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Suggested Citation:"Appendix P: Acronyms." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Pathways to Discovery in Astronomy and Astrophysics for the 2020s. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26141.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix P: Acronyms." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Pathways to Discovery in Astronomy and Astrophysics for the 2020s. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26141.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix P: Acronyms." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Pathways to Discovery in Astronomy and Astrophysics for the 2020s. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26141.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix P: Acronyms." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Pathways to Discovery in Astronomy and Astrophysics for the 2020s. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26141.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix P: Acronyms." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Pathways to Discovery in Astronomy and Astrophysics for the 2020s. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26141.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix P: Acronyms." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Pathways to Discovery in Astronomy and Astrophysics for the 2020s. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26141.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix P: Acronyms." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Pathways to Discovery in Astronomy and Astrophysics for the 2020s. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26141.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix P: Acronyms." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Pathways to Discovery in Astronomy and Astrophysics for the 2020s. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26141.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix P: Acronyms." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Pathways to Discovery in Astronomy and Astrophysics for the 2020s. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26141.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix P: Acronyms." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Pathways to Discovery in Astronomy and Astrophysics for the 2020s. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26141.
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P Acronyms 4MOST 4-metre Multi-Object Spectroscopic Telescope A&G acquisition and guiding AAAC Astronomy and Astrophysics Advisory Committee AAAS American Association for the Advancement of Science AAG Astronomy and Astrophysics Research Grants AAS American Astronomical Society ACT Atacama Cosmology Telescope ACTPOL Atacama Cosmology Telescope Polarization Survey ADA Americans with Disabilities Act ADAP Astrophysics Data Analysis Program ADAS Astronomical Data Archiving System AEON Astronomical Event Observatory Network AGB asymptotic giant branch AGEP Alliances for Graduate Education and the Professoriate AGN active galactic nuclei AIP American Institute of Physics AIPS Astronomical Image Processing System ALMA Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array AM CVn Canum Venaticorum AMANDA Antarctic Muon and Neutrino Detector Array AMEGO All-sky Medium Energy Gamma-ray Observatory AMO atomic, molecular, and optical ANITA Antarctic Impulsive Transient Antenna AO adaptive optics AO announcement of opportunity AON Arctic Observing Network APC activity, project, or state of the profession white paper APL Applied Physics Laboratory APOGEE Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment APRA Astrophysics Research and Analysis Program APS American Physical Society APT Advanced Particle-astrophysics Telescope ARA Askaryan Radio Array ARC Astrophysics Research Consortium Telescope ARGOS Advanced Rayleigh Guided Ground Layer Adaptive Optics System ARIANNA Antarctic Ross Ice-Shelf Antenna Neutrino Array ARIEL Atmospheric Remote Sensing Infrared Exoplanet Large-Survey ASAS-SN All-Sky Automated Survey for Supernovae ASCR Advanced Scientific Computing Research ASKAP Australian Square Kilometre Array Pathfinder PREPUBLICATION COPY – SUBJECT TO FURTHER EDITORIAL CORRECTION P-1

ASM adaptive secondary mirror AST NSF Division of Astronomical Sciences Athena Advanced Telescope for High Energy Astrophysics ATI Advanced Technologies and Instrumentation ATP Astrophysics Theory Program AU astronomical unit AUI Associated Universities, Inc. AURA Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy AXAF Advanced X-Ray Astrophysics Facility AXIS Advanced X-Ray Imaging Satellite BAO baryon acoustic oscillations BBN big bang nucleosynthesis BH black hole BICEP Background Imaging of Cosmic Extragalactic Polarization BOINC Berkeley Open Infrastructure for Network Computing CALIFA Calar Alto Legacy Integral Field Area CASTOR Cosmological Advanced Survey Telescope for Optical and UV Research CATE Cost and Technical Evaluation CCAT Cerro Chajnantor Atacama Telescope CCD charge-coupled device CDM cold dark matter CE Cosmic Explorer CERN European Council for Nuclear Research CETUS Cosmic Evolution Through UV Surveys CGI computer generated imagery CGM circumgalactic medium CHARA Center for High Resolution Astronomy CHEOPS CHaracterizing ExOPlanet Satellite CHIME Canadian Hydrogen Intensity Mapping Experiment CHORD Canadian Hydrogen Observatory and Radio-transient Detector CLASS Cosmology Large Angular Scale Surveyor CMB Cosmic Microwave Background CMB-S4 Cosmic Microwave Background Stage 4 CME Coronal Mass Ejections CMOS complementary metal oxide semiconductor imaging sensors CMS concept maturation studies CNES Centre National d’Etudes Spatiales CNM cold neutral medium CORF Committee on Radio Frequencies CoRoT Convection Rotation and Planetary Transits COS Cosmic Origins Spectrograph COSI Compton Spectrometer and Imager COSMO COronal Solar Magnetism Observatory COVID-19 Coronavirus Disease CPD circumplanetary disk CPU central processing unit CSBF Columbia Scientific Balloon Facility CSDC Community Science and Data Center CSMA Committee on the Status of Minorities in Astronomy PREPUBLICATION COPY – SUBJECT TO FURTHER EDITORIAL CORRECTION P-2

