Complete Middletown, Pennsylvania Pennsylvania DOT Middletown Shuttle LSAV shuttle from Penn State UniversityâHarrisburg to Amtrak Middletown station and Harrisburg airport. Planning Pawtucket, Rhode Island Rhode Island DOT project: Quonset Office Park AV Shuttle Office park LSAV first/last mile route to/from commuter rail station, for testing âLittle Roadyâ pilot. Launched February 2019. Complete Providence, Rhode Island Rhode Island DOT âLittle Roadyâ Autonomous Shuttle Pilot Project Connector LSAV shuttle between Olneyville (commercial district) and downtown Providence Amtrak Station. Scheduled to operate May 2019âMay 2020. Report pending. Complete Greenville, South Carolina Autonomous Mobility District: Phase I Verdae Retail and residential LSAV shuttle at mixed-use Verdae development. Planning Greenville, South Carolina Autonomous Mobility District: Phase II Parker LSAV taxi service to health care services in low-income neighborhood west of downtown Greenville. Planning Greenville, South Carolina Autonomous Mobility District: Phase 0 ICAR Publicâprivate partnership to demonstrate on-demand LSAV taxis in International Center for Automotive Research (ICAR) business park campus. Planning Arlington, Texas Drive.ai Shuttle in Arlington Entertainment District Weekday LSAV on-demand shuttle on fixed route connecting sites within Entertainment District. Operated October 2018âMay 2019. Complete Arlington, Texas Milo Autonomous Shuttle Off-street LSAV shuttle from stadiums to remote parking during sports and entertainment events. Operated August 2017âAugust 2018. Complete City/State Name Description Status Table 3.1. (Continued). (continued on next page)
18 Low-Speed Automated Vehicles (LSAVs) in Public Transportation Arlington, Virginia Fort Myer Autonomous Shuttles Military base LSAV circulator that connects community center, dining, health clinic, and barracks. Future phases may connect to Arlington Cemetery, Pentagon, Metro stations. Complete Crozet, Virginia AV Neighborhood Use LSAV circulator and connection service for retirement community. Launched July 2019. Operational Merrifield, Virginia Mosaic District Shuttle Shared LSAV shuttle providing first/last mile service between new mixed-use district in Merrifield and Dunn-Loring Metro station. Launched October 2020. Operational Reston, Virginia Brookfield Properties Halley Rise Shuttle LSAV providing connection between Reston Town Center Metro station and new mixed-use development. Completed October 2019. Complete SeaTac, Washington Center for Advanced Transportation and Energy Solutions (CATES) AV Action Plan LSAV shuttle providing first/last mile service to/from Tukwila light-rail station. Planning City/State Name Description Status Frisco, Texas Frisco Drive.ai Shuttle Office park LSAV circulator funded by Drive.ai for pilot service. Completed March 2019. Complete Houston, Texas Houston METRO AV Shuttle Phase 2 First/Last Mile LSAV service to nearby Houston METRO light-rail station. AIM funded. Launch September 2021. Planning Houston, Texas Houston Metro University District Circulator Pilot Campus LSAV shuttle at Texas Southern University. Launched June 2019. Operational San Antonio, Texas City Innovation Zones LSAV implementation in innovation zones: Brooks mixed-use development to transport employees, visitors (expected first location); and South Texas Medical Center campus for first/last mile service for employees, visitors, and patients. Planning San Antonio, Texas City Employee Shuttle LSAV shuttle to transport employees between city buildings in downtown San Antonio. Planning San Antonio, Texas Joint Base San Antonio Shuttle LSAV shuttle to transport base employees between building locations. Planning Salt Lake City, Utah Utah DOT/UTA AV Pilot Program Series of 3- to 5-week LSAV shuttle pilots to connect to fixed-route transit in a variety of operating environments and locations. Report to be finalized December 2020. Complete Table 3.1. (Continued).