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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. The Use of Limited Access Privilege Programs in Mixed-Use Fisheries. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26186.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. The Use of Limited Access Privilege Programs in Mixed-Use Fisheries. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26186.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. The Use of Limited Access Privilege Programs in Mixed-Use Fisheries. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26186.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. The Use of Limited Access Privilege Programs in Mixed-Use Fisheries. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26186.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. The Use of Limited Access Privilege Programs in Mixed-Use Fisheries. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26186.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. The Use of Limited Access Privilege Programs in Mixed-Use Fisheries. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26186.
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PREPUBLICATION COPY The Use of Limited Access Privilege Programs in Mixed-Use Fisheries Committee on the Use of Limited Access Privilege Programs in Mixed-Use Fisheries Ocean Studies Board Division on Earth and Life Studies This prepublication version of The Use of Limited Access Privilege Programs in Mixed-Use Fisheries has been provided to the public to facilitate timely access to the report. Although the substance of the consensus report is final, editorial changes may be made throughout the text and citations will be checked prior to publication. A Consensus Study Report of

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 This study was supported by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration under Award Number WC133R17CQ0031/1305M139FNRMA0179. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect the views of any organization or agency that provided support for the project. International Standard Book Number-13: 978-0-309-XXXXX-X International Standard Book Number-10: 0-309-XXXXX-X Digital Object Identifier: https://doi.org/10.17226/26186 Additional copies of this publication are available from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, NW, Keck 360, Washington, DC 20001; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313; http://www.nap.edu. Copyright 2021 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America Suggested citation: National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. The Use of Limited Access Privilege Programs in Mixed-Use Fisheries. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. https://doi.org/10.17226/26186. ii Prepublication Copy

The National Academy of Sciences was established in 1863 by an Act of Congress, signed by President Lincoln, as a private, nongovernmental institution to advise the nation on issues related to science and technology. Members are elected by their peers for outstanding contributions to research. Dr. Marcia McNutt is president. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to bring the practices of engineering to advising the nation. Members are elected by their peers for extraordinary contributions to engineering. Dr. John L. Anderson is president. The National Academy of Medicine (formerly the Institute of Medicine) was established in 1970 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to advise the nation on medical and health issues. Members are elected by their peers for distinguished contributions to medicine and health. Dr. Victor J. Dzau is president. The three Academies work together as the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine to provide independent, objective analysis and advice to the nation and conduct other activities to solve complex problems and inform public policy decisions. The National Academies also encourage education and research, recognize outstanding contributions to knowledge, and increase public understanding in matters of science, engineering, and medicine. Learn more about the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine at www.nationalacademies.org. Prepublication Copy iii

Consensus Study Reports published by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine document the evidence-based consensus on the study’s statement of task by an authoring committee of experts. Reports typically include findings, conclusions, and recommendations based on information gathered by the committee and the committee’s deliberations. Each report has been subjected to a rigorous and independent peer-review process and it represents the position of the National Academies on the statement of task. Proceedings published by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine chronicle the presentations and discussions at a workshop, symposium, or other event convened by the National Academies. The statements and opinions contained in proceedings are those of the participants and are not endorsed by other participants, the planning committee, or the National Academies. For information about other products and activities of the National Academies, please visit www.nationalacademies.org/about/whatwedo. iv Prepublication Copy

COMMITTEE ON THE USE OF LIMITED ACCESS PRIVILEGE PROGRAMS IN MIXED-USE FISHERIES Bonnie J. McCay (Chair), Rutgers University (ret.), New Brunswick, New Jersey Joshua K. Abbott, Arizona State University, Tempe Lee G. Anderson, University of Delaware (ret.), Newark Courtney Carothers, University of Alaska Fairbanks, Anchorage James H. Cowan, Jr., Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge Josh Eagle, University of South Carolina, Columbia Timothy Essington, University of Washington, Seattle Sherry L. Larkin, University of Florida, Gainesville Steven A. Murawski, University of South Florida, Tampa Sean P. Powers, University of South Alabama, Mobile Martin D. Smith, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina Tracy Yandle, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia Staff Constance Karras, Senior Program Officer, Ocean Studies Board (on leave) Vanessa Constant, Associate Program Officer, Ocean Studies Board Kenza Sidi-Ali-Cherif, Program Assistant, Ocean Studies Board Prepublication Copy v