CSO Caltech Submillimeter Observatory CSWA Committee on the Status of Women in Astronomy CTA Cherenkov Telescope Array CTE coefficient of thermal expansion CTIO Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory DA discovery area DECam Dark Energy Camera DESI Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument DFW drop, fail, withdrawal DKIST Daniel K. Inouye Solar Telescope DLR Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V. (German Aerospace Center) DM dark matter DMR Division of Materials Research DMS Division of Mathematical Sciences DOE Department of Energy DRM design reference mission DSA-2000 Deep Synoptic Array 2000 DSOC deep space optical communications DST/HCIT Decadal Survey Testbed/High Contrast Imaging Testbed EBIO education, broader impacts, and outreach EDGES Experiment to Detect the Global EoR Signature E-ELT European Extremely Large Telescope EGS Extended Groth Strip EHT Event Horizon Telescope ELT Extremely Large Telescope EM electromagnetic EoR epoch of reionization EOVSA Expanded Owens Valley Solar Array EP3 Effective Practices for Physics Programs EPRV extreme precision radial velocity eROSITA Extended Roentgen Survey with an Imaging Telescope Array ESA European Space Agency ESCAPE Extreme-ultraviolet Stellar Characterization for Atmospheric Physics and Evolution ESDIS Earth Science Data and Information System ESM Electromagnetic Spectrum Management Group ESO European Southern Observatory ESS Exoplanet Science Strategy ETL Exoplanet Technology Laboratory Euclid DF- Euclid Deep Field Fornax Fornax Euclid DF-S Euclid Deep Field South Euclid NEP Euclid North Ecliptic Pole EUV extreme ultraviolet EVLA Expanded Very Large Array Far-IR far-infrared FASR Frequency Agile Solar Radiotelescope FaST Faculty and Student Teams FAST Five-hundred-meter Aperture Spherical Telescope PREPUBLICATION COPY – SUBJECT TO FURTHER EDITORIAL CORRECTION P-3

FBOT fast and blue optical transients FCC Federal Communications Commission FDSS Faculty Development in Space Sciences FIP Far-IR Imager Polarimeter FMR SOFIA Five Year Flagship Mission Review FOBOS Fiber-Optic Broadband Optical Spectrograph FOV field of view FRB fast radio burst FTE full-time employee FTS fourier transform spectrometer FUV far ultraviolet FY fiscal year GADGET Galaxies with Dark Matter and Gas Interact GALAH Galactic Archeology with HERMES GBO Green Bank Observatory GBT Green Bank Telescope GC globular cluster G-CLEF GMT Consortium Large Earth Finder GECAM Gravitational Wave High-energy Electromagnetic Counterpart All-sky Monitor GeMS Gemini Multi-Conjugate Adaptive Optics System GEP Galaxy Evolution Probe GeV gigaelectronvolt GLAO ground layer adaptive optics GMACs GMT Multi-object Astronomy and Cosmology Spectrograph GmagAO-X Giant Magellan Telescope Extreme Adaptive Optics GMT Giant Magellan Telescope GMTIFS GMT Integral Field Spectrograph GMTNIRS GMT Near-IR Spectrograph GNAO Gemini North Adaptive Optics GO guest observer GOMMTD Great Observatory Mission Maturation and Technology Development GONG Global Oscillations Network Group GOODS-N Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey-North GOODS-S Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey-South GPI Gemini Planet Imager GPS global positioning system GPU graphical processing unit GR general relativity GRB gamma ray burst GRE Graduate Record Examination GR-MHD general-relativistic magnetohydrodynamics GST Goode Solar Telescope GUSTO Galactic/Extragalactic ULDB Spectroscopic Terahertz Observatory GW gravitational waves GWOSC Gravitational Wave Open Science Center HabEx Habitable Exoplanet Observatory HAWC High-Altitude Water Cherenkov Observatory HBCU historically black colleges and universities HXDI High Definition X-ray Imager PREPUBLICATION COPY – SUBJECT TO FURTHER EDITORIAL CORRECTION P-4

