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Intelligent Transportation Systems in Headway-Based Bus Service A SYNTHESIS OF TRANSIT PRACTICE Paul Anderson Texas A&M Transportation Institute San Antonio, TX Michael J. Walk Chris Simek Texas A&M Transportation Institute Austin, TX 2021 Research sponsored by the Federal Transit Administration in cooperation with the Transit Development Corporation Subject Areas Operations and Traffic Management â¢ Public Transportation T R A N S I T C O O P E R A T I V E R E S E A R C H P R O G R A M TCRP SYNTHESIS 155
Published reports of the TRANSIT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM are available from Transportation Research Board Business Office 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 and can be ordered through the Internet by going to https://www.mytrb.org/MyTRB/Store/default.aspx Printed in the United States of America TRANSIT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM The nationâs growth and the need to meet mobility, environmental, and energy objectives place demands on public transit systems. Cur- rent systems, some of which are old and in need of upgrading, must expand service area, increase service frequency, and improve efficiency to serve these demands. Research is necessary to solve operating prob- lems, adapt appropriate new technologies from other industries, and introduce innovations into the transit industry. The Transit Coopera- tive Research Program (TCRP) serves as one of the principal means by which the transit industry can develop innovative near-term solutions to meet demands placed on it. The need for TCRP was originally identified in TRB Special Report 213âResearch for Public Transit: New Directions, published in 1987 and based on a study sponsored by the Urban Mass Transportation Administrationânow the Federal Transit Administration (FTA). A report by the American Public Transportation Association (APTA), Transportation 2000, also recognized the need for local, problem- solving research. TCRP, modeled after the successful National Coop- erative Highway Research Program (NCHRP), undertakes research and other technical activities in response to the needs of transit ser- vice providers. The scope of TCRP includes various transit research fields including planning, service configuration, equipment, facilities, operations, human resources, maintenance, policy, and administrative practices. TCRP was established under FTA sponsorship in July 1992. Pro- posed by the U.S. Department of Transportation, TCRP was authorized as part of the Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991 (ISTEA). On May 13, 1992, a memorandum agreement outlining TCRP operating procedures was executed by the three cooperating organi- zations: FTA; the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine, acting through the Transportation Research Board (TRB); and the Transit Development Corporation, Inc. (TDC), a nonprofit educational and research organization established by APTA. TDC is responsible for forming the independent governing board, designated as the TCRP Oversight and Project Selection (TOPS) Commission. Research problem statements for TCRP are solicited periodically but may be submitted to TRB by anyone at any time. It is the responsibility of the TOPS Commission to formulate the research program by identi- fying the highest priority projects. As part of the evaluation, the TOPS Commission defines funding levels and expected products. Once selected, each project is assigned to an expert panel appointed by TRB. The panels prepare project statements (requests for propos- als), select contractors, and provide technical guidance and counsel throughout the life of the project. The process for developing research problem statements and selecting research agencies has been used by TRB in managing cooperative research programs since 1962. As in other TRB activities, TCRP project panels serve voluntarily without compensation. Because research cannot have the desired effect if products fail to reach the intended audience, special emphasis is placed on disseminat- ing TCRP results to the intended users of the research: transit agen- cies, service providers, and suppliers. TRB provides a series of research reports, syntheses of transit practice, and other supporting material developed by TCRP research. APTA will arrange for workshops, train- ing aids, field visits, and other activities to ensure that results are imple- mented by urban and rural transit industry practitioners. TCRP provides a forum where transit agencies can cooperatively address common operational problems. TCRP results support and complement other ongoing transit research and training programs. TCRP SYNTHESIS 155 Project J-07, Topic SG-17 ISSN 1073-4880 ISBN 978-0-309-67394-5 Â© 2021 National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. COPYRIGHT INFORMATION Authors herein are responsible for the authenticity of their materials and for obtaining written permissions from publishers or persons who own the copyright to any previously published or copyrighted material used herein. Cooperative Research Programs (CRP) grants permission to reproduce material in this publication for classroom and not-for-profit purposes. Permission is given with the understanding that none of the material will be used to imply TRB, AASHTO, FAA, FHWA, FTA, GHSA, NHTSA, or TDC endorsement of a particular product, method, or practice. It is expected that those reproducing the material in this document for educational and not-for-profit uses will give appropriate acknowledgment of the source of any reprinted or reproduced material. For other uses of the material, request permission from CRP. Cover photos credit: TTI Archives. NOTICE The report was reviewed by the technical panel and accepted for publication according to procedures established and overseen by the Transportation Research Board and approved by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. The opinions and conclusions expressed or implied in this report are those of the researchers who performed the research and are not necessarily those of the Transporta- tion Research Board; the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine; or the program sponsors. The Transportation Research Board; the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine; and the sponsors of the Transit Cooperative Research Program do not endorse products or manufacturers. Trade or manufacturersâ names or logos appear herein solely because they are considered essential to the object of the report.
