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83 Annotated Bibliography A P P E N D I X B A review of the literature referenced provides background information for the synthesis. Keywords used were transportation emergency plan; airport emergency plan; business continuity plan; continuity of operations; and irregular operations (IROPS). Addressing Significant Weather Impacts on Airports: Quick Start Guide and Toolkit This report provides a toolkit that raises airport operator awareness about vulnerabilities caused by significant weather events and helps airports develop more robust contingency and recovery plans, in addition to their airport emergency plans. This toolkit focuses on events that are ârare but plausibleâ; that is, events that may have happened in the distant past, or in adjacent geographic areas, but are not common event types at the airport itself, and therefore may not be in the forefront of the airport managersâ minds. Development of the toolkit, Airport Weather Advanced Readiness (AWARE), is based on a review of the historical weather data and impacts, as well as best practices and lessons learned from airportsâ responses to recent significant weather events. This toolkit will assist airports of various types and sizes and their stakeholders in effectively planning for, responding to, and recovering from significant weather events. The Excel-based AWARE Toolkit first helps airports identify significant weather event types that airports may wish to prepare for, drawing on historical weather data relevant to the airportâs specific location. AWARE also contains seven readiness modules that allow users to review best practices for preparing for these different weather events, assess their readiness for those events, and generate customized checklists for preparing for and recovering from weather events. The seven modules are Administration & Finance, Planning & Environment, Airfield Operations, Terminal Operations, Ground Transportation & Parking, Safety & Security, and a consolidated streamlined version of the full toolkit for Small Airports. The toolkit also contains the Impacts Tracking Moduleâa tool to help airports track the costs and other impacts of weather events (e.g., flight delays) over time as events occur. ACRP Report 160 contains a quick start guide for the toolkit, followed by a more in-depth user guide and then case studies. ICF International, Burrst, Inc., KRAMER aerotek, and S. Barrett. ACRP Report 160: Addressing Significant Weather Impacts on Airports: Quick Start Guide and Toolkit. Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, Washington, D.C., 2016. http://www.trb.org/ACRP/ACRPReport160.aspx
84 Practices in Airport Emergency Plans and others who have access or functional needs. It discusses uses of technology and other methods that incorporate Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) considerations and communication challenges with airport stakeholders, and training programs for airport personnel, including templates for development of curricula. There are case study examples of methods of emergency communication at airports and in other industries, and for universal messaging for emergency communications. Included are templates for airport emergency plans specifically addressing individuals with limited English proficiency, step-by-step tools that include a needs assessment tool that airports can use to determine what steps must be taken to comply with ADA requirements concerning communications, and templates/worksheets/checklists for planning tabletop exercises that focus on communicating with people with disabilities and access or functional needs during emergency events. IEM, Inc. ACRP Research Report 201: Airport Emergency Communications for People with Disabilities and Others with Access and Functional Needs. Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, Washington, D.C., 2019. https://apps.trb.org/cmsfeed/TRBNetProjectDisplay.asp?ProjectID=4244 Airport Emergency Post-Event Recovery Practices Emergency management theory and practice has focused primarily on the top priority of safety, especially for aircraft rescue and firefighting. As a result, while many studies and plans address emergency preparedness, mitigation, and response at airports, on the whole the recovery phase receives at best a cursory treatment. The objective of this synthesis is to gather commonalities and effective practices from representative commercial and general aviation (GA) airports regarding postevent recovery. The most directly accessible part of this report is the list of effective postdisaster airport recovery practices and lessons learned that was derived from interviews with 37 U.S. airports regarding specific recovery efforts following incidents that completely or partially closed the airport. The list, which ranges from broadly applicable practices to more detailed items, is designed to assist airport managers and planners in the development and implementation of recovery plans. The list appears