HE high energy HEASARC High Energy Astrophysics Science Research Center HEP High Energy Physics HERA Hydrogen Epoch of Reionization Array HET Hobby-Eberly Telescope HIRAX Hydrogen Intensity and Real-time Analysis Experiment HOSTS Hunt for Observable Signatures of Terrestrial Systems HPC high-performance computing HPD half power diameter HR Hertzprung-Russell HST Hubble Space Telescope HZ habitable zone IACT Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescope IAU International Astronomical Union IceCube-Gen2 IceCube Generation 2 ICM intracluster medium IFU integral field unit IGM intergalactic medium IGW inflationary gravitational waves IMBH intermediate mass black holes IMF initial mass function INCITE Innovative and Novel Computational Impact on Theory and Experiment IPAC Infrared Processing and Analysis Center IPTA International Pulsar Timing Array IR infrared IRAF Image Reduction and Analysis Facility IRIS Infrared Imaging Spectrometer IR/O/UV infrared/optical/ultraviolet ISM interstellar medium ISO Infrared Space Observatory ITU International Telecommunications Union IXPE Imaging X-ray Polarimetry Explorer JAXA Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency JHU John Hopkins University JPL Jet Propulsion Laboratory JVLA Karl Jansky Very Large Array JWST James Webb Space Telescope KAGRA Kamioka Gravitational-Wave Detector KAPA Keck All-Sky Precision Adaptive Optics KBO Kuiper Belt object KLIP Karhunen-Lo`eve image processing KPIC Keck Planet Imager and Characterizer KPNO Kitt Peak National Observatory LAT Large Aperture Telescope LBA Long Baseline Array LBT Large Binocular Telescope LBTI Large Binocular Telescope Interferometer PREPUBLICATION COPY – SUBJECT TO FURTHER EDITORIAL CORRECTION P-5

LBTO Large Binocular Telescope Observatory LCIT Large Mission Concept Independent Assessment Team LCOGT Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope LDB long duration balloon LEAP Large Area Burst Polarimeter LEDA Large-Aperture Experiment to Detect the Dark Ages LEO low Earth orbit LGBTQIA+ Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Trans, Queer, Intersex, Asexual, Plus LHAASO Large High Altitude Air Shower Observatory LHC Large Hadron Collider LIGO Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory LISA Laser Interferometer Space Antenna LMA Lynx Mirror Assembly LMC Large Magellanic Cloud LMT Large Millimeter Telescope LSST Legacy Survey of Space and Time LTAO laser tomography adaptive optics LTK local and traditional knowledge LUVOIR Large UV/Optical/IR Surveyor LXM Lynx X-ray Microcalorimeter LyC Lyman continuum MAGIC Major Atmospheric Gamma Imaging Cherenkov Telescope MaNGA Mapping nearby Galaxies at APO MARC Maximizing Access to Research Careers MCAO multi-conjugate adaptive optics MEMS micro-electro-mechanical-system MESA Modules for Experiments in Stellar Astrophysics MEV Maximum Expected Value MHD magnetohydrodynamics MIDEX Medium-class Explorers MINERVA- Miniature Exoplanet Radial Velocity Array-Australis Australis MIR mid-infrared MIRC Michigan Infrared Beam Combiner MISC-T Mid-infrared Spectrometer Camera Transit Spectrometer MKID microwave kinetic induction detectors MKO Mauna Kea Observatory MKSR Mauna Kea Science Reserve MLSO Mauna Loa Solar Observatory MMA multi-messenger sstrophysics MMT Multiple Mirror Telescope MO and MOO missions of opportunity MOAO multi-object adaptive optics MODHIS Multi-Object Diffraction-limited High-Resolution Infrared Spectrograph MPE Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics MPS Directorate for Mathematical and Physical Sciences MREFC Major Research Equipment and Facilities Construction MRI Major Research Instrumentation MROI Magdalena Ridge Optical Interferometer MRSEC Materials Research Science and Engineering Centers PREPUBLICATION COPY – SUBJECT TO FURTHER EDITORIAL CORRECTION P-6

