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Practices in Airport Emergency Plans (2021)

Chapter: Glossary of Terms

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Suggested Citation:"Glossary of Terms." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Practices in Airport Emergency Plans. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26077.
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Suggested Citation:"Glossary of Terms." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Practices in Airport Emergency Plans. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26077.
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Suggested Citation:"Glossary of Terms." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Practices in Airport Emergency Plans. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26077.
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Suggested Citation:"Glossary of Terms." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Practices in Airport Emergency Plans. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26077.
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67 Glossary of Terms After-action report A document intended to capture observations of an exercise and make recommendations for postexercise improvements. The final after-action report and improve- ment plan are printed and distributed jointly as a single after-action report/improvement plan following an exercise. See after-action report/improvement plan. After-action report/improvement plan The main product of the evaluation and improve- ment planning process. The after-action report/improvement plan has two components: An after-action report, which captures observations of an exercise and makes recommendations for postexercise improvements; and an improvement plan, which identifies specific corrective actions, assigns them to responsible parties, and establishes targets for their completion. Airport emergency plan The airport emergency plan addresses essential emergency-related and deliberate actions planned to ensure the safety of and emergency services for the airport populace and the community in which the airport is located. Airport operating certificate Generally, airports in any state of the United States, the District of Columbia, or any territory or possession of the United States serving passenger- carrying operations of an air carrier certificated under 14 CFR, part 121 and 14 CFR, part 380 must hold airport operating certificates if (1) scheduled passenger-carrying operations are conducted in aircraft designed for more than nine passenger seats, and (2) unscheduled passenger- carrying operations are conducted in aircraft designed for at least 31 passenger seats. All-hazards Natural, technological, or human-caused incidents that warrant action to protect life, property, environment, and public health or safety, and to minimize disruptions. Americans with Disabilities Act and Americans with Disabilities Act Amendment Act A civil rights law that was originally passed by Congress in 1990 (as the Americans with Dis- abilities Act) and protects individuals with disabilities from discrimination in the workplace and other settings. A disability is defined as a physical or mental impairment that substantially limits one or more major life activities; the person has a record of such an impairment; and the person is regarded as having such an impairment (28 Code of Federal Regulations, sec. 36.104). Apoplectic Overcome with anger; extremely indignant. Appendix A supporting document such as a list of acronyms, a copy of statutes, or a map that provides additional guidance and references for planning. Bifurcate To divide into two branches or parts. Command The act of directing, ordering, or controlling by virtue of explicit statutory, regulatory, or delegated authority.

68 Practices in Airport Emergency Plans Common procedures Standardized, specific actions for staff to take in response to a variety of hazards, threats, or incidents. Examples include evacuation, shelter-in-place, and family reunification. Common terminology Standardized words and phrases used to ensure consistency while allowing diverse incident management and support organizations to work together across a wide variety of incident management functions and hazard scenarios. Communication, airport emergency plan A section of the basic plan that refers to the internal and external strategies and tools to communicate with stakeholders in the event of an emergency or incident. Community A political entity that has the authority to adopt and enforce laws and ordi- nances for the area under its jurisdiction. In most cases, the community is an incorporated town, city, township, village, or unincorporated area of a county; however, each state defines its own political subdivisions and forms of government. Community hazards Natural, technological, or human-caused hazards in the community that affect the airport both directly, such as damage to the airport facilities, and indirectly, such as making a road to the airport impassible. Comprehensive Preparedness Guide 101 A guide designed to assist jurisdictions with developing emergency operations plans. It promotes a common understanding of the funda- mentals of planning and decision making to help emergency planners examine a hazard and produce integrated, coordinated, and synchronized plans. Concept of operations A component of the basic plan that clarifies the airport’s overall approach to an emergency (i.e., what should happen, when, and at whose direction) and iden- tifies specialized response teams and/or innovative resources needed to respond to an incident. Continuity of operations A functional annex providing procedures to follow in the wake of an incident where the normal operations of the airport are severely disrupted. Coordinate/coordination See incident coordination. Critical infrastructure Assets, systems, and networks, whether physical or virtual, so vital to the United States that the incapacitation or destruction of such assets, systems, or networks would have a debilitating impact on security, national economic security, national public health or safety, or any combination of those matters. Cross-walk/-walked To review two or more standards of operation, plans, annexes, and so forth, to ensure the documents are deconflicted and complementary to the other; may also include ensuring information is not duplicated in either document(s). Direction, control, and coordination A component of the basic plan that outlines the coordination efforts between airports and local fire, law enforcement, and emergency managers. This section includes information on how the airport emergency plan fits into the airport and community emergency operations plans. Emergency Any incident, whether natural, technological, or human-caused, that requires responsive action to protect life or property. Under the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act, an emergency means any occasion or instance for which, in the determination of the president, federal assistance is needed to supplement state and local efforts and capabilities to save lives and to protect property and public health and safety, or to lessen or avert the threat of a catastrophe in any part of the United States. Emergency management/response personnel Includes federal, state, territorial, tribal, substate regional, and local governments; nongovernmental and private sector organizations;

