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72 ACRP LRD 42 cates seem to be gaining public approval, and some legislative initiatives limiting the use of these measures are beginning to take hold. Arrayed against this rapidly developing legal environment is the quickly developing technical environment that airports need to master to avail themselves of the benefits of exponen- tially increasing stores of available data. Two key themes are emerging: governance and substantive protections. Airports and airport stakeholders may find that an under- standing of both the âCalifornia Effectâ of the CCPA and the âBrussels Effectâ of the GDPR are useful in assessing practices that they might wish to consider in the development and execu- tion of policy. While these measures may not have de jure con- trol over actions of airports and stakeholders, they do represent approaches that are viewed as at the forefront of privacy pro- tection. They are also seen as influencing the development of privacy law that may someday be a de facto requirement within regions, countries, or even internationally. Examining the concepts of governance and substantive pro- tections, particularly though the lenses of GDPR and CCPA devel opments, offers airports a menu of choices and approaches to addressing privacy. These concepts can take many shapes or forms. They are not offered as mandates or even as âbest prac- tices.â Rather, they are concepts accepted regionally, nationally, and internationally as effective measures to address data protec- tion issues.