The National Academy of Sciences was established in 1863 by an Act of Congress, signed by President Lincoln, as a private, non- governmental institution to advise the nation on issues related to science and technology. Members are elected by their peers for outstanding contributions to research. Dr. Marcia McNutt is president. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to bring the practices of engineering to advising the nation. Members are elected by their peers for extraordinary contributions to engineering. Dr. John L. Anderson is president. The National Academy of Medicine (formerly the Institute of Medicine) was established in 1970 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to advise the nation on medical and health issues. Members are elected by their peers for distinguished contributions to medicine and health. Dr. Victor J. Dzau is president. The three Academies work together as the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine to provide independent, objective analysis and advice to the nation and conduct other activities to solve complex problems and inform public policy decisions. The National Academies also encourage education and research, recognize outstanding contributions to knowledge, and increase public understanding in matters of science, engineering, and medicine. Learn more about the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine at www.nationalacademies.org. The Transportation Research Board is one of seven major programs of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. The mission of the Transportation Research Board is to provide leadership in transportation improvements and innovation through trusted, timely, impartial, and evidence-based information exchange, research, and advice regarding all modes of transportation. The Boardâs varied activities annually engage about 8,000 engineers, scientists, and other transportation researchers and practitioners from the public and private sectors and academia, all of whom contribute their expertise in the public interest. The program is supported by state transportation departments, federal agencies including the component administrations of the U.S. Department of Transportation, and other organizations and individuals interested in the development of transportation. Learn more about the Transportation Research Board at www.TRB.org.
CRP STAFF FOR TCRP SYNTHESIS 155 Christopher J. Hedges, Director, Cooperative Research Programs Lori L. Sundstrom, Deputy Director, Cooperative Research Programs Gwen Chisholm Smith, Manager, Transit Cooperative Research Program Mariela Garcia-Colberg, Senior Program Officer Sheila A. Moore, Program Associate Eileen P. Delaney, Director of Publications Natalie Barnes, Associate Director of Publications TCRP PROJECT J-07 PANEL Elizabeth Presutti, Des Moines Area Regional Transit Authority, Des Moines, IA (Chair) Jameson Auten, Kansas City Area Transportation Authority, Kansas City, MO Mallory Avis, Battle Creek Transit, Battle Creek, MI Fabian Cevallos, Florida International University, Miami, FL Roderick B. Diaz, Southern California Regional Rail Authority, Los Angeles, CA Mark Donaghy, Greater Dayton RTA, Dayton, OH Christian Kent, Christian T. Kent, Transit Management Consulting, LLC, Virginia Beach, VA Ronald Kilcoyne, Consulting, Walnut Creek, CA Brad Miller, Pinellas Suncoast Transit Authority (PSTA), St. Petersburg, FL Jarrett W. Stoltzfus, Proterra, Mt. Rainier, MD David Wilcock, VHB, Boston, MA Faith Hall, FTA Liaison Arthur Guzzetti, APTA Liaison William Terry, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey Liaison TOPIC SG-17 PANEL Devin Braun, Transportation Communication & Technology, San Diego, CA Eric T. Hill, MetroPlan Orlando, Orlando, FL Al Martinez, Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transportation Authority, Los Angeles, CA Nathan Reynolds, Waycare, Cedar Rapids, IA Jarrett W. Stoltzfus, Proterra, Mt. Rainier, MD Roberto TreviÃ±o, Metropolitan Transit Authority of Harris County, Houston, TX Hao Xu, University of Nevada-Reno, Reno, NV Melissa Foreman, FTA Liaison AUTHOR ACKNOWLEDGMENTS This synthesis report would not have been possible without the volunteer contributions of many transit agency employees. The authors thank all of the survey respondents and are particularly grateful to the four case example agencies that took the time to participate in this study even in the midst of the COVID-19 pandemic. They are Oahu Transit Services, Capital Metropolitan Transportation Authority, Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transportation Authority, and King County Metro Transit Department. The authors also thank the oversight panel for useful comments throughout the project and Jinuk Hwang and Michelle Benoit for their contributions to this study. C O O P E R A T I V E R E S E A R C H P R O G R A M S
