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A I R P O R T C O O P E R A T I V E R E S E A R C H P R O G R A M ACRP RESEARCH REPORT 230 2021 Research sponsored by the Federal Aviation Administration Subscriber Categories Education and Training â¢ Aviation Enhancing Academic Programs to Prepare Future Airport Industry Professionals Seth Young The OhiO STaTe UniverSiTy Columbus, OH w i t h David Byers QUadrex aviaTiOn Melbourne, FL Amy Bisker Candace Cronin-Blair iCF, inC. Fairfax, VA Linda Pavlik Kate Lattimore Norris Pavlik & aSSOCiaTeS Fort Worth, TX Jeff Borowiec TexaS a&M TranSPOrTaTiOn inSTiTUTe College Station, TX Daniel Prather dPraTher aviaTiOn SOlUTiOnS Riverside, CA
AIRPORT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM Airports are vital national resources. They serve a key role in trans- portation of people and goods and in regional, national, and interna- tional commerce. They are where the nationâs aviation system connects with other modes of transportation and where federal responsibility for managing and regulating air traffic operations intersects with the role of state and local governments that own and operate most airports. Research is necessary to solve common operating problems, to adapt appropriate new technologies from other industries, and to introduce innovations into the airport industry. The Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) serves as one of the principal means by which the airport industry can develop innovative near-term solutions to meet demands placed on it. The need for ACRP was identified in TRB Special Report 272: Airport Research Needs: Cooperative Solutions in 2003, based on a study spon- sored by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). ACRP carries out applied research on problems that are shared by airport operating agen- cies and not being adequately addressed by existing federal research programs. ACRP is modeled after the successful National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP) and Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP). ACRP undertakes research and other technical activi- ties in various airport subject areas, including design, construction, legal, maintenance, operations, safety, policy, planning, human resources, and administration. ACRP provides a forum where airport operators can cooperatively address common operational problems. ACRP was authorized in December 2003 as part of the Vision 100â Century of Aviation Reauthorization Act. The primary participants in the ACRP are (1) an independent governing board, the ACRP Oversight Committee (AOC), appointed by the Secretary of the U.S. Department of Transportation with representation from airport operating agencies, other stakeholders, and relevant industry organizations such as the Airports Council International-North America (ACI-NA), the American Associa- tion of Airport Executives (AAAE), the National Association of State Aviation Officials (NASAO), Airlines for America (A4A), and the Airport Consultants Council (ACC) as vital links to the airport community; (2) TRB as program manager and secretariat for the governing board; and (3) the FAA as program sponsor. In October 2005, the FAA executed a contract with the National Academy of Sciences formally initiating the program. ACRP benefits from the cooperation and participation of airport professionals, air carriers, shippers, state and local government officials, equipment and service suppliers, other airport users, and research organi- zations. Each of these participants has different interests and responsibili- ties, and each is an integral part of this cooperative research effort. Research problem statements for ACRP are solicited periodically but may be submitted to TRB by anyone at any time. It is the responsibility of the AOC to formulate the research program by identifying the highest priority projects and defining funding levels and expected products. Once selected, each ACRP project is assigned to an expert panel appointed by TRB. Panels include experienced practitioners and research specialists; heavy emphasis is placed on including airport professionals, the intended users of the research products. The panels prepare project statements (requests for proposals), select contractors, and provide technical guidance and counsel throughout the life of the project. The process for developing research problem statements and selecting research agencies has been used by TRB in managing coop- erative research programs since 1962. As in other TRB activities, ACRP project panels serve voluntarily without compensation. Primary emphasis is placed on disseminating ACRP results to the intended users of the research: airport operating agencies, service pro- viders, and academic institutions. ACRP produces a series of research reports for use by airport operators, local agencies, the FAA, and other interested parties; industry associations may arrange for workshops, training aids, field visits, webinars, and other activities to ensure that results are implemented by airport industry practitioners. ACRP RESEARCH REPORT 230 Project 06-07 ISSN 2572-3731 (Print) ISSN 2572-374X (Online) ISBN 978-0-309-67385-3 Library of Congress Control Number 2021934135 Â© 2021 National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. COPYRIGHT INFORMATION Authors herein are responsible for the authenticity of their materials and for obtaining written permissions from publishers or persons who own the copyright to any previously published or copyrighted material