National Academies Press: OpenBook

Legal Implications of Data Collection at Airports (2021)

Chapter: APPENDIX: AIRPORT TECHNOLOGY AND PRIVACY

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Page 73
Suggested Citation:"APPENDIX: AIRPORT TECHNOLOGY AND PRIVACY." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Legal Implications of Data Collection at Airports. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26207.
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Suggested Citation:"APPENDIX: AIRPORT TECHNOLOGY AND PRIVACY." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Legal Implications of Data Collection at Airports. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26207.
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Suggested Citation:"APPENDIX: AIRPORT TECHNOLOGY AND PRIVACY." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Legal Implications of Data Collection at Airports. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26207.
×
Page 75
Page 76
Suggested Citation:"APPENDIX: AIRPORT TECHNOLOGY AND PRIVACY." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Legal Implications of Data Collection at Airports. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26207.
×
Page 76
Page 77
Suggested Citation:"APPENDIX: AIRPORT TECHNOLOGY AND PRIVACY." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Legal Implications of Data Collection at Airports. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26207.
×
Page 77
Page 78
Suggested Citation:"APPENDIX: AIRPORT TECHNOLOGY AND PRIVACY." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Legal Implications of Data Collection at Airports. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26207.
×
Page 78
Page 79
Suggested Citation:"APPENDIX: AIRPORT TECHNOLOGY AND PRIVACY." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Legal Implications of Data Collection at Airports. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26207.
×
Page 79
Page 80
Suggested Citation:"APPENDIX: AIRPORT TECHNOLOGY AND PRIVACY." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Legal Implications of Data Collection at Airports. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26207.
×
Page 80

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ACRP LRD 42 73 APPENDIX: AIRPORT TECHNOLOGY AND PRIVACY A. Technology Use Case Review 1. Objective & Scope This document aims to identify and categorize airport tech- nology that captures or processes PII. It focuses on PII related to passengers and public users of the airport environment. While the airport is at the center of this research the analysis is adapt- able to other airport stakeholders collecting, retaining, and using data. It does not address the regular capture of data of employees in the ordinary course of business of the airport, airlines, FAA, TSA, CBP, or any other third party contracted to support the airport except that data used in conjunction with airport access control measures. It focuses on technology typically operated by or for an airport (not by the airlines, FAA, CBP, TSA etc.). 2. Defining PII For this review, we use the definition of PII as provided by the NIST in its “Guide to Protecting the Confidentiality of Per- sonally Identifiable Information (PII).” PII is “any information about an individual maintained by an agency, including (1) any information that can be used to distinguish or trace an individ- ual‘s identity, such as name, social security number, date and place of birth, mother‘s maiden name, or biometric records; and (2) any other information that is linked or linkable to an indi- vidual, such as medical, educational, financial, and employment information.” B. Use Case Analysis The analysis below offers a summary of use cases im ple- mented or under consideration for implementation at U.S. air- ports. A brief description is provided for each use case. Also provided is a brief summary of the types of data involved in supporting the use case. This involves use case application for the following areas of airports: • Technology Services; • Terminal Operations; • Landside Operations; • Concessions; and • Security. The outlines for theses use cases demonstrate common data types that will need to be understood and addressed by airports and airport stakeholders. These use cases will be expanded, and additional use cases may be added as this project continues.

74 ACRP LRD 42 C. Technology Services Use Case Description Data Type & Use Cellphone Services System to identify and track individual cellphones while providing cellular connectivity. Biographic and location data used by service providers independent of airport Passenger Pathway Analytics System to model the movement of people from one area of the airport to another. Computer vision, LIDAR, and/or cellphone tracking is conducted by vendors providing airports and other partners with anonymized and aggregated insights Personalized Wayfinding System to provide wayfinding directions to an individual. Biographic and location data used by vendors to personalize wayfinding via smartphone anonymized analytics provided to airport and other partners Wi-Fi Services System to authorize and track passenger use of Wi-Fi. Biographic and location data used by Wi-Fi provider for access management latest generation technology able to also provide airport and partners with passenger movement data D. Terminal Operations Use Case Description Data Type & Use Baggage Handling System to process and track bags unique to individual passengers. Biographic data to track and route baggage through system used by airlines, airports, and security agencies Biometric eGates System to identify and verify passengers while boarding or disembarking from a flight. Biometric data used by airlines and security agencies Biometric Self-Service Bag Drop System to identify and verify passengers as they submit a bag into the baggage handling system. Biometric data used by airlines and security agencies Biometric Self-Service Check-in System to identify and verify passengers as they eCheck into their flights. Biometric data used by airlines and security agencies Common Use Airline System System used by various airline companies to process passenger and employee information in support of airline operations Biographic data used by airlines and airports to support terminal operations Queue Management System to track wait-times in lines at ticketing and SSCPs Computer vision, LIDAR, and/or cellphone tracking is conducted by vendors providing airports and other partners with anonymized and aggregated insights Remote Bag Drop System to register and process a passenger’s baggage Biographic data to track and route baggage through system used by airlines, airports, and security agencies Wheelchair Services System to manage wheelchair services for individual passengers in need Biographic data used by airlines and airport to arrange and provide wheelchair services

