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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Planning the Future Space Weather Operations and Research Infrastructure: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26128.
×

PLANNING THE FUTURE SPACE
WEATHER OPERATIONS AND
RESEARCH INFRASTRUCTURE

PROCEEDINGS OF A WORKSHOP

Committee for the Space Weather Operations and Research Infrastructure Workshop

Space Studies Board

Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences

images

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS
Washington, DC
www.nap.edu

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Planning the Future Space Weather Operations and Research Infrastructure: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26128.
×

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001

This activity was supported by Contract WC133R17CQ0031 with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect the views of any organization or agency that provided support for the project.

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International Standard Book Number-10: 0-309-45433-6
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Suggested citation: National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Planning the Future Space Weather Operations and Research Infrastructure: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. https://doi.org/10.17226/26128.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Planning the Future Space Weather Operations and Research Infrastructure: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26128.
×

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The National Academy of Sciences was established in 1863 by an Act of Congress, signed by President Lincoln, as a private, nongovernmental institution to advise the nation on issues related to science and technology. Members are elected by their peers for outstanding contributions to research. Dr. Marcia McNutt is president.

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The National Academy of Medicine (formerly the Institute of Medicine) was established in 1970 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to advise the nation on medical and health issues. Members are elected by their peers for distinguished contributions to medicine and health. Dr. Victor J. Dzau is president.

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Learn more about the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine at www.nationalacademies.org.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Planning the Future Space Weather Operations and Research Infrastructure: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26128.
×

Image

Consensus Study Reports published by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine document the evidence-based consensus on the study’s statement of task by an authoring committee of experts. Reports typically include findings, conclusions, and recommendations based on information gathered by the committee and the committee’s deliberations. Each report has been subjected to a rigorous and independent peer-review process and it represents the position of the National Academies on the statement of task.

Proceedings published by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine chronicle the presentations and discussions at a workshop, symposium, or other event convened by the National Academies. The statements and opinions contained in proceedings are those of the participants and are not endorsed by other participants, the planning committee, or the National Academies.

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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Planning the Future Space Weather Operations and Research Infrastructure: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26128.
×

COMMITTEE FOR THE SPACE WEATHER OPERATIONS AND RESEARCH INFRASTRUCTURE WORKSHOP

MARY K. HUDSON, Dartmouth College, Co-Chair

JANET G. LUHMANN, University of California, Berkeley, Co-Chair

DANIEL N. BAKER, NAE,1 University of Colorado, Boulder, and Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics

ANTHEA J. COSTER, MIT Haystack Observatory

TAMARA L. DICKINSON, Science Matters Consulting, LLC

MARK GIBBS, UK Met Office

MAJ. JANELLE V. JENNIGES, U.S. Air Force

VICE ADM. CONRAD C. LAUTENBACHER, JR., U.S. Navy (Ret.), GeoOptics, Inc.

MARK A. OLSON, North American Electric Reliability Corporation

WILLIAM MURTAGH, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

LARRY J. PAXTON, Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory

TUIJA I. PULKKINEN, NAS,2 University of Michigan

PETE RILEY, Predictive Science, Inc.

RONALD E. TURNER, ANSER, Inc.

Staff

ARTHUR CHARO, Senior Program Officer, Study Director

GABRIELLE HOLBERT, Program Assistant

ROBERT BULLARD, Lloyd V. Berkner Space Policy Intern

COLLEEN N. HARTMAN, Director, Space Studies Board

___________________

1 Member, National Academy of Engineering.

2 Member, National Academy of Sciences.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Planning the Future Space Weather Operations and Research Infrastructure: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26128.
×