as Appendix A to this report. In addition to the list in Appendix A, four case examples of actual airport recovery operations as they played out in real time illustrate the complex dynamics of the recovery process, the challenges inherent in planning for unforeseen events, and the need for creativity and strong leadership under duress. Together, the list and case examples can help guide airport managers as they shape their own individual planning process for recovery after a serious incident. Airport Emergency Communications for People with Disabilities and Others with Access and Functional Needs This report provides guidance and tools for airports to aid in effective communication with passengers and persons with disabilities, including those with cultural and language differences. The guidance incorporates a primer that discusses issues, techniques, and the unique requirements and challenges of communicating with people with disabilities
Annotated Bibliography 85 GA airports are typically found in smaller communities and have limited resources for staff, equipment, supplies, mutual aid resources, and training. Acknowledging this and compensating for it in emergency preparedness planning is imperative for providing essential services. Ultimately, it is the ownerâs responsibility to ensure that an airport is safe and well managed. Since most GA airports are publicly owned, that responsibility typically falls on the city, county, or airport authority. This guidebook describes not only how to prepare an emergency and security plan to protect the public, but also how to maintain safety in the process. Ensuring airport safety ranges from performing simple daily preventive maintenance to developing and conducting a full-scale emergency exercise. Smith, J. F., K. Kenville, and J. M. Sawyer. ACRP Synthesis 60: Airport Emergency Post- Event Recovery Practices: A Synthesis of Airport Practice. Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, Washington, D.C., 2015. https://www.nap.edu/catalog/22151/airport-emergency-post-event- recovery-practices Emergency Guidebook for General Aviation Airports University of Minnesota. Emergency Guidebook for General Aviation Airports, Minnesota Airport Technical Assistance Program (AirTAP). Minneapolis, MN: Center for Transportation Studies, University of Minnesota, 2005â2020. Retrieved from: http://www.airtap.umn.edu/publications/factsheets/documents/emergency_ guidebook.pdf Airport Terminal Incident Response Planning This report provides a scalable tool that airport operators, terminal managers, emergency managers, and planners can use to create and maintain integrated incident response plans that address hazards in and around airport terminals. The airport terminal incident response plan (TIRP) tool (available on CRP-CD-151, which accompanies this report) assists in the development of a response plan that, when implemented, would mitigate the impact of these events on the terminal users. These response plans cover natural and manmade incidents such as hurricanes, snowstorms, tornadoes, earthquakes, structural fires, electrical outages/power failures, bomb threats, security breaches, and active shooter situations for evacuation, sheltering in place, relocation, and repopulation/recovery and are applicable to a variety of sizes and types of airports and airport terminals. In addition to the TIRP tool, the report contains a userâs guide that provides a step-by-step process of generating incident response plans. The report also contains an output example that demonstrates completed TIRPs using the TIRP tool. Griffith, D., A. Moore, G. Bender, K. Ayodhirumanujan, N. Sayadi, J. Smith, A. Dodson, C. White, J. Sawyer, J. Quinn, and K. Williams. ACRP Report 112: Airport Terminal Incident Response Planning. Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, Washington, D.C., 2014. https://www.nap.edu/catalog/22333/airport-terminal-incident-response-planning
86 Practices in Airport Emergency Plans and passenger-driven needs and correspondingly enhance the design, management, and operation of airport terminals. The need for a truly multidisciplinary scientific approach which integrates information, process, people, technology, and space domains is highlighted through a brief discussion of two challenges currently faced by airport operators. The paper outlines the approach taken by this project, detailing the aims and objectives of each of seven diverse research programs. Kleinschmidt, T., A. Goonetilleke, C. B. Fookes, and P. K. D. V. Yarlagadda. A Multi- Disciplinary Approach for the Design and Management of Airport Terminals. In Proceedings of the Third International and Twenty-Fourth All India Manufacturing Technology, Design and Research Conference 2010âGlobal Trends and Challenges in Design and Manufacturing (B. Satyanarayana and K. Ramji, eds.), AUCE (A), Andhra University, Visakhapatnam, India, 2010. An Airport Director's Perspective on Disaster Planning and Mental Health Needs The director of the Minneapolis-St. Paul International Airport describes the responsibilities of major airports in disaster planning and response, including mental health needs. He discusses the impact of changes in the industry on airports' disaster plans, relevant Federal Aviation Administration regulations, and typical features of airport disaster plans. The need for psychological services is underscored by experiences in several recent crashes. Psychologists and other mental health professionals are urged to respond to airport directors' requests for assistance in planning, as well as to be more proactive in communities where these issues have yet to be addressed by airport management. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved.) Anderson, T. An Airport Directorâs Perspective on Disaster Planning and Mental Health Needs. American Psychologist, Vol. 43, No. 9, 1988, pp. 721-723. https://psycnet.apa.org/buy/1989-06285-001 An Airport Guide for Regional Emergency Planning for CBRNE Events This report addresses the details airports should cover in their hazard and threat assessments and in their airport emergency plans (AEPs) and annexes so that response to significant incidents can be more thoroughly and accurately planned. It also discusses special issues involving terrorist use of chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear, or explosive (CBRNE) materials targeted to airports, and the mutual aid that would be drawn from beyond the immediate locale. The results of an airport survey on preparedness and the highlights from selected AEPs are presented for consideration by other airports. Also, federal emergency preparedness standards are compared to the provisions of AEPs in general, with suggestions on priorities for upgrading AEPs to meet those standards. A Multidisciplinary Approach for the Design and Management of Airport Terminals Multidisciplinary approaches to complex problems are becoming more commonâthey enable criteria manifested in distinct (and potentially conflicting) domains to be jointly balanced and satisfied. This paper presents airport terminals as a case study which requires multidisciplinary knowledge in order to balance conflicting security, economic,
Annotated Bibliography 87 planning-for-cbrne-events Aspect of Reliability in Airport Business Continuity Management The paper presents the issue of ensuring the continuity of the operation at the airport. Requirements and objectives relating to business continuity management have been defined in accordance with the ISO 22301 international standard. A study of reliability issues was conducted, and the function of the reliability and operational readiness of the airport was defined. The paper presented the concept of using function of operational readiness in the risk assessment for the continuity of the airport. Continuity of Operations Planning for Small Airports Business continuity planning is the process of developing a plan for operating essential operational and business functions in the face of a disruption caused by any types of emergencies, incidents, or events. The purpose of this study was to compile information about current continuity planning practices at airports of different types and sizes and determine how they can be effectively applied to smaller airports to maintain resilient operational and business capacity during a disruption, regardless of cause. This study was explicitly not about emergency response but addresses business continuity planning for both emergency and nonemergency disruptions. This report is a companion to ACRP Report 93: Operational and Business Continuity Planning for Prolonged Airport Disruptions. This synthesis report identifies alternatives and effective approaches for continuity planning at smaller airports. A variety of resources are identified in this report that smaller airports can use to develop inexpensive, noncomplex but practical continuity plans, business continuity plans, or continuity of operations plans. Varma, A., S. Germolus, and D. Beaver. ACRP Synthesis 78: Continuity of Operations Planning for Small Airports. Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, Washington, D.C., 2016. https://www.nap.edu/catalog/23675/continuity-of-operations-planning-for- small-airports Emergency Communications Planning for Airports All airports are faced with the challenges of dealing with the flow of accurate information during emergenciesâflows within the airportâs organization, between the airport and its response partners, and between the airport and the public, either directly Stambaugh, H., D. Sensenig, T. Copping, M. Argabright, J. Ockershausen, and L. Spencer. ACRP Report 12: An Airport Guide for Regional Emergency Planning for CBRNE Events. Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, Washington, D.C., 2009. https://www.nap.edu/catalog/14221/an-airport-guide-for-regional-emergency- KozÅowski, M. Aspect of Reliability in Airport Business Continuity Management. Journal of KONBiN, Vol. 3, No. 35, pp. 2915, November 2015. DOI: 10.1515/jok-2015-0038.
