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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Exploring Disaster Human Services for Children and Youth: From Hurricane Katrina to the Paradise Wildfires: Proceedings of a Workshop Series. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26158.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Exploring Disaster Human Services for Children and Youth: From Hurricane Katrina to the Paradise Wildfires: Proceedings of a Workshop Series. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26158.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Exploring Disaster Human Services for Children and Youth: From Hurricane Katrina to the Paradise Wildfires: Proceedings of a Workshop Series. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26158.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Exploring Disaster Human Services for Children and Youth: From Hurricane Katrina to the Paradise Wildfires: Proceedings of a Workshop Series. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26158.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Exploring Disaster Human Services for Children and Youth: From Hurricane Katrina to the Paradise Wildfires: Proceedings of a Workshop Series. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26158.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Exploring Disaster Human Services for Children and Youth: From Hurricane Katrina to the Paradise Wildfires: Proceedings of a Workshop Series. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26158.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Exploring Disaster Human Services for Children and Youth: From Hurricane Katrina to the Paradise Wildfires: Proceedings of a Workshop Series. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26158.
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Page viii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Exploring Disaster Human Services for Children and Youth: From Hurricane Katrina to the Paradise Wildfires: Proceedings of a Workshop Series. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26158.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Exploring Disaster Human Services for Children and Youth: From Hurricane Katrina to the Paradise Wildfires: Proceedings of a Workshop Series. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26158.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Exploring Disaster Human Services for Children and Youth: From Hurricane Katrina to the Paradise Wildfires: Proceedings of a Workshop Series. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26158.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Exploring Disaster Human Services for Children and Youth: From Hurricane Katrina to the Paradise Wildfires: Proceedings of a Workshop Series. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26158.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Exploring Disaster Human Services for Children and Youth: From Hurricane Katrina to the Paradise Wildfires: Proceedings of a Workshop Series. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26158.
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Page xiii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Exploring Disaster Human Services for Children and Youth: From Hurricane Katrina to the Paradise Wildfires: Proceedings of a Workshop Series. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26158.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Exploring Disaster Human Services for Children and Youth: From Hurricane Katrina to the Paradise Wildfires: Proceedings of a Workshop Series. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26158.
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Below is the uncorrected machine-read text of this chapter, intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text of each book. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

Exploring Disaster Human Services for Children and Youths From Hurricane Katrina to the Paradise Wildfires PROCEEDINGS OF A WORKSHOP Anna Nicholson, Aurelia Attal-Juncqua, and Scott Wollek, Rapporteurs Board on Health Sciences Policy Health and Medicine Division PREPUBLICATION COPY—Uncorrected Proofs

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS   500 Fifth Street, NW   Washington, DC 20001 This activity was supported by a contract between the National Academy of Sci- ences and the Administration for Children and Families at the Department of Health and Human Services. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect the views of any organization or agency that provided support for the project. International Standard Book Number-13: 978-0-309-XXXXX-X International Standard Book Number-10: 0-309-XXXXX-X Digital Object Identifier: https://doi.org/10.17226/26158 Additional copies of this publication are available from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, NW, Keck 360, Washington, DC, 20001; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313; http://www.nap.edu. Copyright 2021 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America Suggested citation: National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Exploring disaster human services for children and youth: From Hurricane Katrina to the Paradise wildfires: Proceedings of a workshop series. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. https://doi.org/10.17226/26158. PREPUBLICATION COPY—Uncorrected Proofs

The National Academy of Sciences was established in 1863 by an Act of Congress, signed by President Lincoln, as a private, nongovernmental institu- tion to advise the nation on issues related to science and technology. Members are elected by their peers for outstanding contributions to research. Dr. Marcia McNutt is president. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964 under the char- ter of the National Academy of Sciences to bring the practices of engineering to advising the nation. Members are elected by their peers for extraordinary contributions to engineering. Dr. John L. Anderson is president. The National Academy of Medicine (formerly the Institute of Medicine) was established in 1970 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to advise the nation on medical and health issues. Members are elected by their peers for distinguished contributions to medicine and health. Dr. Victor J. Dzau is president. The three Academies work together as the National Academies of Sciences, Engi­ eering, and Medicine to provide independent, objective analysis and n a ­ dvice to the nation and conduct other activities to solve complex problems and inform public policy decisions. The National Academies also encourage education and research, recognize outstanding contributions to knowledge, and increase public understanding in matters of science, engineering, and medicine. Learn more about the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine at www.nationalacademies.org. PREPUBLICATION COPY—Uncorrected Proofs

