National Academies Press: OpenBook
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Rental Eviction and the COVID-19 Pandemic: Averting a Looming Crisis. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26106.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Rental Eviction and the COVID-19 Pandemic: Averting a Looming Crisis. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26106.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Rental Eviction and the COVID-19 Pandemic: Averting a Looming Crisis. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26106.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Rental Eviction and the COVID-19 Pandemic: Averting a Looming Crisis. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26106.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Rental Eviction and the COVID-19 Pandemic: Averting a Looming Crisis. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26106.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Rental Eviction and the COVID-19 Pandemic: Averting a Looming Crisis. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26106.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Rental Eviction and the COVID-19 Pandemic: Averting a Looming Crisis. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26106.
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Page viii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Rental Eviction and the COVID-19 Pandemic: Averting a Looming Crisis. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26106.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Rental Eviction and the COVID-19 Pandemic: Averting a Looming Crisis. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26106.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Rental Eviction and the COVID-19 Pandemic: Averting a Looming Crisis. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26106.
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Below is the uncorrected machine-read text of this chapter, intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text of each book. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

PREPUBLICATION COPY Response and Resilient Recovery Strategic Science Initiative Strategy Group on COVID-19 and Rental Evictions Division on Earth and Life Studies Health and Medicine Division Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education Policy and Global Affairs A Consensus Study Report of

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 This study was supported by National Academy of Sciences internal funding. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Academies. International Standard Book Number-13: 978-0-309-XXXXX-X International Standard Book Number-10: 0-309-XXXXX-X Digital Object Identifier: https://doi.org/10.17226/26106 Additional copies of this publication are available from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, NW, Keck 360, Washington, DC 20001; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313; http://www.nap.edu. Copyright 2021 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America Suggested citation: National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Rental Eviction and the COVID-19 Pandemic: Averting a Looming Crisis. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. https://doi.org/10.17226/26106.

The National Academy of Sciences was established in 1863 by an Act of Congress, signed by President Lincoln, as a private, nongovernmental institution to advise the nation on issues related to science and technology. Members are elected by their peers for outstanding contributions to research. Dr. Marcia McNutt is president. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to bring the practices of engineering to advising the nation. Members are elected by their peers for extraordinary contributions to engineering. Dr. John L. Anderson is president. The National Academy of Medicine (formerly the Institute of Medicine) was established in 1970 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to advise the nation on medical and health issues. Members are elected by their peers for distinguished contributions to medicine and health. Dr. Victor J. Dzau is president. The three Academies work together as the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine to provide independent, objective analysis and advice to the nation and conduct other activities to solve complex problems and inform public policy decisions. The National Academies also encourage education and research, recognize outstanding contributions to knowledge, and increase public understanding in matters of science, engineering, and medicine. Learn more about the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine at www.nationalacademies.org.

Consensus Study Reports published by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine document the evidence-based consensus on the study’s statement of task by an authoring committee of experts. Reports typically include findings, conclusions, and recommendations based on information gathered by the committee and the committee’s deliberations. Each report has been subjected to a rigorous and independent peer-review process and it represents the position of the National Academies on the statement of task. Proceedings published by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine chronicle the presentations and discussions at a workshop, symposium, or other event convened by the National Academies. The statements and opinions contained in proceedings are those of the participants and are not endorsed by other participants, the planning committee, or the National Academies. For information about other products and activities of the National Academies, please visit www.nationalacademies.org/about/whatwedo.

STRATEGY GROUP ON COVID-19 AND RENTAL EVICTIONS Chair KAREN DYNAN, Harvard University Members STEPHANIE AARONSON, Brookings Institution LISA K. BATES, Portland State University GLORIA BRUCE, East Bay Housing Organizations ANITA CHANDRA, RAND Corporation AMY CREWS CUTTS, AC Cutts and Associates, LLC ANNIE DONOVAN, Local Initiatives Support Corporation MICHAEL FRATANTONI, Mortgage Bankers Association WAYNE GILES, University of Illinois at Chicago WILLIAM GOEDEL, Brown University RACHEL GARSHICK KLEIT, Ohio State University LAUREN ANCEL MEYERS, University of Texas at Austin MAHASIN MUJAHID, University of California, Berkeley KELLY PATTERSON, State University of New York at Buffalo VINCENT J. REINA, University of Pennsylvania MARYBETH SHINN, Vanderbilt University TIMOTHY A. THOMAS, University of California, Berkeley RACHEL L. J. THORNTON, The Johns Hopkins University TILL MARCO VON WACHTER, University of California, Los Angeles STEPHANIE WILLIAMS, Bozzuto Management Corporation DOUGLAS E. WOOD, Aspen Institute AHU YILDIRMAZ, ADP Research Institute Report Editor RONA BRIERE, Briere Associates, Inc. Prepublication Copy v

EXECUTIVE COUNCIL OF THE RESPONSE AND RESILIENT RECOVERY STRATEGIC SCIENCE INITIATIVE Chair MARTÍN-J. SEPÚLVEDA (NAM), International Business Machines Corporation, CLARALUZ, LLC Members DOLORES ACEVEDO-GARCIA, Brandeis University THAD W. ALLEN, Booz Allen Hamilton, Inc. KAREN DYNAN, Harvard University EDWARD H. FRANK (NAE), Brilliant Lime, Inc. JOHN R. LUMPKIN (NAM), Blue Cross Blue Shield of North Carolina Foundation GARY MACHLIS, Clemson University JANET NAPOLITANO, University of California, Berkeley Staff JENNA BRISCOE, Research Associate MICAH LOWENTHAL, Senior Director MEGHAN ANGE-STARK, Associate Program Officer CHARLES MINICUCCI, Research Assistant JULIE PAVLIN, Senior Board Director TERESA STOEPLER, Senior Program Officer AUDREY THÉVENON, Study Director Consultants HEATHER KREIDLER, Fact or Fiction, LLC SUSAN STICKLEY, Stratus, Inc. vi Prepublication Copy

