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A I R P O R T C O O P E R A T I V E R E S E A R C H P R O G R A M ACRP RESEARCH REPORT 228 2021 Research sponsored by the Federal Aviation Administration Subscriber Categories Aviation â¢ Energy â¢ Environment Airport Microgrid Implementation Toolkit Adam Klauber Joey Cathcart Lauren Shwisberg Isaac Toussie Rocky Mountain institute Boulder, CO Adib NaslÃ© Kelsey Fahy Scott Mitchell Zack Pecenak Michael Stadler XenDee coRpoRation San Diego, CA Wilson Rickerson Meredith Pringle conveRge stRategies, LLc Boston, MA Steve Barrett BaRRett eneRgy ResouRces gRoup, LLc Lexington, MA James Crites JaMes M. cRites, LLc Fort Worth, TX
AIRPORT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM Airports are vital national resources. They serve a key role in trans- portation of people and goods and in regional, national, and interna- tional commerce. They are where the nationâs aviation system connects with other modes of transportation and where federal responsibility for managing and regulating air traffic operations intersects with the role of state and local governments that own and operate most airports. Research is necessary to solve common operating problems, to adapt appropriate new technologies from other industries, and to introduce innovations into the airport industry. The Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) serves as one of the principal means by which the airport industry can develop innovative near-term solutions to meet demands placed on it. The need for ACRP was identified in TRB Special Report 272: Airport Research Needs: Cooperative Solutions in 2003, based on a study spon- sored by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). ACRP carries out applied research on problems that are shared by airport operating agen- cies and not being adequately addressed by existing federal research programs. ACRP is modeled after the successful National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP) and Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP). ACRP undertakes research and other technical activi- ties in various airport subject areas, including design, construction, legal, maintenance, operations, safety, policy, planning, human resources, and administration. ACRP provides a forum where airport operators can cooperatively address common operational problems. ACRP was authorized in December 2003 as part of the Vision 100â Century of Aviation Reauthorization Act. The primary participants in the ACRP are (1) an independent governing board, the ACRP Oversight Committee (AOC), appointed by the Secretary of the U.S. Department of Transportation with representation from airport operating agencies, other stakeholders, and relevant industry organizations such as the Airports Council International-North America (ACI-NA), the American Associa- tion of Airport Executives (AAAE), the National Association of State Aviation Officials (NASAO), Airlines for America (A4A), and the Airport Consultants Council (ACC) as vital links to the airport community; (2) TRB as program manager and secretariat for the governing board; and (3) the FAA as program sponsor. In October 2005, the FAA executed a contract with the National Academy of Sciences formally initiating the program. ACRP benefits from the cooperation and participation of airport professionals, air carriers, shippers, state and local government officials, equipment and service suppliers, other airport users, and research organi- zations. Each of these participants has different interests and responsibili- ties, and each is an integral part of this cooperative research effort. Research problem statements for ACRP are solicited periodically but may be submitted to TRB by anyone at any time. It is the responsibility of the AOC to formulate the research program by identifying the highest priority projects and defining funding levels and expected products. Once selected, each ACRP project is assigned to an expert panel appointed by TRB. Panels include experienced practitioners and research specialists; heavy emphasis is placed on including airport professionals, the intended users of the research products. The panels prepare project statements (requests for proposals), select contractors, and provide technical guidance and counsel throughout the life of the project. The process for developing research problem statements and selecting research agencies has been used by TRB in managing coop- erative research programs since 1962. As in other TRB activities, ACRP project panels serve voluntarily without compensation. Primary emphasis is placed on disseminating ACRP results to the intended users of the research: airport operating agencies, service pro- viders, and academic institutions. ACRP produces a series of research reports for use by airport operators, local agencies, the FAA, and other interested parties; industry associations may arrange for workshops, training aids, field visits, webinars, and other activities to ensure