Consensus Study Reports published by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine document the evidence-based consensus on the study’s statement of task by an authoring committee of experts. Reports typi- cally include findings, conclusions, and recommendations based on information gathered by the committee and the committee’s deliberations. Each report has been subjected to a rigorous and independent peer-review process and it represents the position of the National Academies on the statement of task. Proceedings published by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine chronicle the presentations and discussions at a workshop, symposium, or other event convened by the National Academies. The statements and ­ pinions o contained in proceedings are those of the participants and are not endorsed by other participants, the planning committee, or the National Academies. For information about other products and activities of the National Academies, please visit www.nationalacademies.org/about/whatwedo. PREPUBLICATION COPY—Uncorrected Proofs

PLANNING COMMITTEE ON EXPLORING BEST PRACTICES IN INTEGRATION OF PUBLIC HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES SERVICE DELIVERY AND ASSESSMENT FOLLOWING LARGE-SCALE DISASTERS1 ROBERTA LAVIN (Chair), Professor and Ph.D. Program Director, University of New Mexico SHERLITA AMLER, Commissioner, Westchester County Department of Health HEATHER BEAL, President and Founder, BLOCKS Inc. ANNA FEIGUM, Emergency Services Coordinator, Oregon Department of Human Services CAROL FLORES, Texas Disaster Case Management Program Grant Coordinator, National Voluntary Organizations Active in Disasters JENNIFER HORNEY, Professor and Founding Director of the Program in Epidemiology and Core Faculty, University of Delaware Disaster Research Center LESLIE LUKE, Deputy Director, Los Angeles County Office of Emergency Management DESI MATTEL-ANDERSON, Chief Wrangler, The Field Innovation Team; Chief Executive Officer, Global Disaster Innovation Group, LLC CHARLOTTE OLSEN, Emergency Manager, Colorado Department of Human Services JEFF SCHLEGELMILCH, Deputy Director, National Center for Disaster Preparedness, Earth Institute, Columbia University RICHARD SERINO, Distinguished Senior Fellow, National Preparedness Leadership Initiative, Harvard University JOELLE SIMPSON, Medical Director for Emergency Preparedness, Children’s National Hospital TARAH SOMER, Commissioned Officer, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR); Regional Director, ATSDR Region 1 Health and Medicine Division Staff SCOTT WOLLEK, Senior Program Officer AURELIA ATTAL-JUNCQUA, Associate Program Officer MICHAEL BERRIOS, Research Associate 1 The National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine’s planning committees are solely responsible for organizing the workshop, identifying topics, and choosing speakers. The responsibility for the published Proceedings of a Workshop Series rests with the workshop rapporteurs and the institution. v PREPUBLICATION COPY—Uncorrected Proofs

KIM SUTTON, Senior Program Assistant ANDREW M. POPE, Senior Director, Board on Health Sciences Policy Consultants LAURA RUNNELS, LAR Consulting ANNA NICHOLSON, Science Writer vi PREPUBLICATION COPY—Uncorrected Proofs

Reviewers This Proceedings of a Workshop Series was reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical com- ments that will assist the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine in making each published proceedings as sound as possible and to ensure that it meets the institutional standards for quality, objectivity, evi- ­ dence, and responsiveness to the charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the process. We thank the following individuals for their review of this proceedings: GAIL KELSO, Child Care Disaster Relief and Recovery, ICF JULIE LOOPER-COATS, ChildCare Aware of America JESSICA VERMILYEA, Lutheran Social Services Disaster Response, Upbring Although the reviewers listed above provided many constructive com- ments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the content of the proceedings nor did they see the final draft before its release. The review of this proceedings was overseen by LYNN R. GOLDMAN, Milken I ­nstitute School of Public Health, The George Washington University. She was responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this proceedings was carried out in accordance with standards of the National Academies and that all review comments were carefully consid- ered. Responsibility for the final content rests entirely with the rapporteurs and the National Academies. vii PREPUBLICATION COPY—Uncorrected Proofs