used herein. Cooperative Research Programs (CRP) grants permission to reproduce material in this publication for classroom and not-for-profit purposes. Permission is given with the understanding that none of the material will be used to imply TRB, AASHTO, FAA, FHWA, FTA, GHSA, NHTSA, or TDC endorsement of a particular product, method, or practice. It is expected that those reproducing the material in this document for educational and not-for-profit uses will give appropriate acknowledgment of the source of any reprinted or reproduced material. For other uses of the material, request permission from CRP. Cover photo credit: Shutterstock, Inc. NOTICE The research report was reviewed by the technical panel and accepted for publication according to procedures established and overseen by the Transportation Research Board and approved by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. The opinions and conclusions expressed or implied in this report are those of the researchers who performed the research and are not necessarily those of the Transportation Research Board; the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine; or the program sponsors. The Transportation Research Board; the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine; and the sponsors of the Airport Cooperative Research Program do not endorse products or manufacturers. Trade or manufacturersâ names appear herein solely because they are considered essential to the object of the report. Published research reports of the AIRPORT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM are available from Transportation Research Board Business Office 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 and can be ordered through the Internet by going to https://www.mytrb.org/MyTRB/Store/default.aspx Printed in the United States of America
The National Academy of Sciences was established in 1863 by an Act of Congress, signed by President Lincoln, as a private, non- governmental institution to advise the nation on issues related to science and technology. Members are elected by their peers for outstanding contributions to research. Dr. Marcia McNutt is president. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to bring the practices of engineering to advising the nation. Members are elected by their peers for extraordinary contributions to engineering. Dr. John L. Anderson is president. The National Academy of Medicine (formerly the Institute of Medicine) was established in 1970 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to advise the nation on medical and health issues. Members are elected by their peers for distinguished contributions to medicine and health. Dr. Victor J. Dzau is president. The three Academies work together as the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine to provide independent, objective analysis and advice to the nation and conduct other activities to solve complex problems and inform public policy decisions. The National Academies also encourage education and research, recognize outstanding contributions to knowledge, and increase public understanding in matters of science, engineering, and medicine. Learn more about the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine at www.nationalacademies.org. The Transportation Research Board is one of seven major programs of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. The mission of the Transportation Research Board is to provide leadership in transportation improvements and innovation through trusted, timely, impartial, and evidence-based information exchange, research, and advice regarding all modes of transportation. The Boardâs varied activities annually engage about 8,000 engineers, scientists, and other transportation researchers and practitioners from the public and private sectors and academia, all of whom contribute their expertise in the public interest. The program is supported by state transportation departments, federal agencies including the component administrations of the U.S. Department of Transportation, and other organizations and individuals interested in the development of transportation. Learn more about the Transportation Research Board at www.TRB.org.
C O O P E R A T I V E R E S E A R C H P R O G R A M S AUTHOR ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The ACRP Project 06-07 research team would like to acknowledge the more than 100 professionals at airports, airport consulting firms, and academia for participating in surveys, interviews, and focus groups associated with this work. Those listed herein granted permission to share their names. Thank you. Pamela Belalcazar TY Lin and Associates, Inc. Fin Bonset VHB, Inc. Nick Brown Crawford, Murphy, and Tilly, Inc. Charles Butcher Northwest Arkansas Regional Airport Gene Conrad Lakeland Linder International Airport, Florida Todd Cox, CM Avon, Inc. Nathan Steven Cuvala T-O Engineers Neil Gabrielson Garver, Inc. Lorena de Rodriguez SSI, Inc. Kate Henry Aulick Engineering Bill Hutto Auburn University Nicole Johnson Kansas State UniversityâPolytechnic Pamela Keidel-Adams Kimley-Horn and Associates, Inc. Kim Kenville University of North Dakota CRP STAFF FOR ACRP RESEARCH REPORT 230 Christopher J. Hedges, Director, Cooperative Research Programs Lori L. Sundstrom, Deputy Director, Cooperative Research Programs Marci A. Greenberger, Manager, Airport Cooperative Research Program Theresia H. Schatz, Senior Program Officer Tyler Smith, Senior Program Assistant Eileen P. Delaney, Director of Publications Natalie Barnes, Associate Director of Publications Kami Cabral, Editor ACRP PROJECT 06-07 PANEL Field of Human Resources Daniel P. Bartholomew, Troutdale, OR (Chair) Meredith Alt, Wisconsin Department of Transportation, Madison, WI Alice Bimrose, City of Phoenix Aviation Department, Phoenix, AZ Kenneth H. Gwyn, Gwyn and Associates, Irving, TX Enrique Sanabria, The Port Authority of New York and New Jersey, New York, NY Thomas Cuddy, FAA Liaison Qinya Pang, Airports Council InternationalâNorth America Liaison Christine L. Gerencher, TRB Liaison