ACRP LRD 42 75 E. Landside Operations Use Case Description Data Type & Use Automated License Plate Recognition (ALPR) System to identify vehicles by their license plate as they enter various zones within airport property Biographic and license plate data used by airports and vendors Automated Vehicle Identification (AVI) Transponder system to identify unique vehicles as they enter various zones within airport property Biographic and transponder data used by airports and vendors Curb Management System to identify individual vehicles and manage curb use Biographic and license plate data used by airports and vendors Smart Parking System to purvey and manage parking for individual passengers Biographic and license plate data used by airports and vendors F. Concessions Use Case Description Data Type & Use Airport Apps Mobile app to assist individual travelers with information and services tailored to their profile Biographic and location data used by airports and partners Airport Loyalty Program Digital service to give incentives and benefits to individual travelers based on their frequency of us Biographic data used by airports and partners Common Use Lounge System to identify and manage lounge access and service transactions Biographic data used by airports and partners Digital Marketplace Online marketplace to assist travelers to make purchases using the web Biographic and location data used by airports and partners Retail: Point of Sale System to process payment Payment card information used by airports and partners Retail Analytics System to track and profile passenger shopping behavior Computer vision, LIDAR, and/or cellphone tracking is conducted by vendors, providing airports and other partners with anonymized and aggregated insights

76 ACRP LRD 42 G. Security Use Case Description Data Type & Use Airport Access and Perimeter Control System to detect and identify individuals involved in unauthorized access and perimeter breaches. This system includes identity management for individuals granted unescorted access as well as programs to manage visitors and contractors (particularly those engaged in airport construction). Biometric and/or biographic data used by airports, partners, and security agencies Door Access Control and Monitoring System to grant or restrict access to sensitive areas Biometric and/or biographic data used by airports, partners, and security agencies Hotlist/Watch list System to identify individuals of interest Biometric and/or biographic data used by airports, partners, and security agencies Lost & Found System to register and process the release of lost items to those who lost them Biographic data used by airports, airlines, and security agencies Health Checks System to check passengers and employees for fever Video and thermal imaging information used by airports, airlines, and security agencies SSCP–Passenger Screening System to identify and authorize passenger access privileges Biometric and/or biographic data used by airports, partners, and security agencies

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS This study was performed under the overall guidance of the ACRP Project Committee 11-01. The Committee was chaired by ELIZABETH SMITHERS, Charlotte Douglas International Airport, Charlotte, North Carolina. Members are MONICA R. HARGROVE, Metropolitan Washington Airports Authority, Washington, D.C.; JOSEPH HUBER, Cincinnati/Northern Kentucky International Airport, Cincinnati, Kentucky; D. SCOTT KNIGHT, Tampa International Airport, Tampa, Florida; SARAH MEADOWS, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona; and CLYDE OTIS, Post, Polak, Goodsell, and Strauchler P.A., Roseland, New Jersey. DAPHNE A. FULLER provides liaison with the Federal Aviation Administration, PABLO NUESCH provides liaison with Air- ports Council International—North America, JUSTIN BARKOWSKI provides liaison with American Association of Airport Executives, ROBERT J. SHEA provides liaison with the Transportation Research Board, and THERESIA H. SCHATZ repre- sents the ACRP staff.

These digests are issued in order to increase awareness of research results emanating from projects in the Cooperative Research Programs (CRP). Persons wanting to pursue the project subject matter in greater depth should contact the CRP Staff, Transportation Research Board of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine, 500 Fifth Street, NW, Washington, DC 20001. Subscriber Categories: Aviation • Data and Information Technology • Planning and Forecasting • Law Transportation Research Board 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001

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As technology evolves, airports and their partners collect more data from passengers, employees, tenants, concessionaires, airlines, and others. This data is used in many ways, including for facility management, security, ground transportation, marketing, understanding passenger preferences, and enhancing the travel experience.

The TRB Airport Cooperative Research Program's ACRP Legal Research Digest 42: Legal Implications of Data Collection at Airports provides a survey of applicable law; considerations for the collection and safekeeping of data; and a review of the issues that arise related to data collection among airports, their tenants, and other users. It also offers an understanding of the expansion in law around data collection and use.

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