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Contents ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS xii 1 INTRODUCTION 1 Workshop Objectives, 2 Workshop Background: Setting the Stage, 3 Disaster Human Services: Connecting the Human Service Networks, 4 Recommendations from the National Commission on Children and Disasters, 6 Organization of the Proceedings, 8 Critical Child Infrastructure, 8 2 EXPOSURE OUTLIERS: CHILDREN COMING OF AGE IN AN AGE OF ENVIRONMENTAL EXTREMES 21 Engaging and Learning from Children Affected by Disasters, 21 Cumulative Effects of Collective Trauma Events, 22 A Call to Action from the National Commission on Children and Disasters, 23 Discussion, 25 3 EFFECT OF DISASTERS ON CRITICAL CHILD INFRASTRUCTURE 29 Office of Child Care and the Child Care Development Fund, 29 Disaster Planning and Collaboration to Support Children, Youth, and Families, 33 ix PREPUBLICATION COPY—Uncorrected Proofs

x CONTENTS American Red Cross: Support for Children Across All Phases of Disasters, 34 Disaster Medicine Infrastructure Planning: Health Care System Considerations for Children, 38 Discussion, 41 4 EXPLORING THE GAPS IN EVIDENCE 45 Progress and Gaps in Supporting Children, Youth, Families, and Service Providers, 45 Study of the Effect of Hurricane Maria on Children in Puerto Rico, 48 Research Gaps in Children’s Disaster Mental and Behavioral Health, 54 Discussion, 58 5 CASE STUDIES: EFFECT OF DISASTERS ON SPECIFIC POPULATIONS 65 Effect on Children with Issues Brought on by, or Exacerbated by, Disasters, 65 Effect of Disasters on Parents and Guardians, 70 Effect of Disasters on Children with Complex or Special Needs, 75 Effect of Disasters on Unaccompanied Minors, 80 6 WORKSHOP REFLECTIONS 87 Closing Reflections on the Workshop, 87 Strengthening Support for Children and Youth in Disasters, 88 REFERENCES 95 APPENDIXES A Workshop Statement of Task 99 B Workshop Agenda 101 C Speaker Biographies 109 PREPUBLICATION COPY—Uncorrected Proofs

Boxes and Figure BOXES 1-1 Lessons Learned from the Federal Response to Hurricane Katrina, 5 2-1 Effects of Cumulative Disaster Exposure and Prolonged Displacement, 23 3-1 Support Needs for Disaster-Affected Children, Youth, and Families, 33 4-1 Youth Development Institute of Puerto Rico, 49 FIGURE 1-1 Human-centered structured analytic approach, 19 xi PREPUBLICATION COPY—Uncorrected Proofs

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Acronyms and Abbreviations ACE adverse childhood experience ACF Administration for Children and Families ANA Administration for Native Americans ARC American Red Cross CARES Coronavirus Aid, Relief, and Economic Security Act CCDF Child Care Development Fund CDC Centers for Disease Control and Prevention COOP continuity-of-operations plans CPR cardiopulmonary resuscitation CSBG community services block grant EBT electronic benefit transfer ECD Office of Early Childhood Development ESF emergency support function FEMA Federal Emergency Management Agency FVPSA Family Violence Prevention and Services Act HHS Department of Health and Human Services LIHEAP Low-Income Home Energy Assistance Program NCCD National Commission on Children and Disasters NCMEC National Center for Missing & Exploited Children xiii PREPUBLICATION COPY—Uncorrected Proofs

xiv ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS NIH National Institutes of Health OCC Office of Child Care OCS Office of Community Services OHS Office of Head Start OHSEPR Office of Human Services Emergency Preparedness and Response ORR Office of Refugee Resettlement OTIP Office on Trafficking in Persons SAMHSA Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration SBA Small Business Administration SNA social network analysis SNAP Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program SSBG social services block grant STC Save the Children VOAD voluntary organizations active in disaster WIC Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children YDI Youth Development Institute of Puerto Rico PREPUBLICATION COPY—Uncorrected Proofs

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To explore issues related to the effects of disasters on children and youth and lessons learned from experiences during previous disasters, the virtual workshop From Hurricane Katrina to Paradise Wildfires, Exploring Themes in Disaster Human Services was convened on July 22 and 23, 2020, by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. The workshop was designed to focus on families engaged with federal, state or local supportive programs prior to disasters. Additional areas of focus were the coordination of disaster response efforts and the transition to reestablishing routine service delivery programs post-disaster by human services, social services, and public health agencies at the state, local, tribal, and territorial levels. The workshop was also intended to provide a platform for highlighting promising practices, ongoing challenges, and potential opportunities for coordinated delivery and restoration of social and human services programs. This publication summarizes the presentations and discussion of the workshop.

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