Kyle Knezevich Eastern Kentucky University Lance Lamkin University of Oklahoma Patrick Lammerding Burbank Airport, California Darren Large Morristown Airport, New Jersey Gel Le Bris WSP USA Ryan Leick Utah Valley University David Mathias Michael Baker International, Inc. Mary Niemczyk Arizona State University Aaron Organ Utah Valley University Paul Priegel Stillwater Airport, Oklahoma Carlos Ruiz-Coll Greenville Spartanburg International Airport Joseph Von Bargen Cincinnati Northern Kentucky International Airport, Kentucky Autumn Ward Environmental Science Associates Adam Wolf The Ohio State University Airport, Ohio K.L. (Dan) Wong Prince Sultan University, Saudi Arabia AUTHOR ACKNOWLEDGMENTS (Continued)
ACRP Research Report 230: Enhancing Academic Programs to Prepare Future Airport Industry Professionals provides guidance to assist academia in preparing graduates for careers as airport industry professionals. The guidance identifies and evaluates the current and future skills needed for airport industry professionals and how educational programs align with those skills. As a means to prepare students for career tracks in the airport industry, this research provides a better understanding of the skills needed and develops model academic curriculum templates to provide a foundation for career success, bridging the gaps that may exist. Airports and their support industries have changed significantly over the past several decades. It is imperative that academic programs continue to evolve with these changes to better prepare the next generation of airport industry professionals. Emphasis is placed on an enhanced, comprehensive approach to careers in the airport industry to include topic areas such as finance and administration, planning and engineering, operations and facili- ties, technology, law, humanities, and social sciences. ACRP Project 06-07 was led by The Ohio State University in association with Quadrex Aviation, ICF, Inc., Pavlik & Associates, Texas A&M Transportation Institute, and DPrather Aviation Solutions. They reviewed the current and future workforce needs of the airport industry, provided many current academic curriculum outlines, and identified the gaps and challenges that exist between what academic programs offer and what the airport industry needs to keep up with the demands of an exceptional workforce. Their work was conducted through surveys and focus groups from over 100 airport industry professionals, including academic faculty, students, and alumni currently employed in the airport sector. F O R E W O R D By Theresia H. Schatz Staff Officer Transportation Research Board
S E C T I O N I Introduction and Motivation 3 Chapter 1 Introduction 3 A Guidebook for Academia and Industry 4 Guidebook Contents and Format 5 Topic Identifying Icons 7 Chapter 2 Motivation: Addressing the Needs of the Airport Workforce 9 Creating More and Broader Opportunities for Recent Graduates 10 Strengthening Collaboration Between the Airport Industry and Academia 11 Ensuring Recent Graduates Have Appropriate Skills for the Workplace 12 Addressing Existing Challenges in Hiring Recent Graduates 14 Summary of Data and Findings S E C T I O N I I Guidance to Academia 17 Chapter 3 The State of Airport Education in Academia 18 A Survey of Academic Programs with Airport-Related Content 20 Aviation Programs 24 Curriculum Structure of Representative Programs 26 A Deeper Look at Airport-Specific Courses 31 Program Effectiveness in Preparing Graduates for Airport Careers 34 Chapter 4 Enhancing Academic Programming 36 Curricula Structure and Course Offerings 45 Supporting the Curriculum with Culminating Experiences 47 Innovative Curriculum Delivery Methods 50 Extracurricular Opportunities 53 Finding the Faculty Champion 54 Developing Faculty 55 Partnering with Industry 55 Promoting the Expertise of an Academic Program 57 Summary C O N T E N T S
S E C T I O N I I I Guidance to Industry 61 Chapter 5 How Academia Works for Non-Academics 61 The Administration of Academia 62 Academia Is Management by Committee 62 Where Aviation/Airport Programs Fit Within the Academic Environment 63 Academic Calendar 63 Structure of Academic Curricula 65 Academia and the Online Learning Environment 65 How Curricula Are Created 66 Role of Faculty and Staff 68 Aviation Faculty 69 How Industry Can Work with Academia 70 Chapter 6 Opportunities to Participate in the Academic Process 70 Academic Opportunities 70 Committing to EngageâPersonal Steps 71 Engagement Options 72 Administrative and Philanthropic Opportunities S E C T I O N I V Reference Materials 76 Internship Checklists 77 Sample Syllabi 84 Resources for Course Content 91 Other External Resources (Annotated Bibliography) 97 References 98 Appendix A Database of Programs 110 Appendix B Understanding Accreditation Note: Photographs, figures, and tables in this report may have been converted from color to grayscale for printing. The electronic version of the report (posted on the web at www.trb.org) retains the color versions.