Glossary of Terms 69 critical infrastructure owners and operators; and all other organizations and individuals who assume an emergency management role. Also known as an emergency or first responder. Emergency medical services Services, including personnel, facilities, and equipment required to ensure proper medical care for the sick and injured from the time of injury to the time of final disposition (which includes medical disposition within a hospital, temporary medical facility, or special care facility; release from the site; or being declared dead). Emer- gency medical services specifically include those services immediately required to ensure proper medical care and specialized treatment for patients in a hospital and coordination of related hospital services. Emergency operations center The physical location at which the coordination of infor- mation and resources to support incident management (on-scene operations) activities normally takes place. An emergency operations center may be a temporary facility or may be located in a more central or permanently established facility, perhaps at a higher level of organization within a jurisdiction. EOCs may be organized by major functional disciplines (e.g., fire, law enforcement, medical services), by jurisdiction (e.g., federal, state, regional, tribal, city, county), or by some combination thereof. Emergency operations plan An ongoing plan for responding to a wide variety of potential hazards. An emergency operations plan describes how people and property will be protected; details who is responsible for carrying out specific actions; identifies the personnel, equip- ment, facilities, supplies, and other resources available; and outlines how all actions will be coordinated. Emergency support functions Emergency support functions provide the structure for coordinating federal interagency support for a federal response to an incident. They are mechanisms for grouping functions most frequently used to provide federal support to states and federal-to-federal support, both for declared disasters and emergencies under the Stafford Act and for non–Stafford Act incidents. Evacuation The organized, phased, and supervised withdrawal, dispersal, or removal of personnel and visitors from dangerous or potentially dangerous areas. Exercise An instrument to train for, assess, practice, and improve performance in preven- tion, protection, response, and recovery capabilities in a risk-free environment. Exercises can be used for testing and validating policies, plans, procedures, training, equipment, and inter- agency agreements; clarifying and training personnel in roles and responsibilities; improving interagency coordination and communications; identifying gaps in resources; improving individual performance; and identifying opportunities for improvement. Note: Exercises are also an excellent way to demonstrate airports’ resolve to prepare for disastrous events. Federal Of or pertaining to the federal government of the United States of America. First responder See emergency management/response personnel. Full-scale exercise A multiagency, multijurisdictional, operations-based exercise involving actual deployment of resources in a coordinated response as if a real incident had occurred. A full-scale exercise tests many components of one or more capabilities within emergency response and recovery and is typically used to assess plans and procedures under crisis con- ditions and assess coordinated response under crisis conditions. Characteristics of a full-scale exercise include mobilized units, personnel, and equipment; a stressful, realistic environment; and scripted exercise scenarios. Functional annexes Individual chapters in an emergency operations plan that focus on procedures such as special needs or continuity of operations. These annexes address