OCEAN STUDIES BOARD Larry A. Mayer (NAE) (Outgoing Chair), University of New Hampshire, Durham Claudia Benitez-Nelson (Incoming Chair), University of South Carolina, Columbia Mark Abbott, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, Massachusetts Carol Arnosti, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Lisa Campbell, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina Thomas S. Chance, ASV Global, LLC (ret.), Broussard, Louisiana Daniel Costa, University of California, Santa Cruz John Delaney, University of Washington (ret.), Seattle Scott Glenn, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, New Jersey Patrick Heimbach, The University of Texas at Austin Marcia Isakson, The University of Texas at Austin Lekelia Jenkins, Arizona State University, Tempe Nancy Knowlton (NAS), Smithsonian Institution (ret.), Washington, District of Columbia Anthony MacDonald, Monmouth University, West Long Branch, New Jersey Thomas Miller, University of Maryland, Solomons S. Bradley Moran, University of Alaska, Fairbanks Ruth M. Perry, Shell Exploration & Production Company, Houston, Texas James Sanchirico, University of California, Davis Mark J. Spalding, The Ocean Foundation, Washington, District of Columbia Richard Spinrad, Oregon State University, Corvallis Robert S. Winokur, Michigan Tech Research Institute, Silver Spring, Maryland Ocean Studies Board Staff Susan Roberts, Director Stacee Karras, Senior Program Officer Kelly Oskvig, Senior Program Officer Emily Twigg, Senior Program Officer Megan May, Associate Program Officer Alexandra Skrivanek, Associate Program Officer Vanessa Constant, Associate Program Officer Shelly-Ann Freeland, Financial Business Partner Trent Cummings, Senior Program Assistant Kenza Sidi-Ali-Cherif, Program Assistant Elizabeth Costa, Program Assistant vi Prepublication Copy

  Preface In 1999, the National Research Council (now referred to as the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine [the National Academies]) published a report on an innovation in fisheries management called individual fishing quotas (IFQs). It was based on a study commissioned by Congress as part of the 1996 reauthorization of the Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act (the MSA), which also imposed a moratorium on the further use of IFQs in managing commercial fisheries in federal waters. The findings and recommendations of that report, Sharing the Fish: Toward a National Policy on Individual Fishing Quotas, contributed to lifting of the moratorium and to Congress’s redefinition of IFQs as Limited Access Privilege Programs (LAPPs) in the 2006 reauthorization of the MSA. Subsequently, most of the nation’s regional fishery management councils worked with the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) to create LAPPs for one or more of the fisheries under their jurisdictions. The committee that produced Sharing the Fish was aware of the potential challenges involved in using IFQs in fisheries with large recreational participation, having in mind the Gulf of Mexico red snapper fishery, for which an IFQ plan had been approved by 1999 but not implemented because of the moratorium. However, the issue of IFQs in a mixed-use fishery was not addressed until the Modernizing Recreational Fisheries Management Act of 2018 called for this National Academies study of how fishing under a LAPP might interact with all sectors in a mixed-use fishery for the same species: commercial, recreational, and charter (i.e., for hire). Recreational marine fishing, whether on one’s own vessel or on a charter vessel or headboat, is a large and growing activity, with major effects on the intensity, timing, and magnitude of fishing effort as well as on coastal economies. It brings with it values and incentives that often differ from those of commercial fishing, and some of those differences are intensified by the focus on economic efficiency that LAPPs are designed to improve. The need for this study is therefore clear. Regional fishery management councils and the NMFS would benefit from cooperation among the sectors in striving to rebuild and sustain healthy fish stocks, while weighing and arbitrating competing claims for allocation. Knowing what difference a LAPP makes in this regard, based on an objective and independent review of available data, analyses, and testimonies, is important to considerations about reforming or strengthening existing programs and creating new ones. Evaluating the effects of LAPPs in mixed-use fisheries requires multiple disciplines, with equal weight to fisheries ecology and the social sciences. Because LAPPs are mainly designed to address economic goals, economics looms large among the social sciences, but the social effects of matters such as the decision on how to initially allocate catch shares, the noncentralized trading markets, and rising costs of entry mean that other social sciences are equally important, including anthropology and political science. The committee was aided by the staff of the fishery management councils and the NMFS, who gave generously of their expertise in those fields and their historical knowledge of the fisheries management regimes. The committee is also grateful to the many individuals who played a major role in the completion of this study. The committee met publicly six times, and it extends its gratitude to the individuals from the regional and science offices of the NMFS, regional councils, recreational and commercial fisheries organizations and businesses, and others who appeared before the full committee or otherwise provided background information and identified pertinent issues. Finally, the committee sincerely thanks the National Academies’ staff for their valuable support and efforts to facilitate the rapid completion of the report without compromising quality. Stacee Karras was the Study Director; she guided us through all of the major meetings and set the tone for an impartial and objective perspective on what can be contentious matters. Vanessa Constant came on late as Interim Study Prepublication Copy vii

