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Commercial Space Vehicle Emissions Modeling (2021)

Chapter: References

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Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Commercial Space Vehicle Emissions Modeling. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26142.
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Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Commercial Space Vehicle Emissions Modeling. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26142.
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Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Commercial Space Vehicle Emissions Modeling. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26142.
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Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Commercial Space Vehicle Emissions Modeling. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26142.
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Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Commercial Space Vehicle Emissions Modeling. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26142.
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Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Commercial Space Vehicle Emissions Modeling. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26142.
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Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Commercial Space Vehicle Emissions Modeling. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26142.
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Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Commercial Space Vehicle Emissions Modeling. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26142.
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Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Commercial Space Vehicle Emissions Modeling. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26142.
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Commercial Space Vehicle Emissions Modeling 87 References [1] "The Annual Compendium of Commercial Space Transportation 2018," Federal Aviation Administration, 2018. [2] Federal Aviation Administration, United States Code of Federal Regulations: United States Government. [3] FAA Order 1050.1F, "Environmental Impacts: Policies and Procedures," 16 July 2015. [4] M. Ross and J. A. Vedda, "The Policy and Science of Rocket Emissions," The Aerospace Corporation, 2018. [5] "Spaceport License," Federal Aviation Administration, https://www.faa.gov/space/licenses/spaceport_license/. [6] R. A. Braeunig, "Rocket Propellants," Rocket and Space Technology, http://www.braeunig.us/space/propel.htm. [7] G. P. Sutton and O. Biblarz, Rocket Propulsion Elements. Hoboken, New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2010. [8] F. S. Simmons, Rocket Exhaust Plume Phenomenology. El Segundo, California: The Aerospace Press, 2000. [9] Chemical Propulsion Information Agency, "CPIA/M5 Liquid Propellant Engine Manual," Whiting School of Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, Columbia, Maryland, September 1999. [10] R. Miake-Lye, "Final Report on Assessing Future Space Launch Emissions and Their Environmental Impact," FAA Office of Environment and Energy, Washington, D.C., 2017. [11] H. S. Pergament, R. I. Gomberg, and I. G. Poppoff, "NOx Deposition in the Stratosphere from the Space Shuttle Rocket Motors," in Proceedings of the Space Shuttle Environmental Assessment Workshop on Stratospheric Effects, A. E. Potter Ed. Houston, Texas: National Aeronautics and Space Administration, 1977. [12] H. S. Pergament and R. D. Thorpe, "NOx Deposited in the Stratosphere by the Space Shuttle. Final Summary Report: Phase I," National Aeronautics and Space Administration, CR-132715, 1975. [13] H. S. Pergament, R. D. Thorpe, and B. Hwang, "NOx Deposited in the Stratosphere by the Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Motors," National Aeronautics and Space Administration, CR-144928, 1975. [14] "Environmental Impact Statement for the Space Shuttle Program," National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, D.C., 1978. [15] R. I. Gomberg and R. B. Stewart, "A Computer Simulation of the Afterburning Processes Occurring Within Solid Rocket Motor Plumes in the Troposphere," National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, D.C., 1976.

Commercial Space Vehicle Emissions Modeling 88 [16] "Final Environmental Impact Statement Space Shuttle Advanced Solid Rocket Motor Program," National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, D.C., 1989. [17] "Environmental Impact Statement for Advanced Solid Rocket Motor Testing at Stennis Space Center," National Aeronautics and Space Administration, TM-107818, August 1990. [18] D. M. Leone and S. R. Turns, "Active Chlorine and Nitric Oxide Formation from Chemical Rocket Plume Afterburning," National Aeronautics and Space Administration, CR-197503, 1994. [19] M. R. Denison, J. J. Lamb, W. D. Bjorndahl, E. Y. Wong, and P. D. Lohn, "Solid rocket exhaust in the stratosphere - Plume diffusion and chemical reactions," Journal of Spacecraft and Rockets, vol. 31, no. 3, pp. 435-442, 1994, doi: 10.2514/3.26457. [20] P. F. Zittel, "Computer Model Predictions of the Local Effects of Large, Solid-Fuel Rocket Motors on Stratospheric Ozone," Space and Missile Systems Center, Los Angeles Air Force Base, California, SMC-TR-94-36, 1994. [21] "Environmental Assessment of the Kodiak Launch Complex, Kodiak Island, Alaska," Federal Aviation Administration, Washington, D.C., 1996. [22] "Environmental Impact Statement of Engine Technology Support for NASA's Advanced Space Transportation Program," National Aeronautics and Space Administration, 970324-F, July 1997. [23] "Final Environmental Impact Statement: Evolved Expendable Launch Vehicle Program," United States Air Force, Washington, D.C., 1998. [24] "Final Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement for the Evolved Expendable Launch Vehicle Program," United States Air Force, Washington, D.C., 2000. [25] "Environmental Assessment for the Operation and Launch of the Falcon 1 and Falcon 9 Space Vehicles at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station Florida," Patrick Air Force Base, Florida, 2007. [26] "Final Environmental Assessment for the Launch and Reentry of SpaceShipTwo Reusable Suborbital Rockets at the Mojave Air and Space Port," Federal Aviation Administration, 2012. [27] "Final Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact for SpaceX Falcon Launches at Kennedy Space Center and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station," Federal Aviation Administration, 2020. [28] "Environmental Assessment for the E4 Test Stand," NASA Stennis Space Center, Hancock County, Mississippi, June 2000. [29] "Environmental Assessment for the Construction and Operation of the Constellation Program A- 3 Test Stand," NASA Stennis Space Center, Hancock County, Mississippi, May 2007. [30] "Environmental Assessment for Space Florida Launch Site Operator License at Launch Complex- 46," Federal Aviation Administration, September 2008.