88 Practices in Airport Emergency Plans The focus of the report is on emergency communications planning and is specifically designed for use by airport senior management, public information officers, and first responders and emergency managers. The report includes sample communication-plan tables of contents, field operations guides, and the checklist of effective communications plans. These materials were derived from a survey of 60 U.S. airports regarding their specific communications plans and procedures as well as from five highly detailed case examples and five additional focused interviews. The checklist is designed to assist airport managers, emergency managers, and planners in the development, implementation, and evaluation of effective communications plans or crisis communications plans. Smith, J. F., K. A. Kenville, J. M. Sawyer, and R. E. Garcia. ACRP Synthesis 73: Emergency Communications Planning for Airports. Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, Washington, D.C., 2016. https://www.nap.edu/catalog/23591/emergency-communications-planning-for- airports Establishing a Coordinated Local Family Assistance Program for Airports TRB's Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) Research Report 171: Establishing a Coordinated Local Family Assistance Program for Airports, provides guidance to airport personnel when assisting victims and families affected by an aviation disaster. This guidebook incorporates practices for planning an effective response while coordinating with different partners. The guidance is adaptable to both general aviation and commercial service airports of any size. The guidebook includes a description of key terminology, federal regulatory and statutory requirements, history and background of the Aviation Disaster Family Assistance Act, and development of a strategic plan for creating and implementing a local-airport victim and family assistance program. View the toolkit that includes customizable checklists and forms airports can use to support their family assistance program, training courses that provide an overview of the guidebook, and materials compliant with the Homeland Security Exercise and Evaluation Program. Warner-Bean, S., K. Jenkins, J. S. Miller, C. Parkins, and R. Hoaflund. ACRP Research Report 171: Establishing a Coordinated Local Family Assistance Program for Airports. Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, Washington, D.C., 2017. http://www.trb.org/ACRP/Blurbs/175605.aspx challenged to acquire and effectively use the technology. Many airports find benefits from going beyond regulatory minima for communication plans. This is true of the Federal Aviation Regulation part 139 airports as well as for the general aviation airports. An effective communication plan enhances not only safety but also customer service. or through the media. Changing technology affects all these flows, and airports are
Annotated Bibliography 89 program. The purpose is to enable the reader to âgrab and goâ from the ideas and sample exercise materials derived from a survey of 58 U.S. airports regarding specific exercise plans and procedures; and from six detailed case examples. The checklist is designed to assist airport managers, emergency managers, and planners in the development, implementation, and evaluation of effective exercise programs. Every airport in the study, general aviation as well as FAA part 139, found benefits from going beyond regulatory minima for training and exercises. Many reported that the exercise guidance in the Department of Homeland Security Exercise and Evaluation Program (HSEEP) provides the most effective model for exercises, but most of those airports noted that extensive effort is required to prepare staff to use HSEEP and to adapt the HSEEP materials to fit the airport environment. Most often, airports said that they have received valuable assistance from local-government-agency partners in developing exercises, particularly exercises using HSEEP templates and forms. Smith, J. F., R. E. Garcia, J. M. Sawyer, and K. A. Kenville. ACRP Synthesis 72: Tabletop http://www.trb.org/Publications/Blurbs/174692.aspx Tabletop and Full-Scale Emergency Exercises for General Aviation, Non-Hub, and Small Hub Airports The focus of this report is on exercise practices that can be used by small airports; that is, general aviation, reliever, nonhub, and small-hub airports. The report includes sample exercise tools and plans, the checklist of effective practices for tabletop and full - scale emergency exercises, and a road map for developing an effective exercise and Full-Scale Emergency Exercises for General Aviation, Non-Hub, and Small Hub Airports. Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, Washington, D.C., 2016.