SPACE STUDIES BOARD

MARGARET G. KIVELSON, NAS,1 University of California, Los Angeles, Chair

JAMES H. CROCKER, NAE,2 Lockheed Martin (retired), Vice Chair

GREGORY P. ASNER, NAS, Carnegie Institution for Science

JEFF M. BINGHAM, Consultant

ADAM BURROWS, NAS, Princeton University

MARY LYNNE DITTMAR, Dittmar Associates

JEFF DOZIER, University of California, Santa Barbara

VICTORIA E. HAMILTON, Southwest Research Institute

CHRYSSA KOUVELIOTOU, NAS, George Washington University

DENNIS P. LETTENMAIER, NAE, University of California, Los Angeles

ROSALY M. LOPES, Jet Propulsion Laboratory

STEPHEN J. MACKWELL, American Institute of Physics

DAVID J. MCCOMAS, Princeton University

LARRY PAXTON, Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory

ELIOT QUATAERT, University of California, Berkeley

BARBARA SHERWOOD LOLLAR, NAE, University of Toronto

HARLAN E. SPENCE, University of New Hampshire

MARK H. THIEMENS, NAS, University of California, San Diego

ERIKA WAGNER, Blue Origin

PAUL WOOSTER, Space Exploration Technologies

EDWARD L. WRIGHT, NAS, University of California, Los Angeles

Staff

COLLEEN N. HARTMAN, Director

TANJA PILZAK, Manager, Program Operations

CELESTE A. NAYLOR, Information Management Associate

MARGARET A. KNEMEYER, Financial Officer

RADAKA LIGHTFOOT, Financial Associate

___________________

1 Member, National Academy of Sciences.

2 Member, National Academy of Engineering.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Planning the Future Space Weather Operations and Research Infrastructure: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26128.
×

Preface

Information about Earth’s space environment is of rapidly increasing importance, driven, in part, by the appearance of new government and commercial ventures using technologies sensitive to its variations and by plans for human exploration to the Moon and beyond. In addition, increasing understanding of how the space environment’s conditions are physically determined by solar activity and internal dynamics and other factors has made the possibility of significantly improving space weather forecasting a closer reality.

Among the recent steps taken in support of this objective was the creation in 2015 of an interagency task force on Space Weather Operations, Research, and Mitigation (SWORM) and creation in 2019 of a National Space Weather Strategy and Action Plan (NSW-SAP), under the auspices of the Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP). SWORM and the NSW-SAP were developed to enhance national preparedness (protection, mitigation, response, and recovery) for space weather events, and to identify the activities, outcomes, and timelines that will be undertaken by the federal government to secure the infrastructures vital to national security and the economy.

As part of this initiative, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), and the National Science Foundation (NSF), have begun a series of advice-seeking activities, including National Academies–organized workshops. This proceedings describes the first in a series, with a particular emphasis on future options regarding NOAA’s contributions.1

In response to a request from NOAA, developed in consultation with NASA and NSF, an ad hoc committee of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine was formed to explore, via a workshop, options for continuity and future enhancements of the U.S. space weather operational and research infrastructure. In particular, workshop participants (see Appendix A) were asked to

  • Review current and planned U.S. and international space weather-related observational capabilities;
  • Discuss baseline space weather observational needs;
  • Identify programmatic and technological options to ensure continuity of the baseline, giving particular attention to options to extend the Space Weather Follow On program; and

___________________

1 NOAA, which is the primary civilian agency responsible for space weather forecasting, is the principal sponsor of the present workshop. As this activity near its conclusion, NASA and NSF, in consultation with NOAA, requested that the Academies conduct a follow-on workshop that would focus on the research agenda and observations needed to improve understanding of the Sun-Earth system that generates space weather.

Page viii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Planning the Future Space Weather Operations and Research Infrastructure: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26128.
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  • Consider options for technology, instrument, and mission development to support in situ and remote sensing space weather observations from either ground- or space-based vantage points, the latter including L1, L5, L4, GEO [geostationary orbit], and LEO [low Earth orbit].2

Originally planned as an in-person workshop, travel and other restrictions imposed in response to the novel coronavirus resulted in a virtual workshop. For convenience, the workshop was held in two parts, on June 16-17 and September 9-11, 2020, both of which were open to the public. Participants invited to the workshops included experts familiar with federal government policy and legislation concerning space weather, as well scientists from the thermosphere, ionosphere, magnetosphere, and solar-heliosphere research communities. In addition, representatives from NOAA, NASA, NSF, the Department of Defense (DoD), and from a range of other government and commercial entities, including international organizations, were invited to the workshops. In total, more than 200 participants attended, via Zoom, either or both of the June oral sessions and the September oral and poster (Appendix B) sessions. Agendas of both workshops are shown in Appendix C; presentations and posters from the workshop are available online at https://www.nationalacademies.org/spacewx-phaseI-presentations.

As specified in the statement of task for the Committee for the Space Weather Operations and Research Infrastructure Workshop (see Appendix A), this proceedings summarizes and synthesizes the discussions at the workshop without providing consensus findings or recommendations.3 Frequently, this proceedings references the views of “participants.” This term is used as a shorthand when several workshop attendees expressed similar views on a particular topic or issue. However, the statements and opinions contained in this proceedings should not be interpreted as representing a consensus among the larger body of participants.