MSE Maunakea Spectroscopic Explorer MSFC Marshall Space Flight Center MSI minority serving institution MSIP Mid-Scale Innovations Program MSO Mid-Scale Opportunities MSRI Mid-Scale Research Infrastructure MUCERPI Minority University and College Education and Research Partnership Initiative MW Milky Way MWA Murchison Widefield Array NANOGrav North American Nanohertz Observatory for Gravitational Waves NASA National Aeronautics and Space Administration NEID NN-EXPLORE Exoplanet Investigations with Doppler Spectroscopy NEOWISE Near-Earth Object Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer NICER Neutron Star Interior Composition Explorer NFIRAOS narrow field infrared adaptive optics system ngVLA Next-Generation Very Large Array NICER Neutron Star Interior Composition Explorer NIH National Institutes of Health NIR near-infrared NIST National Institute of Standards and Technology NLSO NASA LISA Studies Office NN-EXPLORE NASA-NSF Exoplanet Observational Research program NOAO National Optical Astronomy Observatory NOIRLab National Optical-Infrared Research Laboratory NPOI Navy Precision Optical Interferometer NRAO National Radio Astronomy Observatory NS neutron star NS EOS neutron star equation of state NSB National Science Board NSBP National Society of Black Physicists NSF National Science Foundation NSHP National Society of Hispanic Physicists NSO National Solar Observatory NSPIRES NASA Solicitation and Proposal Integrated Review and Evaluation System NuSTAR Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array NVO National Virtual Observatory NWNH New Worlds, New Horizons report O&M operations and management OIR optical and infrared ORM Roque de los Muchachos Observatory OSS open source software OSS Origins Survey Spectrometer P5 Particle Physics Project Prioritization Panel PAARE Partnerships in Astronomy and Astrophysics Research PAG program analysis groups PAH polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons PAMS Portfolio Analysis and Management System Pan-STARRS Panoramic Survey Telescope and Rapid Response System PREPUBLICATION COPY – SUBJECT TO FURTHER EDITORIAL CORRECTION P-7

pc parallax of one arc-second (parsec) PDR preliminary design review PER Physics Education Research PFS Prime Focus Spectrograph PGRE Physics Graduate Record Examination PHAT Panchromatic Hubble Andromeda Treasury Project PI principal investigator PIC particle-in-cell PICASO Planetary Intensity Code for Atmospheric Scattering PICTURE Planetary Imaging Concept Testbed Using a Recoverable Experiment PISN pair-instability supernovae PLATO Planetary Transits and Oscillations POEMMA Probe of Extreme Multi-Messenger Astrophysics POLARBEAR Polarization of Background Radiation PTA pulsar timing arrays PTF Palomar Transient Factory PUI primarily undergraduate institution PUMA Packed Ultra-wideband Mapping Array QCD quantum chromodynamics QIS quantum information science QSO quasi-stellar object R resolution RBIS research-based instructional strategies R&D Research and development REU Research Experiences for Undergraduates RFI radio grequency interference RFI request for information RICE Radio Ice Cherenkov Experiment RMS radio, millimeter, and submillimeter RMS root mean square RNO-G Radio Neutrino Observatory in Greenland Roman ST HLS Nancy Grace Roman Space Telescope High Latitude Survey ROSAT Roentgen Satellite ROSES Research Opportunities in Space and Earth Sciences RV radial velocity RXTE Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer SACNAS Society for Advancement of Chicanos/Hispanics and Native Americans in Science SAFARI Spica FAR Infrared Instrument SALT South African Large Telescope SAO Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory SAT Small Aperture Telescope SAT Strategic Astrophysics Technology SATCON Working Group on Satellite Constellations SCExAO Subaru Coronagraphic Extreme Adaptive Optics SCT Schwartzchild-Couder IACT Telescope SDO Solar Dynamics Observatory SDSS Sloan Digital Sky Survey SEA Change STEMM Equity Achievement Change program PREPUBLICATION COPY – SUBJECT TO FURTHER EDITORIAL CORRECTION P-8