Preface Director and very ably helped the committee complete its report. We also thank Kenza Sidi-Ali-Cherif (Program Assistant), particularly for helping us navigate the world of web-based conferencing and cloud- based document storage. Bonnie J. McCay, Chair Committee on the Use of Limited Access Privilege Programs in Mixed-Use Fisheries viii Prepublication Copy

  Acknowledgments The committee would especially like to thank National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Fisheries staff and contractors for their invaluable assistance in providing background documents and responding to information requested by the committee and for their participation in meetings and on calls. In particular, the committee thanks Lindsay Fullenkamp (NOAA Fisheries), Hannah Montoya (NOAA Fisheries), Patricia McBride-Finneran (NOAA Fisheries), and Ryan Edwards (NOAA Fisheries). This report was also greatly enhanced by discussions with participants at the committee’s six open- session meetings. The committee would like to especially acknowledge the efforts of those who gave presentations and spoke on panels at these meetings: Lindsay Fullenkamp (NOAA Fisheries), Kelly Denit (NOAA Fisheries), Jessica Stephen (NOAA Fisheries), Andy Strelcheck (NOAA Fisheries), Susan Boggs (Reel Surprise Charter Fishing), Ava Lasseter (Gulf of Mexico Fishery Management Council), Assane Diagne (Gulf of Mexico Fishery Management Council), Kelly Ralston (American Sportsfishing Association), Chris Horton (Congressional Sportsmen’s Foundation), Eric Brazer (Gulf of Mexico Reef Fish Shareholders’ Alliance), Jason DeLaCruz (Wild Seafood Co.), David Krebs (Ariel Seafoods, Inc.), Ryan Bradley (Mississippi Commercial Fisheries United, Inc.), James Bruce (Commercial Sector Participant), Kindra Arnesen (Commercial Sector Participant), Casey Streeter (Commercial Sector Participant), William Copeland (Commercial Sector Participant), Richard Fischer (Louisiana Charter Boat Association), John Polston (King’s Seafood, Inc.), Charlie Phillips (Fish Hound Seafood, LLC), Mike Freeman (Sea Farmers of America), Lance Nacio (Commercial Sector Participant), José Montañez (Mid- Atlantic Fishery Management Council), Doug Potts (NOAA Fisheries), Paul Nitschke (NOAA Fisheries), Laurie Nolan (Commercial Sector Participant), Dan Farnham (Commercial Sector Participant), Ernie Panacek (Commercial Sector Participant), Michael Johnson (Commercial Sector Participant), Greg DiDomenico (Commercial Sector Participant), Fred Akers (Recreational Sector Participant), Steve Cannizzo (Recreational Sector Participant), Skip Feller (Recreational Sector Participant), Tom Warren (NOAA Fisheries), Brad McHale (NOAA Fisheries), George Silva (NOAA Fisheries), Cliff Hutt (NOAA Fisheries), Walter Golet (University of Maine), Marty Scanlon (Pelagic Longline Participant), Scott Taylor (Pelagic Longline Participant), Bill Cox (Pelagic Longline Participant), Jim Bundi (Pelagic Longline Participant), David Schalit (General Sector Participant), Bob Humphrey (Charter Participant), Peter Shelley (Conservation Law Foundation), Marysia Szymkowiak (NOAA Fisheries), Kurt Iverson (NOAA Fisheries), Steve Langdon (University of Alaska Anchorage), Abigail Harley (NOAA Fisheries), Jim Seger (Pacific Fishery Management Council), Lisa Colburn (NOAA Fisheries), Mike Jepson (NOAA Fisheries), Suzanne Russell (NOAA Fisheries), and Ashley Vizek (NOAA Fisheries). Prepublication Copy ix

   

  Reviewers This Consensus Study Report was reviewed as a draft by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine in making each published report as sound as possible and to ensure that it meets the institutional standards for quality, objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We thank the following individuals for their review of this report: Frank Asche, University of Florida Tyson Kade, Van Ness Feldman LLP Peter M. Kareiva, Aquarium of the Pacific Jessica Landman, Council Fire Consulting Fiona McCormack, University of Waikato Keith Sainsbury, SainSolutions Pty Ltd. D.G. Webster, Dartmouth College Daniel Willard, Environmental Defense Fund James A. Wilson, University of Maine (ret.) Although the reviewers listed above provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions or recommendations of this report nor did they see the final draft before its release. The review of this report was overseen by Eileen Hofmann, Old Dominion University, and Barbara Schaal, Washington University in St. Louis. They were responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with the standards of the National Academies and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content rests entirely with the authoring committee and the National Academies. Prepublication Copy xi

   