that results are implemented by airport industry practitioners. ACRP RESEARCH REPORT 228 Project 10-26 ISSN 2572-3731 (Print) ISSN 2572-374X (Online) ISBN 978-0-309-67384-6 Library of Congress Control Number 2021933943 Â© 2021 National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. COPYRIGHT INFORMATION Authors herein are responsible for the authenticity of their materials and for obtaining written permissions from publishers or persons who own the copyright to any previously published or copyrighted material used herein. Cooperative Research Programs (CRP) grants permission to reproduce material in this publication for classroom and not-for-profit purposes. Permission is given with the understanding that none of the material will be used to imply TRB, AASHTO, FAA, FHWA, FTA, GHSA, NHTSA, or TDC endorsement of a particular product, method, or practice. It is expected that those reproducing the material in this document for educational and not-for-profit uses will give appropriate acknowledgment of the source of any reprinted or reproduced material. For other uses of the material, request permission from CRP. NOTICE The research report was reviewed by the technical panel and accepted for publication according to procedures established and overseen by the Transportation Research Board and approved by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. The opinions and conclusions expressed or implied in this report are those of the researchers who performed the research and are not necessarily those of the Transportation Research Board; the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine; or the program sponsors. The Transportation Research Board; the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine; and the sponsors of the Airport Cooperative Research Program do not endorse products or manufacturers. Trade or manufacturersâ names or logos appear herein solely because they are considered essential to the object of the report. Published research reports of the AIRPORT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM are available from Transportation Research Board Business Office 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 and can be ordered through the Internet by going to https://www.mytrb.org/MyTRB/Store/default.aspx Printed in the United States of America
The National Academy of Sciences was established in 1863 by an Act of Congress, signed by President Lincoln, as a private, non- governmental institution to advise the nation on issues related to science and technology. Members are elected by their peers for outstanding contributions to research. Dr. Marcia McNutt is president. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to bring the practices of engineering to advising the nation. Members are elected by their peers for extraordinary contributions to engineering. Dr. John L. Anderson is president. The National Academy of Medicine (formerly the Institute of Medicine) was established in 1970 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to advise the nation on medical and health issues. Members are elected by their peers for distinguished contributions to medicine and health. Dr. Victor J. Dzau is president. The three Academies work together as the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine to provide independent, objective analysis and advice to the nation and conduct other activities to solve complex problems and inform public policy decisions. The National Academies also encourage education and research, recognize outstanding contributions to knowledge, and increase public understanding in matters of science, engineering, and medicine. Learn more about the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine at www.nationalacademies.org. The Transportation Research Board is one of seven major programs of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. The mission of the Transportation Research Board is to provide leadership in transportation improvements and innovation through trusted, timely, impartial, and evidence-based information exchange, research, and advice regarding all modes of transportation. The Boardâs varied activities annually engage about 8,000 engineers, scientists, and other transportation researchers and practitioners from the public and private sectors and academia, all of whom contribute their expertise in the public interest. The program is supported by state transportation departments, federal agencies including the component administrations of the U.S. Department of Transportation, and other organizations and individuals interested in the development of transportation. Learn more about the Transportation Research Board at www.TRB.org.