70 Practices in Airport Emergency Plans all-hazards critical operational functions and describe the actions, roles, and responsibilities of airports and participating organizations. In some plans, functional annexes are referred to as emergency support functions. Functional exercise A single- or multiagency operations-based exercise designed to evaluate capabilities and multiple functions using a simulated response. Characteristics of a functional exercise include simulated deployment of resources and personnel, rapid problem solving, and a highly stressful environment. Group An organizational subdivision established to divide the incident management structure into functional areas of operation. Hazard Something that is potentially dangerous or harmful, often the root cause of an unwanted outcome. Hazard-specific annexes Individual chapters in an emergency operations plan that describe strategies for managing missions for a specific hazard. They explain the procedures that are innovative to that annex for a hazard type and may be short or long depending on the details needed to explain the actions, roles, and responsibilities. The information in these annexes is not repeated elsewhere in the plan. Hazardous material Any substance or material that, when involved in an accident and released in sufficient quantities, poses a risk to people’s health, safety, and/or property. These substances and materials include explosives, radioactive materials, flammable liquids or solids, combustible liquids or solids, poisons, oxidizers, toxins, and corrosive materials. Holistic Characterized by comprehension of the parts of something as intimately inter- connected and explicable only by reference to the whole. Homeland Security Exercise and Evaluation Program A capabilities- and performance- based exercise program that provides standardized policy, doctrine, and terminology for designing, developing, conducting, and evaluating homeland security exercises. Hotwash A facilitated discussion held immediately following an exercise among exercise players from each functional area that is designed to capture feedback about any issues, concerns, or proposed improvements players may have about the exercise. The hotwash is an opportunity for players to voice their opinions on the exercise and their own performance. This facilitated meeting allows players to participate in a self-assessment of the exercise play and provides a general assessment of how the jurisdiction performed in the exercise. At this time, evaluators can also seek clarification on certain actions and what prompted players to take them. Evaluators should take notes during the hotwash and include these observations in their analysis. The hotwash should last no more than 30 minutes. Synonym: De-brief Human-caused hazards Hazards that rise from deliberate, intentional human actions to threaten or harm the well-being of others. Examples include school violence, terrorist acts, or sabotage. Improvement plan For each task, the improvement plan lists the corrective actions that will be taken, the responsible party or agency, and the expected completion date. The improvement plan is included at the end of the after-action report. See after-action report/improvement plan. Incident An occurrence, natural or human-caused, that requires a response to protect life or property. Incidents can, for example, include major disasters, emergencies, terrorist attacks, terrorist threats, civil unrest, wildland and urban fires, floods, hazardous materials spills, nuclear accidents, aircraft accidents, earthquakes, hurricanes, tornadoes, tropical storms, tsunamis, war-related disasters, public health and medical emergencies, and other occurrences requiring an emergency response.

Glossary of Terms 71 Incident action plan A document outlining the control objectives, operational period objectives, and response strategy defined by incident command during response planning. Incident command The incident command system’s organizational element responsible for overall management of the incident and consisting of the incident commander (either single or unified command structure) and any assigned supporting staff. Incident commander The individual responsible for all incident activities, including the development of strategies and tactics and the ordering and release of resources. The incident commander has overall authority and responsibility for conducting incident operations and is responsible for the management of all incident operations at the incident site. Incident command post The field location where the primary functions are performed. The incident command post may be co-located with the incident base or other incident facilities. Incident command system A standardized on-scene emergency management construct specifically designed to provide an integrated organizational structure that reflects the com- plexity and demands of single or multiple incidents, without being hindered by jurisdictional boundaries. An incident command system is the combination of facilities, equipment, personnel, procedures, and communications operating within a common organizational structure, designed to aid in managing resources during incidents. An incident command system is used for all kinds of emergencies and is applicable to small as well as large and complex incidents. Incident command systems are used by various jurisdictions and functional agencies, both public and private, to organize field-level incident management operations. Incident coordination The activities that ensure the on-site incident-command-system organization receives information, resources, and support needed to achieve incident objectives. Incident management The broad spectrum of activities and organizations providing effective and efficient operations, coordination, and support applied at all levels of government, using both governmental and nongovernmental resources to plan for, respond to, and recover from an incident, regardless of cause, size, or complexity. Incident management functions Prevention, preparedness, mitigation, response, and recovery activities that occur in advance of an incident, during an incident, and/or following an incident. Index The index of an airport is determined by a combination of (1) the length of air carrier aircraft and (2) average daily departures of air carrier aircraft. For the purpose of index determination, air-carrier-aircraft lengths are grouped as follows: (1) Index A includes aircraft less than 90 feet in length; (2) Index B includes aircraft at least 90 feet but less than 126 feet in length; (3) Index C includes aircraft at least 126 feet but less than 159 feet in length; (4) Index D includes aircraft at least 159 feet but less than 200 feet in length; and (5) Index E includes aircraft at least 200 feet in length. The index determines the required number of aircraft rescue and firefighting vehicles and required amount of extinguishing agents. Introduction, airport emergency plan A component of the basic plan that provides a rationale for the airport emergency plan. Jurisdiction A range or sphere of authority. Public agencies have jurisdiction at an inci- dent related to their legal responsibilities and authority. Jurisdictional authority at an incident can be political or geographical (e.g., federal, state, tribal, local boundary lines) or functional (e.g., law enforcement, public health, school). Lessons learned Learning gained from the process of performing the activity (i.e., exercis- ing or responding to incidents and events). Formally conducted lessons-learned sessions are traditionally held after an exercise, incident, or event, or near the completion of the incident or