  Contents SUMMARY ................................................................................................................................................. 1 1 INTRODUCTION .............................................................................................................................. 18 2 INDIVIDUAL QUOTA SYSTEMS AND LAPPs............................................................................ 29 3 PROGRESS IN MEETING GOALS OF LAPPs AND MAGNUSON-STEVENS FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT ACT AS DETERMINED BY PROGRAM REVIEWS ..................................................................................................................... 41 4 ECOLOGICAL IMPACTS OF LAPPs IN MIXED-USE FISHERIES ........................................ 63 5 SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC EFFECTS FOR COMMERCIAL PARTICIPANTS IN MIXED-USE FISHERIES ........................................................................................................... 77 6 SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC EFFECTS OF LAPPs FOR RECREATIONAL FISHERY STAKEHOLDERS IN MIXED-USE FISHERIES ....................................................................... 102 7 BROADER COMMUNITY SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC EFFECTS ........................................ 114 8 ADDRESSING THE IMPACTS OF LAPPs IN MIXED-USE FISHERIES .............................. 130 REFERENCES ........................................................................................................................................ 149 APPENDIX: COMMITTEE BIOGRAPHIES ..................................................................................... 162 Prepublication Copy xiii

   

  Executive Summary The Modernizing Recreational Fisheries Management Act of 2018 mandated a study that considers the use of limited access privilege programs (LAPPs) in mixed-use fisheries. Under a LAPP, individuals receive a permit to harvest a defined portion of the total allowable catch for a particular fish stock. The focus on mixed-use fisheries in this assessment of LAPPs reflects the difficulties of managing different sectors that target the same species (and stock) of fish. However, the question of how LAPPs impact the overall fishery, including fishing sectors that are not part of a LAPP, but target the same species, remains. Specifically, what are the impacts of LAPPs in “mixed-use fisheries,” where the same species or stocks are targeted by recreational, for-hire, and commercial sectors? Consistent with the legislative request, the report considers the use of LAPPs in the Red Snapper and Grouper and Tilefish (managed by the Gulf of Mexico Fishery Management Council), Wreckfish (managed by the South Atlantic Fishery Management Council), Golden Tilefish (managed by the Mid- Atlantic Fishery Management Council), and Bluefin Tuna (a Highly Migratory Species managed by the Secretary of Commerce) mixed-use fisheries. For each of the LAPPs in these mixed-use fisheries, the Committee examined available data and analyses on the fisheries and collected testimony from fishery participants, relevant Councils, and National Marine Fisheries Service regional experts through a series of public meetings. To provide context for the information provided, the Committee conducted literature reviews of peer-reviewed studies that have examined or predicted LAPP impacts in mixed-use fisheries. Overall, the use of LAPPs in the mixed-use fisheries reviewed by the committee show little discernable impact on recreational and for-hire stakeholders; the outcomes of LAPPs in these mixed-use fisheries are similar to experiences in LAPPs that lack mixed-use components. The evidence base in the committee’s study of mixed-use LAPPs affirms a number of positive outcomes cataloged elsewhere in the literature while failing to provide a clear picture of many of the associated negative outcomes. Nevertheless, substantial data shortages limit the committee’s ability to robustly exclude the potential for some negative social and community effects. The committee’s recommendations for the knowledge base and other matters are aimed at improving a management system that in many respects appears to be working well. The Committee makes a series of recommendations designed to address the economic, social and ecological impacts for the LAPPs reviewed in this report, as well as for any future use of LAPPs in mixed- use fisheries. While the recommendations pertain specifically to LAPPs in mixed-use fisheries, many of the recommendations are also applicable to LAPPs in single-sector fisheries. In addition to specific policy recommendations pertaining to best practices, the Committee also provides recommendations for how additional data, research, or syntheses of existing research could enhance the decision-making capacity of National Marine Fisheries Service and the Councils when designing, establishing, or maintaining a LAPP in a mixed-use fishery. Prepublication Copy xv

   

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A central goal of U.S. fisheries management is to control the exploitation of fish populations so that fisheries remain biologically productive, economically valuable, and socially equitable. Although the Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act led to many improvements, a number of fish populations remained overfished and some fisheries were considered economically inefficient. In response, Congress amended the Act in 2006 to allow additional management approaches, including Limited Access Privilege Programs (LAPPs) in which individuals receive a permit to harvest a defined portion of the total allowable catch for a particular fish stock.

This report examines the impacts of LAPPs on mixed-use fisheries, defined as fisheries where recreational, charter, and commercial fishing sectors target the same species or stocks. The report offers recommendations for NOAA's National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) and the Regional Fishery Management Councils (the Councils) who oversee and manage federally regulated fisheries. For each of the five mixed-use fisheries included in the report, the committee examined available fisheries data and analyses and collected testimony from fishery participants, relevant Councils, and NMFS regional experts through a series of public meetings.

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