Acknowledgment of Reviewers This Consensus Study Report was reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine in making each published report as sound as possible and to ensure that it meets the institutional standards for quality, objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We thank the following individuals for their review of this report: Ms. Samar Ali, Vanderbilt Law School Dr. Andrew Aurand, National Low Income Housing Coalition Ms. Emily A. Benfer, Wake Forest University School of Law Dr. Raphael Bostic, Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta Ms. Allison Bovell-Ammon, Children’s HealthWatch Mr. Daryl J. Carter, Avanath Capital Management LLC Dr. Dennis P. Culhane, University of Pennsylvania Ms. Mary Cunningham, Urban Institute Dr. Susan L. Cutter, University of South Carolina Dr. Matthew Desmond, Princeton University Mr. Rudy Espinoza, Inclusive Action for the City Ms. Robin Hacke, Lincoln Institute of Land Policy Dr. Danya Keene, Yale University School of Medicine Dr. Sabriya Linton, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health Dr. Giridhar G. Mallya, Robert Wood Johnson Foundation Dr. Edgar O. Olsen, University of Virginia Mr. Robert Pinnegar, National Apartment Association Dr. Megan T. Sandel, Boston Medical Center Ms. Sarah Stein, Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta Although the reviewers listed above provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions or recommendations of this report nor did they see the final draft before its release. The review of this report was overseen by Dr. Robert A. Moffitt (NAS), Johns Hopkins University; and Dr. David E. Jacobs, National Center for Healthy Housing. They were responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with the standards of the National Academies and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content rests entirely with the authoring committee and the National Academies. Prepublication Copy vii

Contents SUMMARY: THE RENTAL EVICTION CRISIS ......................................................................................... 1 GOAL 1: MITIGATE: BRIDGE FINANCIAL, SOCIAL, AND LEGAL ASSISTANCE .......................... 5 Strategy 1A: Harness Existing Social Programs for Broad, Proactive, and Targeted Outreach to Connect Renters with Financial and Legal Assistance, 5 Strategy 1B: Provide Assistance to Renters in Traditionally Marginalized Communities by Scaling Activities in Community-Based Organizations, 8 Strategy 1C: Expand and Improve Social Safety Net Programs during the Pandemic and Beyond, 9 GOAL 2: INFORM: IMPROVE THE COLLECTION OF DATA AND THE USE OF INFORMATION TO SUPPORT AFFECTED COMMUNITIES AND INFORM POLICY MAKERS .......................................................................................................................................... 11 Strategy 2A: Improve Data Collection, Reporting, and Access to Build Actionable Understanding of Eviction, 12 Strategy 2B: Develop a Compendium of Promising Strategies for Housing and Public Health Authorities to Mitigate Evictions, Housing Instability, and Their Downstream Health Effects, 16 Strategy 2C: Commission Research to Understand Continuing Housing Instability Problems and Deploy Efforts to Address Them, 17 GOAL 3: ASSIST: MAKE AFFORDABLE HOUSING FAIR AND ACCESSIBLE ................................ 18 Strategy 3A: Increase the Number of Housing Choice Vouchers, 18 Strategy 3B: Provide Housing Search Support for Households Eligible for Housing Vouchers, 19 Strategy 3C: Reduce Discrimination to Protect Tenants, 20 Strategy 3D: Establish a Program to Provide Credit Counseling for Tenants, 22 GOAL 4: SECURE: PRESERVE, PROVIDE, AND EXPAND SAFE AFFORDABLE HOUSING ........ 22 Strategy 4A: Preserve the Existing Stock of Affordable Housing for Renters, Including Both Subsidized and Unsubsidized Units, 23 Strategy 4B: Expand Programs Supporting the Production of Affordable Housing, 26 Strategy 4C: Reduce Exclusionary Zoning Practices, 26 REFERENCES ................................................................................................................................................. 28 APPENDIXES A STATEMENT OF TASK ........................................................................................................................ 36 B SCENARIO PLANNING APPROACH ................................................................................................. 37 C LIST OF ACTIONS PER TIMEFRAME (NEAR, SHORT, AND MEDIUM TERMS) ................... 40 D PROPOSED LIST OF ACTIONS BY CATEGORIES OF PRIORITY ............................................. 46 E BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES OF STRATEGY GROUP MEMBERS ........................................... 53 Prepublication Copy ix

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As the federal moratorium on rental eviction is set to expire on July 31st, 2021, actionable guidance is urgently needed on how to ensure that renters can stay in their homes and housing aid reaches the communities that need it most. This report from the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine recommends that the Executive Office of the President of the United States should consider establishing a task force to prevent rental evictions and mitigate housing instability caused by the pandemic. Rental Eviction and the COVID-19 Pandemic: Averting a Looming Crisis recommends actions to be taken both urgently and over the next three years aimed at addressing the immediate crisis as well as long-standing needs related to housing choice, affordability, and security across the United States. These include: building on existing social programs that support those struggling with poverty and housing instability; efficiently channeling emergency relief to renters and landlords; increasing the availability of housing choice vouchers; reforming unemployment insurance; and reducing discriminatory practices and systemic inequities.

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