Commercial Space Vehicle Emissions Modeling 89 [31] Y. Plastinin, G. Karabadzhak, B. Khmelinin, G. Baula, and A. Rodionov, "Investigation of soot density in the LOX/kerosene engine booster exhaust of Atlas II and Atlas III from remote measurements of radiation intensity," presented at the 43rd AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting and Exhibit, 2005. [32] A. A. Alexeenko, N. E. Gimelshein, D. A. Levin, R. J. Collins, R. Rao, G. V. Candler, S. F. Gimelshein, J. S. Hong, and T. Schilling, "Modeling of Flow and Radiation in the Atlas Plume," Journal of Thermophysics and Heat Transfer, vol. 16, no. 1, pp. 50-57, 2002. [33] J. M. Burt and I. D. Boyd, "High Altitude Plume Simulations for a Solid Propellant Rocket," AIAA Journal, vol. 45, no. 12, pp. 2872-2884, 2007, doi: 10.2514/1.30129. [34] C. Voigt, U. Schumann, K. Graf, and K. D. Gottschaldt, "Impact of rocket exhaust plumes on atmospheric composition and climate ― an overview," presented at the Progress in Propulsion Physics, 2013. [35] D. J. Cziczo, "Composition of individual particles in the wakes of an Athena II rocket and the space shuttle," Geophysical Research Letters, vol. 29, no. 21, 2002, doi: 10.1029/2002gl015991. [36] A. M. Gates, "In situ measurements of carbon dioxide, 0.37–4.0 μm particles, and water vapor in the stratospheric plumes of small rockets," Journal of Geophysical Research, vol. 107, no. D22, 2002, doi: 10.1029/2002jd002121. [37] P. J. Popp, B. A. Ridley, J. A. Neuman, L. M. Avallone, D. W. Toohey, P. F. Zittel, O. Schmid, R. L. Herman, R. S. Gao, M. J. Northway, J. C. Holecek, D. W. Fahey, T. L. Thompson, K. K. Kelly, J. G. Walega, F. E. Grahek, J. C. Wilson, M. N. Ross, and M. Y. Danilin, "The emission and chemistry of reactive nitrogen species in the plume of an Athena II solid-fuel rocket motor," Geophysical Research Letters, vol. 29, no. 18, pp. 34-1-34-4, 2002, doi: 10.1029/2002gl015197. [38] M. N. Ross, D. W. Toohey, W. T. Rawlins, E. C. Richard, K. K. Kelly, A. F. Tuck, M. H. Proffitt, D. E. Hagen, A. R. Hopkins, P. D. Whitefield, J. R. Benbrook, and W. R. Sheldon, "Observation of stratospheric ozone depletion associated with Delta II rocket emissions," Geophysical Research Letters, vol. 27, no. 15, pp. 2209-2212, 2000, doi: 10.1029/1999gl011159. [39] M. N. Ross, P. D. Whitefield, D. E. Hagen, and A. R. Hopkins, "In situ measurement of the aerosol size distribution in stratospheric solid rocket motor exhaust plumes," Geophysical Research Letters, vol. 26, no. 7, pp. 819-822, 1999, doi: 10.1029/1999gl900085. [40] O. Schmid, J. M. Reeves, J. C. Wilson, C. Wiedinmyer, C. A. Brock, D. W. Toohey, L. M. Avallone, A. M. Gates, and M. N. Ross, "Size-resolved particle emission indices in the stratospheric plume of an Athena II rocket," Journal of Geophysical Research, vol. 108, no. D8, 2003, doi: 10.1029/2002jd002486. [41] P. D. Lohn, E. P. Wong, T. W. Smith Jr., J. R. Edwards, and D. Pilson, "Rocket Exhaust Impact on Stratospheric Ozone," U.S. Air Force Space and Missile Systems Center, Los Angeles Air Force Base, California, 1999. [42] M. Ross, "Rocket Impacts on Stratospheric Ozone," presented at the 35th Aerospace Sciences Meeting, Reno, Nevada, 1997.

