Below is the uncorrected machine-read text of this chapter, intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text of each book. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.
35 Acronyms ADS automated driving system ARIBO Applied Robotics for Installations and Base Operations AV automated vehicle CMAQ Congestion Mitigation and Air Quality Improvement Program CONOPS concept of operations DDT dynamic driving task DOT Department of Transportation DSRC dedicated short-range communication FMVSS Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards HMI humanâmachine interface LiDAR light detecting and ranging LRTP long-range transportation plan LSAV low-speed automated vehicle MPO metropolitan planning organization NEV neighborhood electric vehicle ODD operational design domain RFP request for proposals RSU roadside unit SAE SAE International SOP standard operating procedure TIP transportation improvement program V2I vehicle to infrastructure V2V vehicle to vehicle V2X vehicle to anything Glossary Automated driving system (ADS): The hardware and software collectively capable of performing an entire dynamic driving task on a sustained basis, regardless of whether the task is limited to a specific operational design domain. This term is used specifically to describe a Level 3, 4, or 5 driving automation system.1 In contrast with âADS,â the generic term âdriving automation systemâ refers to any Level 1 to 5 system or feature that performs part or all of the DDT on a sustained basis. Given the Acronyms and Glossary 1 As defined in SAE International, âTaxonomy and Definitions for Terms Related to Driving Automation Systems for On-Road Motor Vehicles,â Document J3016, issued January 2014, revised June 2018.
36 Low-Speed Automated Vehicles (LSAVs) in Public Transportation similarity between the generic term âdriving automation systemâ and the Level 3-, 4-, and 5-specific terms, this research uses highly automated vehicles for Levels 3 and above. Automated vehicle (AV): SAE has defined six levels of automation from Level 0 to Level 5. Level 0 has no driving automation. In Level 1 (Driver Assistance) and Level 2 (Partial Driving Automation), except for the assistance areas specified, the driver remains in control of all driving tasks. At Level 1, some driver-assistance features are included in the vehicle design. Level 2 has combined automated functions, such as acceleration and steering. Level 3 (Conditional Driving Automation) is the lowest tier of an ADS; vehicles at this level can make informed decisions but still require that the driver be ready to take control of the vehicle at all times with notice. Level 4 (High Driving Automation) means the vehicle is capable of performing all driving functions under certain conditions; that is, the driver may have the option to control the vehicle. In Level 5 (Full Driving Automation), human driving is completely eliminated.2 Conventional vehicle: A vehicle designed to be operated by a conventional driver during part or all of every trip.3 A conventional vehicle may be equipped with one or more Level 1 or 2 driving automation system features that support the driver in performing a DDT but do not perform the complete DDT, as well as Level 3 and 4 ADS features that require a conventional driver to operate the vehicle during portions of each trip. That is, a conventional driver is required for at least part of every trip. Dynamic driving task (DDT): All real-time operational and tactical functions required to operate a vehicle in on-road traffic, excluding strategic functions such as trip scheduling and selection of destinations and waypoints.4 Fallback: The response by the user to either perform a DDT or achieve a minimal risk condition after the occurrence of a DDT performanceârelevant system failure or on ODD exit, or the response by an ADS to achieve minimal risk condition, given the same circumstances.5 High driving automation: Level 4 in the SAE levels of automation. The sustained and ODD- specific performance by an ADS of the entire DDT and DDT fallback, without any expectation that a user will respond to a request to intervene.6 LiDAR: Light detection and ranging, a surveying method that measures the distance to a target by illuminating the target with pulsed laser light and measuring the reflected pulses with a sensor. Low-speed automated vehicle (LSAV): LSAVs include vehicles such as highly automated vehicle shuttles (SAE Level 4) that can accommodate six to 22 passengers and pod cars that can carry one to six passengers. The vehicles may also be retrofitted conventional vehicles, either NEVs or light duty vehicles such as vans. Other LSAVs are purpose-built low-floor shuttle vehicles with high ceilings, which can carry four to 10 seated passengers and some standing passengers. Some LSAVs travel at speeds of 15 mph, but vehicles programmed to operate up to 25 mph have been introduced into mixed traffic. Projects are in the planning stage for LSAVs capable of speeds up to 35 mph. 2 Adapted from SAE International, J3016. 3 As defined in SAE International, J3016. 4 As defined in SAE International, J3016. 5 As defined in SAE International, J3016. 6 As defined in SAE International, J3016.
Acronyms and Glossary 37 Neighborhood electric vehicle (NEV): FMVSS Standard 500 defines low-speed vehicles as any four-wheeled motor vehicle that has a top speed greater than 20 mph, but not greater than 25 mph. This group includes neighborhood electric vehicles. The standard further defines NEVs as any four-wheeled electric vehicle whose top speed is not greater than 25 mph.7 On-demand service (shared): From an LSAV service model standpoint, an on-demand service is a shared service that pools multiple people headed in the same direction into one vehicle. Usually, a vehicle is dispatched when a threshold number of people has been reached or an individualâs wait reaches a certain time limit. Transportation network company services like UberPool, Lyft Line, and personal rapid transit are examples of on-demand shared services. LSAVs could effectively serve in this role as well, with an automated booking and dispatch system such as for paratransit. Operational design domain (ODD): The operating conditions under which a given driving automation system or feature is specifically designed to function, including, but not limited to, environmental, geographical, and time-of-day restrictions, and the requisite presence or absence of certain traffic or roadway characteristics.8 Paratransit: Comparable transportation service required by the ADA for individuals with disabilities who are unable to use fixed-route transportation systems.9 Shuttle: Shared vehicles that connect passengers from a common origin or destination to areas such as public transit, health care, retail, hospitality, or employment centers.10 7 49 CFR Â§ 571.500, Standard No. 500, Low-speed vehicles. 8 As defined in SAE International, J3016. 9 49 CFR 37, Transportation Services for Individuals with Disabilities. 10 Adapted from SAE International, J3016.