In this workshop references to the “operational” and “research” infrastructure for space weather were not always explicit, in part because there is overlap in usage of some resources, and also because experience obtained with research infrastructure often precedes operational applications. However, implicit in the discussions was the recognition that a critical element for successful operations is access to a robust, dedicated, ground and space-based infrastructure that provides accurate, sustained, secure, and timely observations for space-weather analysis, sufficient for national needs. Examples of such operational infrastructure includes the NOAA Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites, which provide critical space weather information—both warnings and situational awareness of the space environment—to NOAA and DoD.

Improving the understanding and prediction of space weather requires enhancing existing observational capabilities by deploying new technologies. An example of a research mission with a demonstrated positive impact on operations has been the Large Angle and Spectrometric Coronagraph on board the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory satellite, which provides key input to NOAA’s geomagnetic storm watches. Current plans for new operational missions now include coronagraphs. Thus, these categories of infrastructure were not always distinguished during the workshop.

The workshop proceedings that follows is organized by topic. As speakers at the June and September sessions sometimes addressed different aspects of the same topic, the committee has chosen to synthesize comments across sessions when appropriate. To assist a reader looking to identify the presentations that informed the write-up of a particular topic summary, the names of the most relevant presenters are shown. Note that some of the presentations at the workshop were delivered without the use of slides; their comments and those heard in the question and answer part of each workshop session informed the proceedings, but there is no written record.

___________________

2 L1, L5, and L4 refer to Lagrange points 1, 5, and 4 (https://solarsystem.nasa.gov/resources/754/what-is-a-lagrange-point); GEO is an acronym for geostationary orbit and LEO is an acronym for low Earth orbit.

3 Per National Academies’ guidelines, this proceedings does not include any recommendations or findings by the workshop organizing committee as the workshop presenters and other participants were not vetted for sources of potential bias and conflicts of interest.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Planning the Future Space Weather Operations and Research Infrastructure: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26128.
×

The committee wishes to thank the presenters as well as the online participants for sharing their knowledge, experience, and insights. The committee is solely responsible for the content of this workshop report, which, per National Academies practices, has been reviewed by selected members of the solar and space physics community and by workshop participants for scientific accuracy and fidelity to workshop discussions.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Planning the Future Space Weather Operations and Research Infrastructure: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26128.
×

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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Planning the Future Space Weather Operations and Research Infrastructure: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26128.
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Acknowledgment of Reviewers

This Proceedings of a Workshop has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine in making its published proceedings as sound as possible and to ensure that the proceedings meets institutional standards for clarity, objectivity and responsiveness to the charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their review of this proceedings:

Although the reviewers listed above have provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they did not see the final draft of the Proceedings of a Workshop before its release. The review of this proceedings was overseen by Louis J. Lanzerotti, NAE, New Jersey Institute of Technology. He was responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this proceedings was carried out in accordance with the standards of the National Academies and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this proceedings rests entirely with the author(s) and the National Academies.

___________________

1 Member, National Academy of Engineering.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Planning the Future Space Weather Operations and Research Infrastructure: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26128.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Planning the Future Space Weather Operations and Research Infrastructure: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26128.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Planning the Future Space Weather Operations and Research Infrastructure: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26128.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Planning the Future Space Weather Operations and Research Infrastructure: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26128.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Planning the Future Space Weather Operations and Research Infrastructure: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26128.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Planning the Future Space Weather Operations and Research Infrastructure: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26128.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Planning the Future Space Weather Operations and Research Infrastructure: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26128.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Planning the Future Space Weather Operations and Research Infrastructure: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26128.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Planning the Future Space Weather Operations and Research Infrastructure: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26128.
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Page viii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Planning the Future Space Weather Operations and Research Infrastructure: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26128.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Planning the Future Space Weather Operations and Research Infrastructure: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26128.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Planning the Future Space Weather Operations and Research Infrastructure: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26128.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Planning the Future Space Weather Operations and Research Infrastructure: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26128.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Planning the Future Space Weather Operations and Research Infrastructure: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26128.
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Page xiii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Planning the Future Space Weather Operations and Research Infrastructure: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26128.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Planning the Future Space Weather Operations and Research Infrastructure: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26128.
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In response to a request from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration - and with the support of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and the National Science Foundation - the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine conducted a two-part virtual workshop, "Space Weather Operations and Research Infrastructure," on June 16-17 and September 9-11, 2020. The overall goals of the workshop were to review present space weather monitoring and forecasting capabilities, to consider future observational infrastructure and research needs, and to consider options toward the further development of an effective, resilient, and achievable national space weather program. This publication summarizes the presentation and discussion of the workshop.

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