72 Practices in Airport Emergency Plans event. However, lessons learned may be identified and documented at any point during the life cycle. The purpose of documenting lessons learned is to share and use knowledge derived from experience to promote the recurrence of desirable outcomes; and/or preclude the recurrence of undesirable outcomes. As a practice, lessons learned includes the processes necessary for identifying, documenting, validating, and disseminating lessons learned. Utilization and incorporation of those processes includes identifying applicable lessons learned, documenting lessons learned, archiving lessons learned, distributing to appropriate personnel, identifying actions that will be taken as a result of the lesson learned, and follow-up to ensure that appro- priate actions were taken. Likert scale A type of rating scale used to measure attitudes or opinions. With this scale, respondents are asked to rate items on a level of agreement. Local government Public entities responsible for the security and welfare of a designated area as established by law. A county, municipality, city, town, township, local public authority, school district, special district, intrastate district, council of governments (regardless of whether the council of governments is incorporated as a nonprofit corporation under state law), regional or interstate government entity, or agency or instrumentality of a local government; an Indian tribe or authorized tribal entity, or, in Alaska, a Native Village or Alaska Regional Native Corpo- ration; or a rural community, unincorporated town or village, or other public entity. Logistics The process and procedure for providing resources and other services to support incident management. Mass care Actions taken to protect evacuees and other disaster victims from the effects of the disaster. Activities include providing temporary shelter, food, medical care, clothing, and other essential life support needs to the people who have been displaced because of a disaster or threatened disaster. Mitigation Includes activities to reduce the loss of life and property from natural and/or human-caused disasters by avoiding or lessening the impact of a disaster and providing value to the public by creating safer communities. Mitigation seeks to fix the cycle of disaster damage, reconstruction, and repeated damage. These activities or actions, in most cases, will have a long-term sustained effect. Examples: structural changes to buildings, elevating utilities, bracing and locking chemical cabinets, properly mounting lighting fixtures, ceiling systems, cutting vegetation to reduce wildland fires, and so forth. Multiagency coordination system A system that provides the architecture to support coordination for incident prioritization, critical resource allocation, communications systems integration, and information coordination. Multiagency coordination systems assist agencies and organizations responding to an incident. The elements of a multiagency coordination system include facilities, equipment, personnel, procedures, and communications. Two of the most commonly used elements are emergency operations centers and multiagency coordination system groups. Multijurisdictional incident An incident requiring action from multiple agencies that each have jurisdiction to manage certain aspects of an incident. In the incident command system, these incidents are managed under unified command. Multiyear training and exercise plan A multiyear plan providing a mechanism for long- term coordination of training and exercise activities toward an airport’s preparedness goals. This plan describes the program’s training and exercise priorities and associated capabilities, and aids in employing the building-block approach for training and exercise activities. National Incident Management System A set of principles that provides a systematic, proactive approach guiding government agencies at all levels, nongovernmental organizations,