SED spectral energy distribution SETI Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence SFR star formation rate SGMA Committee for Sexual-Orientation and Gender Minorities in Astronomy SIM Athena Science Instruments Module SIRTF Space Infrared Telescope Facility SKA Square Kilometre Array SLSNe super-luminous supernovae SMA Submillimeter Array SMARTS Small and Moderate Aperture Research Telescope System SMBH supermassive black hole SMC Small Magellanic Cloud SMD Science Mission Directorate SMEX Small Explorers SNe supernovae SO Simons Observatory SOAR Southern Astrophysical Research Telescope SOFIA Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy SOLIS Synoptic Optical Long-term Investigations of the Sun SOMER SOFIA Operations and Maintenance Efficiency Review SPB super pressure balloon SpecTel Spectroscopic Survey Telescope SPHERE Spectro-Polarimetric High-contrast Exoplanet Research Instrument SPHEREx Spectro-Photometer for the History of the Universe, Epoch of Reionization and Ices Explorer SPICA Space Infrared Telescope for Cosmology and Astrophysics SPO South Pole Observatory SPT South Pole Telescope SQL structured query language SQUID superconducting quantum interference devices SRON Netherlands Institute for Space Research S-STEM Scholarships in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics STDT science and technology definition team STEM Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics STIS Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph STMD Space Technology Mission Directorate STScI Space Telescope Science Institute SVOM Space Variable Objects Monitor SWGO Southern Wide-Field Gamma-Ray Observatory SZ Sunyaev-Zel’dovich (effect) TAP Transient Astrophysics Probe TCAN theory and computation network TCU tribal colleges and universities TDA time domain astronomy TDE tidal disruption event TEAM-UP National Task Force to Elevate African American Representation in Undergraduate Physics & Astronomy TES transition edge sensor TESS Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite TIO Thirty Meter Telescope International Observatory PREPUBLICATION COPY – SUBJECT TO FURTHER EDITORIAL CORRECTION P-9

TK Indigenous traditional knowledge TMT Thirty Meter Telescope TOMS target and observation managers TRACE technical, risk, and cost evaluation TRL technology readiness level TSIP Telescope System Instrumentation Program TTV transit timing variations UHE ultra-high energy UHECR ultra-high-energy cosmic rays ULDB ultra-long duration balloon ULTRA Ultra-stable Large Telescope Research and Analysis ULX ultraluminous X-ray URO University Radio Observatories USRA Universities Space Research Association UV ultraviolet UVOT UV-optical telescope VFP Visiting Faculty Program VHE very high energy VLA Very Large Array VLASS Very Large Array Sky Survey VLBA Very Long Baseline Array VLBI very long baseline interferometry VLT Very Large Telescope VLTI Very Large Telescope Interferometer WC women’s college WD white dwarf WEAVE William Herschel Telescope (WHT) Enhanced Area Velocity Explorer WFI Wide Field Imager WFIRST Wide-Field Infrared Survey Telescope WFS wave-front sensors WGAD Working Group on Accessibility and Disability WIMPS weakly interacting massive particles WISE Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer WIYN Wisconsin-Indiana-Yale-NOAO Observatory WMAP Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe WNM warm neutral medium WRC World Radio Communication Conference XGS Lynx X-Ray Grating Spectrometer X-IFU X-Ray Integral Field Unit XMM-Newton X-Ray Multi Mirror Mission XRISM X-Ray Imaging and Spectroscopy Mission XRP Exoplanet Research Program ZDI Zeeman Doppler Imaging ZTF Zwicky Transient Facility PREPUBLICATION COPY – SUBJECT TO FURTHER EDITORIAL CORRECTION P-10

Next: Appendix Q: Committee and Panel Biographical Information »
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We live in a time of extraordinary discovery and progress in astronomy and astrophysics. The next decade will transform our understanding of the universe and humanity's place in it. Every decade the U.S. agencies that provide primary federal funding for astronomy and astrophysics request a survey to assess the status of, and opportunities for the Nation's efforts to forward our understanding of the cosmos. Pathways to Discovery in Astronomy and Astrophysics for the 2020s identifies the most compelling science goals and presents an ambitious program of ground- and space-based activities for future investment in the next decade and beyond. The decadal survey identifies three important science themes for the next decade aimed at investigating Earth-like extrasolar planets, the most energetic processes in the universe, and the evolution of galaxies. The Astro2020 report also recommends critical near-term actions to support the foundations of the profession as well as the technologies and tools needed to carry out the science.

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