Commercial Space Vehicle Emissions Modeling 90 [43] S. J. Isakowitz, J. B. Hopkins, and J. P. Hopkins Jr., International Reference Guide to Space Launch Systems. Reston, Virginia: American Institude of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 2004. [44] "Specific Impulse," NASA Glenn Research Center, https://www.grc.nasa.gov/www/k- 12/airplane/specimp.html. [45] P. Hill and C. Peterson, Mechanics and Thermodynamics of Propulsion. Reading, Massachusetts: Addison-Wesley Publishing Company, 1992. [46] "Commercial Space Data: Active Licenses," Federal Aviation Administration, https://www.faa.gov/data_research/commercial_space_data/licenses/. [47] R. W. Orloff, "Apollo by the Numbers: A Statistical Reference," National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC, SP-2000-4029, 2000. [48] B. Boen, "The Mighty F-1 Engine Powered the Saturn V Rocket," National Aeronautics and Space Administration, https://www.nasa.gov/centers/marshall/history/f1_engine_new.html. [49] "RS-25 Engine," Aerojet Rocketdyne, http://www.rocket.com/rs-25-engine. [50] "Antares User's Guide," Northrop Grumman, 2018. [51] Thiokol Chemical Corporation, "Study of Solid Rocket Motor for Space Shuttle Booster. Volume II: Technical," National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Marshall Space Flight Center, Alabama, 1972. [52] "Minotaur IV, V, VI User's Guide," Orbital ATK, 2015. [53] P. Blau, "Minotaur V Launch Vehicle Information," Spaceflight 101, http://www.spaceflight101.net/minotaur-v-launch-vehicle-information.html. [54] "Propulsion Products Catalog," Northrop Grumman, 2018. [55] "Launch: Payload User's Guide," Rocket Lab, 2020. [56] E. Kyle, "Rocket Lab Electron Data Sheet," https://www.spacelaunchreport.com/electron.html. [57] "Falcon User's Guide," SpaceX, January 2019. [58] "Falcon 9 Overview," SpaceX, https://web.archive.org/web/20130501002858/http://www.spacex.com/falcon9.php. [59] E. Kyle, "SpaceX Falcon 9 v1.2 Data Sheet," Space Launch Report, https://spacelaunchreport.com/falcon9ft.html. [60] "Atlas V," United Launch Alliance, https://www.ulalaunch.com/rockets/atlas-v. [61] "RS-68A," Aerojet Rocketdyne, https://www.rocket.com/space/liquid-engines/rs-68a. [62] M. Wade, "SpaceShipOne," http://www.astronautix.com/s/spaceshipone.html.

