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A Satellite Account to Measure the Retail Transformation: Organizational, Conceptual, and Data Foundations (2021)

Chapter: Appendix B: Retail Output, Hours and Labor Productivity, 1997-2018

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Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Retail Output, Hours and Labor Productivity, 1997-2018." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. A Satellite Account to Measure the Retail Transformation: Organizational, Conceptual, and Data Foundations. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26101.
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Page 86
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Retail Output, Hours and Labor Productivity, 1997-2018." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. A Satellite Account to Measure the Retail Transformation: Organizational, Conceptual, and Data Foundations. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26101.
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Page 87

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Prepublication copy, uncorrected proofs Appendix B Retail Output, Hours and Labor Productivity, 1997-2018 Index Change Productivity Change Year 1997-2018 Total Annual Industry Measure 1997 2007 2018 1997-2018 Total Annual 1997-2007 2007-2018 1997-2007 2007-2018 44,45 - Retail trade Sales 64.916 100.000 124.940 92.5% 89.0% 3.1% 50.9% 25.2% 4.2% 2.1% Margin 75.329 103.21 125.78 67.0% 64.0% 2.4% 34.3% 22.1% 3.0% 1.8% Value Added 76.897 105.14 120.33 56.5% 53.7% 2.1% 34.0% 14.7% 3.0% 1.3% Hours 97.987 100.000 99.785 1.8% 441 - Motor vehicle and parts dealers Sales 70.863 100.000 120.501 70.0% 52.6% 2.0% 32.9% 14.8% 2.9% 1.3% Margin 101.77 104.82 155 52.3% 36.6% 1.5% -3.0% 40.9% -0.3% 3.2% Value Added 95.839 109.44 151.98 58.6% 42.3% 1.7% 7.5% 32.3% 0.7% 2.6% Hours 94.166 100.000 104.962 11.5% 444 - Building material and garden supply stores Sales 61.031 100.000 110.475 81.0% 68.8% 2.5% 34.9% 25.1% 3.0% 2.1% Margin 76.671 115.58 121.92 59.0% 48.3% 1.9% 24.1% 19.5% 2.2% 1.6% Value Added 67.394 108.69 109.26 62.1% 51.2% 2.0% 32.8% 13.9% 2.9% 1.2% Hours 82.319 100.000 88.284 7.2% 445 - Food and beverage stores Sales 94.752 100.000 114.421 20.8% 34.0% 1.4% 21.6% 10.2% 2.0% 0.9% Margin 100.54 104.41 102.22 1.7% 12.9% 0.6% 19.6% -5.7% 1.8% -0.5% Value Added 120.6 112.74 95.773 -20.6% -11.9% -0.6% 7.7% -18.2% 0.7% -1.8% Hours 115.207 100.000 103.795 -9.9% 446 - Health and personal care stores Sales 62.581 100.000 108.074 72.7% 39.1% 1.6% 37.4% 1.2% 3.2% 0.1% Margin 76.623 93.07 117.96 53.9% 24.0% 1.0% 4.4% 18.7% 0.4% 1.6% Value Added 92.852 95.913 116.56 25.5% 1.1% 0.1% -11.2% 13.8% -1.2% 1.2% Hours 85.972 100.000 106.769 24.2% 447 - Gasoline stations Sales 89.167 100.000 102.647 15.1% 26.0% 1.1% 29.4% -2.6% 2.6% -0.2% Margin 100.86 108.93 98.78 -2.1% 7.2% 0.3% 24.6% -14.0% 2.2% -1.4% Value Added 132.34 130.25 74.198 -43.9% -38.6% -2.3% 13.5% -46.0% 1.3% -5.4% Hours 115.357 100.000 105.401 -8.6% 448 - Clothing and clothing accessories stores Sales 55.427 100.000 116.855 110.8% 118.6% 3.8% 73.4% 26.1% 5.7% 2.1% Margin 59.241 103.56 114.14 92.7% 99.8% 3.4% 68.0% 18.9% 5.3% 1.6% Value Added 69.112 106.33 113.8 64.7% 70.8% 2.6% 47.8% 15.5% 4.0% 1.3% Hours 96.087 100.000 92.657 -3.6% 452 - General merchandise stores Sales 54.865 100.000 121.999 122.4% 76.7% 2.7% 52.2% 16.1% 4.3% 1.4% Margin 61.229 108.4 114.25 86.6% 48.3% 1.9% 47.8% 0.3% 4.0% 0.0% Value Added 61.185 112.98 119.22 94.9% 54.9% 2.1% 54.2% 0.4% 4.4% 0.0% Hours 83.509 100.000 105.060 25.8% 454 - Nonstore retailers Sales 34.660 100.000 231.360 567.5% 482.3% 8.8% 198.2% 95.3% 11.5% 6.3% Margin 41.42 81.045 177.01 327.3% 272.8% 6.5% 102.2% 84.3% 7.3% 5.7% Value Added 34.5 72.103 159.62 362.7% 303.6% 6.9% 116.0% 86.8% 8.0% 5.8% Hours 103.360 100.000 118.494 14.6% 42 - Wholesale trade Sales 66.058 100.000 109.230 65.4% 66.5% 2.5% 49.4% 11.4% 4.1% 1.0% Margin 57.984 88.297 114.24 97.0% 98.3% 3.3% 50.2% 32.0% 4.2% 2.6% Value Added 68.023 102.07 113.09 66.3% 67.4% 2.5% 48.0% 13.0% 4.0% 1.1% Hours 98.660 100.000 98.009 -0.7% 493 - Warehousing and storage Sales 60.027 100.000 156.161 160.2% 0.7% 0.0% 15.2% -12.5% 1.4% -1.2% Margin 28.37 62.763 119.72 322.0% 63.4% 2.4% 52.9% 6.9% 4.3% 0.6% Value Added 48.383 80.867 144.62 198.9% 15.8% 0.7% 15.5% 0.2% 1.5% 0.0% Hours worked 69.125 100.000 178.501 158.2% SOURCES: Output measured by sales revenue (“Sales”) from U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), Division of Industry Productivity Studies (https://www.bls.gov/lpc/lpc_by_industry_and_measure.xlsx using the "Output" field). Output measured by gross margin (“Margin”) and value added (“Value Added”) from U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis, Industry Data webpage (using the "Chain-Type Quantity Index" for both gross output and value added). Hours data (“Hours”) from BLS (https://www.bls.gov/lpc/lpc_by_industry_and_measure.xlsx using the "Hours" field). All four 86

Prepublication copy, uncorrected proofs series described using indices where 2007=100 (Sales, Hours) or 2012=100 (Margin, Value Added). Labor productivity calculated by dividing change in output by change in hours worked, using hours data. 87

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Retail trade has experienced dramatic changes over the past several decades in the United States, with changes in the types of outlets where goods are sold, the nature of the transactions that provide goods to consumers, and the structure of retail operations behind the scenes. The recent changes include the rise of warehouse stores and e-commerce and the further growth of imports and large retail chains. These changes highlight and typify many aspects of the broader evolution of the economy as a whole in recent years - with the growing role of large firms and information technology - while taking place in a sector that directly serves the vast majority of the American population and provides substantial employment.

Despite the everyday experience of these dramatic changes in retail, there is concern that the most transformational aspects of those changes may not be captured well by the economic indicators about the sector. In order to develop appropriate economic policies, we need to be able to capture more detailed data, including data about changes to productivity.

At the request of the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, this report evaluates changes in the retail trade sector, assesses measures of employment and labor productivity for the sector, and recommends a new satellite account that could measure retail-related employment and labor productivity in ways that would better capture the transformation.

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