C O O P E R A T I V E R E S E A R C H P R O G R A M S AUTHOR ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The research reported herein was performed under ACRP Project 10-26 by Rocky Mountain Institute and its subcontractors XENDEE Corporation; Converge Strategies, LLC; Barrett Energy Resources Group (BERG), LLC; and James M. Crites, LLC. Adam Klauber was the principal investigator. The other authors of this report are Joey Cathcart, Deputy-Principal Investigator, Lauren Shwisberg, and Isaac Toussie of Rocky Mountain Institute; Adib NaslÃ©, Kelsey Fahy, Scott Mitchell, Zack Pecenak, and Michael Stadler of XENDEE; Wilson Rickerson and Meredith Pringle of Converge Strategies; Steve Barrett of BERG; and James Crites. The report authors thank the following individuals who provided invaluable insights for the case studies or direct support for testing the toolkit (listed alphabetically): Dave Altman (Raytheon), Scott Benesh (Aspen/Pitkin County Airport), Todd Cavender (Indianapolis Airport), Terry Civic [Massachusetts Port Authority (Massport)], Dave Crudele [New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA)], Shawn Doyle (Alphastruxure, LLC), Ron Durfey (Marine Corps Air Station Yuma), Rose CRP STAFF FOR ACRP RESEARCH REPORT 228 Christopher J. Hedges, Director, Cooperative Research Programs Lori L. Sundstrom, Deputy Director, Cooperative Research Programs Marci A. Greenberger, Manager, Airport Cooperative Research Program Theresia H. Schatz, Senior Program Officer Tyler Smith, Senior Program Assistant Eileen P. Delaney, Director of Publications Natalie Barnes, Associate Director of Publications Lisa Whittington, Editor ACRP PROJECT 10-26 PANEL Field of Operations Cullen Choi, Denver International Airport, Denver, CO (Chair) Brian C. Chang, The Port Authority of New York and New Jersey, New York, NY Susan Fizzell, Port of Oakland, Oakland, CA Rusty T. Hodapp, Dallas-Fort Worth International Airport, TX Alan L. Rao, OST-R/Volpe Center, Cambridge, MA Robert Roseman, WSP, Saint Louis, MO Jean Wolfers-Lawrence, FAA Liaison William A. Anderson, TRB Liaison
Forbes (Otis Air National Guard Base), Jonathan Gillis (Converge Strategies), Corey Johnson (C&S Companies), Robert Jones (Kimley-Horn), Dr. Nicholas Judson (Massachusetts Institute of Technology Lincoln Laboratory), Stephanie Meyn [SeattleâTacoma International Airport (SEA)], David Neuder (Kimley-Horn), Douglas Nordham (ARUP), John Philbrook (Detroit Metropolitan Wayne County Airport), Chad Reese [San Diego International Airport (SAN)], Matthew Reno (Sandia National Laboratories), Tom Rodems (Converge Strategies), Cogan Semler (SAN), Carly Shannon (C&S Com- panies), Tanya Starr (formerly of Portland International Airport), Mick Wasco (Naval Air Station Miramar), Greg Whiting (formerly of SEA), Ari Young (Converge Strategies), and James Zoellick (Humboldt State University). Participants at the Ithaca Tompkins Airport Microgrid Summit were instrumental for shaping the stakeholder feedback module of the toolkit. Thank you to the following contributors from that event (listed alphabetically): John Allen (Director, Aries Power), Martha Armstrong (Vice President and Director of Economic Development, Tompkins County Area Development), Shawna Black (Vice Chair, Tompkins County Legislature), Bert Bland (Associate Vice President, Energy & Sustainability, Cornell University), Katie Borgella (Commissioner of Planning and Sustainability, Tompkins County), Dave Crudele (Program Manager, NYSERDA), Jerry Goodenough (Vice President, Cayuga Operating Company), Michael Hall (Airport Director, Ithaca Tompkins International Airport), Thomas Horth (Principal, C&S Companies), Tristan Jackson (Director, Advisian), Corey Johnson (Senior Project Planner, C&S Companies), Anna Kelles (Legislator, Tompkins County Legislature), Edward LaVigne (Town Super visor, Lansing), Arel Lemaro (Director of Facilities, Tompkins County), Keith Lorenzetti (Director, Smart Grids, Avangrid/New York State Electric and Gas Corporation), James Mader (Manager, Smart Grids Programs & Projects), Heather McDaniel (President, Tompkins County Area Development), David McKenna (Legislator, Tompkins County Legislature), Josh Nalley (Deputy Direc- tor Fire Chief, ITH), Roxan Noble (Deputy Director Administration, ITH), Ann Ormsby (Manager, Avangrid/NYSEG), John Philbrook (Director of Power Systems, DTW), Martha Robertson (Legislature Chair, Tompkins County Legislature), Andrea Rutolo (Senior Manager, Advisian), Herman Sieverding (Vice President, Integrated Acquisition & Development Corporation), Mark Silberg (Senior Associate, Rocky Mountain Institute), and Irene Weiser (Coordinator, Fossil Free Tompkins). In addition, as part of additional project scope, the project team was able to conduct a demonstra- tion phase testing the toolkit with Massport, which included a microgrid feasibility study. A workshop conducted at Boston Logan International Airport in January 2020 was a central feature of that work. The project team would like to thank the following participants from that event (listed alphabetically): Taissir Alani (Director of Facilities, Town of Bedford), Shawn Bennett (Energy Assurance Advisor, US Air Force), Charles Cannon (Senior Associate, Rocky Mountain Institute), Ken Ciriello (Treasury and Capital Funding Manager, Massport), Terry Civic (Manager of Energy, Massport), Juli Curti (Senior Clean Energy and Climate Planner, Metropolitan Area Planning Council), Thomas Cuddy (Environmental Protection Specialist, FAA), Manuel Esquivel (Senior Infrastructure and Energy Planner, Boston Planning and Development Authority), Kate Hanley (Director of Sustainability, Town of Concord), Ariel Horowitz (Senior Program Director, Massachusetts Clean Energy Center), Erik-Logan Hughes (Senior Associate, Converge Strategies), Keith Leonhardt (Manager Operations & Maintenance, Massport), Amy McGuire (Deputy Director of Emerging Technology, Massachusetts Department of Environmental Resources), Matt Piantedosi (Project Manager of Utility Systems, Massport), Ken Rice (Distribution Engineering Manager, Eversource), Mark Sandeen (Selectman at Town of Lexington), Sam Sleiman (Director of Capital Programs, Massport), Charles Stellberger (Energy Efficiency Consultant, Eversource), Bradford Swing (Director of Energy Policy and Programs, City of Boston), Tyler Thibault (Lead Engineer, Eversource), Stephen Treat (Associate, Cadmus), Elizabeth van der Els (Sustainability Planner, Massachusetts Depart- ment of Transportation), David Wong (Chief of Programs Hanscom, US Air Force), Umair Zia (Director of Distribution Engineering, Eversource). The project team also thanks Kenneth Ciriello (Massport), Terry Civic (Massport), and Amber Goodspeed (Massport) for the additional feedback and data provided for the demonstration phase. AUTHOR ACKNOWLEDGMENTS (Continued)
ACRP Research Report 228: Airport Microgrid Implementation Toolkit addresses site- specific criteria for airports of all types and sizes. The implementation toolkit contains an online toolâhttps://acrpmicrogridtoolkit.xendee.com/âthat can be used to obtain an analysis and determine feasibility of a microgrid for your airport. The toolkit has a suite of reference materials that includes utility and regulatory con- siderations, evaluation for selecting among regional transmission operators, current and future market characteristics and regulatory environments, and potential for community microgrid and macrogrid interface. It also includes federal agency regulations and require- ments (i.e., FAA, EPA); physical site and operational considerations; as well as commercial, business, and other considerations. A pilot implementation was conducted at Laurence G. Hanscom Field with the Massachusetts Port Authority. Awareness of the vulnerability of the countryâs existing electrical system has increased with the frequency of short-term blackouts and long-term utility outages. Power outages impact airport operations by causing flight delays, extended layovers, disruptions in cargo operations, loss of revenue, and limitations in airportsâ ability to provide emergency support. One solution to mitigate risks and address negative effects of power outages is for airports to increase their self-sufficiency for power generation and management. A microgrid can enable an airport to act independently and maintain enhanced control and protection from grid instability. The Department of Energy defines a microgrid as âa group of interconnected loads and distributed energy resources within clearly defined electrical boundaries that act as a single controllable entity with respect to the grid.â University campuses, military bases, entire townships, and even small island nations have deployed such projects successfully. Microgrids offer the potential to promote clean distributed energy resources; reduce utility costs; build grid reliability; enhance the resilience of critical facilities; increase energy secu- rity; demonstrate new technologies; and create new partnerships and business models among diverse stakeholders. Airportsâ critical role and their complexity both require specific guidance to evaluate microgrid implementation options for a range of aviation facilities. In addition to the airport microgrid toolkit, there is a user guide, an Airport Microgrid Summit summary, various case studies, and a summary of existing microgrid assessment tools. Research for the guidebook under ACRP Project 10-26 was led by Rocky Mountain Institute in association with XENDEE Corporation; Converge Strategies, LLC; Barrett Energy Resources Group, LLC; and James M. Crites, LLC. F O R E W O R D By Theresia H. Schatz Staff Officer Transportation Research Board
Note: Photographs, figures, and tables in this report may have been converted from color to grayscale for printing. The electronic version of the report (posted on the web at www.trb.org) retains the color versions. 1 Summary 3 Microgrid Overview 8 Toolkit Overview 10 Additional Resources 11 Appendix A Airport Microgrid Implementation Toolkit User Guidebook 34 Appendix B Airport Microgrid Summit Summary 39 Appendix C Microgrid Case Studies 62 Appendix D Existing Microgrid Assessment Tools 89 Appendix E Findings Regarding Original Scope of Work 90 Appendix F Laurence G. Hanscom Field Microgrid Workshop Summary 92 References and Notes C O N T E N T S