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Commercial Space Vehicle Emissions Modeling 92 [78] Gemini Mission Evaluation Team, "Gemini Program Mission Report: Gemini XII," National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Houston, Texas, MSC-G-R-67-1, January 1967. [79] Saturn V Flight Evaluation Working Group, "Saturn V Launch Vehicle Flight Evaluation Report - AS-503 Apollo 8 Mission," National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Huntsville, Alabama, MPR-SAT-FE-69-1, 20 February 1969. [80] Saturn Flight Evaluation Working Group, "Saturn V Launch Vehicle Flight Evaluation Report - AS- 504 Apollo 9 Mission," National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Huntsville, Alabama, MPR-SAT-FE-69-4, 5 May 1969. [81] R. D. McCurdy, "Apollo/Saturn V Postflight Trajectory - AS-505," The Boeing Company, D5- 15560-5, 17 July 1969. [82] R. D. McCurdy, "Apollo/Saturn V Postflight Trajectory - AS-506," The Boeing Company, D5- 15560-6, 6 October 1969. [83] G. T. Pinson, "Apollo/Saturn V Postflight Trajectory - AS-508," The Boeing Company, D5-15560-8, 10 June 1970. [84] Saturn Flight Evaluation Working Group, "Saturn V Launch Vehicle Flight Evaluation Report - AS- 508 Apollo 13 Mission," National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Huntsville, Alabama, MPR-SAT-FE-70-2, 20 June 1970. [85] Saturn Flight Evaluation Working Group, "Saturn V Launch Vehicle Flight Evaluation Report - AS- 509 Apollo 14 Mission," National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Huntsville, Alabama, MPR-SAT-FE-71-1, 1 April 1971. [86] Saturn Flight Evaluation Working Group, "Saturn V Launch Vehicle Flight Evaluation Report - AS- 510 Apollo 15 Mission," National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Huntsville, Alabama, MPR-SAT-FE-71-2, 28 October 1971. [87] Saturn Flight Evaluation Working Group, "Saturn V Launch Vehicle Flight Evaluation Report - AS- 511 Apollo 16 Mission," National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Huntsville, Alabama, MPR-SAT-FE-72-1, 19 June 1972. [88] G. T. Pinson, "Apollo/Saturn V Postflight Trajectory - AS-512," The Boeing Company, D5-15560- 12, 11 April 1973. [89] Saturn Flight Evaluation Working Group, "Saturn V Launch Vehicle Flight Evaluation Report - AS- 512 Apollo 17 Mission," National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Huntsville, Alabama, MPR-SAT-FE-73-1, 28 February 1973. [90] G. T. Pinson, "Apollo/Saturn V Postflight Trajectory - SA-513 - Skylab 1 Mission," The Boeing Company, D5-15560-13, 14 August 1973. [91] Saturn Flight Evaluation Working Group, "Saturn IB Launch Vehicle Flight Evaluation Report - SA- 207 Skylab 3," National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Huntsville, Alabama, MPR-SAT- FE-73-5, 8 October 1973.

Commercial Space Vehicle Emissions Modeling 93 [92] Saturn Flight Evaluation Working Group, "Saturn IB Launch Vehicle Flight Evaluation Report - SA- 208 Skylab 4," National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Huntsville, Alabama, MPR-SAT- FE-74-1, 31 January 1974. [93] W. Harwood, "STS-133 Flight Data," ed: CBS News, 2011. [94] W. Harwood, "STS-134 Flight Data," ed: CBS News, 2011. [95] W. Harwood, "STS-135 Flight Data," ed: CBS News, 2011. [96] "New Shepard Payload User's Guide," Blue Origin, 2016. [97] "New Glenn Payload User's Guide," Blue Origin, 2018. [98] D. Nelson, "Qualitative and Quantitative Assessment of Optimal Trajectories by Implicit Simulation (OTIS) and Program to Optimize Simulated Trajectories (POST)," Georgia Institute of Technology, 2001. [99] G. Lecohier and K. Mehlem, "A New Trajectory Optimisation Tool (ALTOS) Applied to Conventional Launchers," in IFAC Automatic Control in Aerospace Ottobrunn, Germany, 1992. [100] S. Weikert, "Space Applications Subject to Optimal Control and Sensitivity Analysis," SADCO Kick- Off Meeting, Paris, France, 2011. [101] "Program to Optimize Simulated Trajectories II (POST2)," NASA Langley Research Center, https://post2.larc.nasa.gov/. [102] "Optimal Trajectories by Implicit Simulation (OTIS)," NASA Glenn Research Center, https://otis.grc.nasa.gov/index.html. [103] "Marshall Center Names Flight Simulator 2004 'Software of the Year'," NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, https://www.nasa.gov/centers/marshall/news/news/releases/2004/04-201.html. [104] M. M. Wahbah, M. J. Berning, and T. S. Choy, "Simulation of Airplane and Rocket Trajectories," NASA Johnson Space Center, Houston, Texas, 1987. [105] "Trajectory Analysis and Optimization Software (TAOS)," Sandia National Laboratories, https://www.sandia.gov/taos/. [106] "QuickShot Suite," SpaceWorks, https://www.spaceworks.aero/quickshot/. [107] "ASTOS 9," Astos Solutions GmbH, https://www.astos.de/products/astos. [108] D. F. Williams, "ZOOM: Conceptual Design and Analysis of Rockets and their Missions," Trajectory Solution, http://trajectorysolution.com/ZOOM%20Program.html. [109] C. A. Snyder, "Chemical Equilibrium with Applications," NASA Glenn Research Center, https://www.grc.nasa.gov/www/CEAWeb/.

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Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) regulations require the licensing of spaceports and launch vehicles, which includes the assessment of environmental impacts.

The TRB Airport Cooperative Research Program’s ACRP Web-Only Document 51: Commercial Space Vehicle Emissions Modeling presents a user-friendly tool for practitioners to estimate the emissions associated with commercial space vehicle activity.

Supplementary materials to the document include an Emissions Example Information & Users Guide, the RUMBLE application, and a RUMBLE User Guide.

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