Glossary of Terms 73 and the private sector to work seamlessly to prevent, protect against, respond to, recover from, and mitigate the effects of incidents, regardless of cause, size, location, or complexity, in order to reduce the loss of life or property and harm to the environment. National Response Framework A guide establishing a comprehensive, national, all-hazards approach to domestic incident response. It intends to capture specific authorities and best practices for managing incidents ranging from the serious but purely local, to large-scale terrorist attacks or catastrophic natural disasters. Natural hazard Hazard related to weather patterns and/or physical characteristics of an area. Often, natural hazards occur repeatedly in the same geographical locations. Neighborhood hazard Natural, technological, or human-caused hazards occurring in neighborhoods immediately surrounding the airport. Nongovernmental organization An entity with an association that is based on the interests of its members, individuals, or institutions. It is not created by a government, but it may work cooperatively with government. Such organizations serve a public purpose, not a private benefit. Examples of nongovernmental organizations include faith-based charity organizations and the American Red Cross. Nongovernmental organizations, including voluntary and faith- based groups, provide relief services to sustain life, reduce physical and emotional distress, and promote the recovery of disaster victims. Often, these groups provide specialized services that help individuals with disabilities. Nongovernmental organizations and voluntary organizations play a major role in assisting emergency managers before, during, and after an emergency. Objective A thing aimed at or sought; a goal. Operations-based exercises Operations-based exercises are characterized by actual response, mobilization of apparatus and resources, and commitment of personnel, usually held over an extended period of time. Operations-based exercises can be used to validate plans, policies, agreements, and procedures and include drills, functional exercises, and full-scale exercises. They can clarify roles and responsibilities, identify gaps in resources needed to implement plans and procedures, and improve individual and team performance. Physical recovery A component of the continuity-of-operations annex outlining possible relocation areas for administrative operations as well as plans to restore transportation and food services; operations equipment and materials; and airport facilities and grounds after an incident. Plan development The process of generating and comparing possible solutions for achieving goals and objectives, determining response and recovery capabilities, and identifying resource gaps. Plan development and maintenance A component of the basic plan that outlines responsibilities for updating and maintaining the airport emergency plan. This section includes a schedule for testing, reviewing, and updating the airport emergency plan. Planning team A group of individuals with a variety of expertise and perspectives who plan for all hazards. Policy group A group of administrators or executives or their appointed representatives who are typically authorized to commit agency resources and funds. Also called a multiagency coordination group, a policy group can provide coordinated decision making and resource allo- cation among cooperating agencies and may establish the priorities among incidents, harmonize agency policies, and provide strategic guidance and direction to support incident management activities. Policy groups may also be known as multiagency committees or emergency manage- ment committees, or as otherwise defined by the multiagency coordination system.

74 Practices in Airport Emergency Plans Preparedness A continuous cycle of planning, organizing, training, equipping, exercising, evaluating, and taking corrective action to ensure effective coordination during incident response. Within the National Incident Management System, preparedness focuses on the following elements: planning, procedures and protocols, training and exercises, personnel qualification and certification, and equipment certification. Prevention Actions to avoid an incident or to intervene to stop an incident from occurring. Prevention involves actions to protect lives and property. Procedure A series of standard actions or operations that specify what airport personnel should do in responding to and recovering from an incident. Protected classes A group of people with a common characteristic who are legally protected from employment discrimination based on that characteristic. Protected classes are created by both federal and state law. Federal protected classes include race, color, religion or creed, national origin or ancestry, sex, age, physical or mental disability, veteran status, genetic infor- mation, or citizenship. Public information Processes, procedures, and systems for communicating timely, accu- rate, and accessible information on an incident’s cause, size, and current situation; resources committed; and other matters of general interest to the public, responders, and additional stakeholders (both directly affected and indirectly affected). Public information officer A member of the command staff who serves as the conduit for information to internal and external stakeholders, including the media or other organizations seeking information directly from the incident or event. Recovery Encompasses both short-term and long-term efforts for the rebuilding and revitalization of affected communities. Examples: short-term recovery focuses on crisis counseling and restoration of lifelines such as water and electric supply and critical facilities. Long-term recovery includes more permanent rebuilding. Recovery plan A plan developed to restore an affected area or community. Resources Personnel and major items of equipment, supplies, and facilities available or potentially available for assignment to incident operations and for which status is maintained. Resources are described by kind and type and may be used in operational support or supervisory capacities at an incident or at an emergency operations center. Response Activities that address the short-term, direct effects of an incident. Response includes immediate actions to save lives, protect property, and meet basic human needs. Response also includes executing emergency operations plans and mitigation activities designed to limit the loss of life, personal injury, property damage, and other unfavorable outcomes. Shelter-in-place An official order, issued during an emergency, that directs people to stay in the indoor place or building that they already occupy and not to leave unless absolutely necessary. Socialize The adoption of the behavior patterns of the surrounding culture specifically for the response to an incident; to introduce acceptable response and actions to a group of agencies that must work together to respond to an event. Special needs population A population whose members may have additional needs before, during, and after an incident in functional areas, including but not limited to maintaining independence, communication, transportation, supervision, and medical care. Individuals in need of additional response assistance may include those who have disabilities, who are from diverse cultures, who have limited English proficiency, who are non-English-speaking, or who are transportation disadvantaged.