ABOUT THE TCRP SYNTHESIS PROGRAM Transit administrators, engineers, and researchers often face problems for which information already exists, either in documented form or as undocumented experience and practice. This infor- mation may be fragmented, scattered, and unevaluated. As a consequence, full knowledge of what has been learned about a problem may not be brought to bear on its solution. Costly research findings may go unused, valuable experience may be overlooked, and due consideration may not be given to recommended practices for solving or alleviating the problem. There is information on nearly every subject of concern to the transit industry. Much of it derives from research or from the work of practitioners faced with problems in their day-to-day work. To provide a systematic means for assembling and evaluating such useful information and to make it available to the entire transit community, the Transit Cooperative Research Program Oversight and Project Selection (TOPS) Committee authorized the Transportation Research Board to undertake a continuing study. This study, TCRP Project J-7, âSynthesis of Information Related to Transit Practices,â searches out and synthesizes useful knowledge from all available sources and prepares concise, documented reports on specific topics. Reports from this endeavor constitute a TCRP report series, Synthesis of Transit Practice. This synthesis series reports on current knowledge and practice, in a compact format, without the detailed directions usually found in handbooks or design manuals. Each report in the series provides a compendium of the best knowledge available on those measures found to be the most successful in resolving specific problems. FOREWORD By Mariela Garcia-Colberg Staff Officer Transportation Research Board Intelligent transportation systems and, in particular, computer-aided dispatch and automatic vehicle location (CAD/AVL), have become quasi-universal in urban bus operations and support a variety of functions. Those functions include performance monitoring, service reliability, security, passenger information, ticketing, contract management, multimodal integration and many other functions facilitating progress toward mobility as a service. However, the envisioned potential use of intelligent transportation systems to greatly improve bus service reliability has not been fully achieved. Observed experience with the use of these systems shows that they continue to be primarily used for ad-hoc incident management in cases of street deviations, broken buses, sick passengers, or security problems; they rarely appear to be used for continuous proactive monitoring and control to identify and correct service problems as they occur. This study ascertained whether transit systems today are transitioning to a dynamic headway- based service that has a more proactive approach to manage bus operations. TCRP Synthesis 155: Intelligent Transportation Systems in Headway-Based Bus Service synthesizes the current state of the practice of headway-based service operations and focuses on the proactive use of intelligent trans- portation systems technologies to optimize these services. A literature review was conducted, along with gathering detailed survey responses of practices from 16 transit agencies. The analysis of the state of the practice emphasized lessons learned, current practices, challenges, and gaps in information. Four case examples from transit agencies that have developed innovative practices were reviewed. The case examples highlight successes, challenges, and lessons learned. Future research needs are also identified within the synthesis report. Paul Anderson, Michael J. Walk, and Chris Simek from Texas A&M Transportation Institute (TTI) in San Antonio and Austin collected and synthesized the information and wrote the report. The members of the topic panel are acknowledged on page iv. This synthesis is an immediately useful document that records the practices that were acceptable within the limitations of the knowledge available at the time of its preparation. As progress in research and practice continues, new knowledge will be added to that now at hand.
1 Summary 4 Chapter 1 Introduction 4 Background 5 Objective and Scope 5 Definition of Terms 5 Technical Approach to Synthesis Project 7 Organization of the Report 8 Chapter 2 Literature Review 8 Headway-Based Service 16 Intelligent Transportation Systems Technologies 20 Chapter 3 Survey Results 20 Screening Questions 20 Ineligible Respondents 20 Headway-Based Service 24 Performance Monitoring and Benefits 26 Chapter 4 Case Examples 26 City and County of Honolulu Department of Transportation Services 31 Capital Metropolitan Transportation Authority 43 Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transportation Authority 47 King County Metro Transit Department 50 Summary of Case Examples 51 Chapter 5 Conclusions 53 Key Findings from Case Examples 54 Suggestions for Future Research 55 List of Acronyms and Abbreviations 56 References 61 Appendix A Survey Instrument 83 Appendix B Survey Results Tables C O N T E N T S