Glossary of Terms 75 Stakeholder A person with an interest or concern in something. Structural Any component of the building whose primary function is to support the dead load (e.g., building, roof). Successful practice A technique or methodology that, through experience and research, has proven to reliably lead to a desired result. A commitment to using the best practices in any field is a commitment to using all the knowledge and technology at one’s disposal to ensure success. Tabletop exercise A discussion-based exercise intended to stimulate discussion of various issues regarding a hypothetical situation. Tabletop exercises can be used to assess plans, policies, and procedures or to assess types of systems needed to guide the prevention of, response to, or recovery from a defined incident. TTXs are typically aimed at facilitating understanding of concepts, identifying strengths and shortfalls, and/or achieving a change in attitude. Participants are encouraged to discuss issues in depth and develop decisions through slow-paced problem solving rather than the rapid, spontaneous decision making that occurs under actual or simu- lated emergency conditions. Tabletop exercises can be breakout (i.e., groups split into functional areas) or plenary (i.e., one large group). Technological hazard These hazards originate from technological or industrial accidents, infrastructure failures, or certain human activities. These hazards cause the loss of life or injury, property damage, social and economic disruption, or environmental degradation, and often come with little to no warning. Terrorism As defined in the Homeland Security Act of 2002, activity that involves an act that is dangerous to human life or potentially destructive of critical infrastructure or key resources; is a violation of the criminal laws of the United States or of any state or other sub- division of the United States; and appears to be intended to intimidate or coerce a civilian population, to influence the policy of a government by intimidation or coercion, or to affect the conduct of a government by mass destruction, assassination, or kidnapping. Threat Natural, technological, or human-caused occurrence or action that has or indicates the potential to harm life, operations, the environment, and/or property. Triennial An exercise that occurs every 3 years. Unified command In incidents involving multiple jurisdictions, a single jurisdiction with multiagency involvement, or multiple jurisdictions with multiagency involvement, unified command allows agencies with different legal, geographic, and functional authorities and responsibilities to work together effectively without affecting individual agency authority, responsibility, or accountability. Warning The alerting of emergency response personnel and the public to the threat of extraordinary danger and the related effects that specific hazards may cause. A warning issued by the National Weather Service (e.g., severe storm warning, tornado warning, tropical storm warning) for a defined area indicates that the particular type of severe weather is imminent in that area. Watch Indication by the National Weather Service that in a defined area, conditions are favorable for the specified type of severe weather, such as flash floods, severe thunderstorms, tornadoes, and tropical storms. Weighted average An average resulting from the multiplication of each component by a factor reflecting its importance.

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An airport emergency plan (AEP) is meant to support airports in defining roles and responsibilities of stakeholders during emergencies, identifying specific threats that could affect airports, and establishing communication protocols for the airport community.

The TRB Airport Cooperative Research Program's ACRP Synthesis 115: Practices in Airport Emergency Plans gathers relevant data specific to AEP practices that can effectively be applied to other airports, including general aviation airports, whether required to maintain an AEP or not.

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