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Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Posted Speed Limit Setting Procedure and Tool: User Guide. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26216.
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Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Posted Speed Limit Setting Procedure and Tool: User Guide. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26216.
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Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Posted Speed Limit Setting Procedure and Tool: User Guide. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26216.
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Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Posted Speed Limit Setting Procedure and Tool: User Guide. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26216.
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Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Posted Speed Limit Setting Procedure and Tool: User Guide. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26216.
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Below is the uncorrected machine-read text of this chapter, intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text of each book. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

56 1. Federal Highway Administration (undated). Speed Limit Basics. FHWA-SA-16-076. Available at https:// safety.fhwa.dot.gov/speedmgt/ref_mats/fhwasa16076/fhwasa16076.pdf. Accessed on September 19, 2019. 2. Fitzpatrick, K., M. P. Pratt, S. Das, K. Dixon, and T. Gates (2021). NCHRP Web-Only Document 291: Development of a Posted Speed Limit Setting Procedure and Tool. Transportation Research Board. 3. Insurance Institute for Highway Safety (2019). “Fatality Facts 2017: Yearly Snapshot.” Available at https:// www.iihs.org/topics/fatality-statistics/detail/yearly-snapshot. Accessed on September 19, 2019. 4. Federal Highway Administration (2009). Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices for Streets and High- ways. Available at http://mutcd.fhwa.dot.gov. Accessed on September 19, 2019. 5. National Transportation Safety Board (2017). Reducing Speeding-Related Crashes Involving Passenger Vehicles. Safety Study NTSB/SS-17/01. Available at https://www.ntsb.gov/safety/safety-studies/Documents/ SS1701.pdf. Accessed July 1, 2018. 6. Fitzpatrick, K., P. Carlson, M. A. Brewer, M. D. Wooldridge, and S. P. Miaou (2003). NCHRP Report 504: Design Speed, Operating Speed and Posted Speed Practices. Transportation Research Board of the National Academies. 7. Fitzpatrick, K., P. Carlson, M. Brewer, and M. Wooldridge (2001). “Design Factors That Affect Driver Speed on Suburban Streets.” Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, No. 1751, pp. 18–25. 8. Ali, A., A. Flannery, and M. Venigalla (2007). Prediction Models for Free Flow Speed on Urban Streets. Presented at the 86th Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board, Washington, D.C. 9. Figueroa, A., and A. Tarko (2004). Reconciling Speed Limits with Design Speeds. Report No. FHWA/IN/ JTRP-2004/26. Purdue University. 10. Nie, B., and Y. Hassan (2007). Modeling Driver Speed Behavior on Horizontal Curves of Different Road Classifications. Presented at the 86th Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board, Wash- ington, D.C. 11. Thiessen, A., K. El-Basyouny, and S. Gargoum (2017). “Operating Speed Models for Tangent Segments on Urban Roads.” Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, No. 2618, pp. 91–99. 12. Eluru, N., V. Chakour, M. Chamberlain, and L. F. Miranda-Moreno (2013). “Modeling Vehicle Operating Speed on Urban Roads in Montreal: A Panel Mixed Ordered Probit Fractional Split Model.” Accident Analysis and Prevention, Vol. 59, pp. 125–134. 13. Kockelman, K., and J. Bottom (2006). NCHRP Web-Only Document 90: Safety Impacts and Other Implications of Raised Speed Limits on High-Speed Roads. Transportation Research Board. 14. Polus, A., K. Fitzpatrick and D. B. Fambro (2000). “Predicting Operating Speeds on Tangent Sections of Two-Lane Rural Highways.” Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, No. 1737, pp. 50–57. 15. Jessen, D. R., K. S. Schurr, P. T. McCoy, G. Pesti, and R. R. Huff (2001). “Operating Speed Prediction on Crest Vertical Curves of Rural Two-Lane Highways in Nebraska.” Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, No. 1751, pp. 67–75. 16. Schurr, K. S., P. T. McCoy, G. Pesti, and R. Huff (2002). “Relationship of Design, Operating, and Posted Speeds on Horizontal Curves of Rural Two-Lane Highways in Nebraska.” Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, No. 1796, pp. 60–71. 17. Himes, S. C., and E. T. Donnell (2010). “Speed Prediction Models for Multi-lane Highways: A Simultane- ous Equations Approach.” Journal of Transportation Engineering, American Society of Civil Engineering. 18. Robertson, J., K. Fitzpatrick, E.S. Park, and V. Iragavarapu (2014). “Determining Level of Service on Freeways and Multilane Highways with Higher Speeds.” Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, No. 2461, pp. 81–93. References

References 57   19. Forester, T. H., R. F. McNown, and L. D. Singell (1984). “A Cost-Benefit Analysis of the 55 MPH Speed Limit.” Southern Economic Journal, Vol. 50, No. 3, pp. 631–641. 20. Dart, Jr., O. (1977). “Effects of the 88.5-KM/H (55-MPH) Speed Limit and Its Enforcement on Traffic Speeds and Accidents.” Transportation Research Record, No. 643, pp. 23–32. 21. Upchurch, J. (1989). “Arizona’s Experience with the 65-MPH Speed Limit.” Transportation Research Record, No. 1244, pp. 1–6. 22. Lynn, C., and J. D. Jernigan (1992). The Impact of the 65 MPH Speed Limit on Virginia’s Rural Interstate Highways through 1990. Virginia Transportation Research Council. 23. Ossiander, E. M., and P. Cummings (2002). “Freeway Speed Limits and Traffic Fatalities in Washington State.” Accident Analysis and Prevention, Vol. 34, No. 1, pp. 13–18. 24. Freedman, M., and J. R. Esterlitz (1990). “Effect of the 65-mph Speed Limit on Speeds in Three States.” Transportation Research Record, No. 1281, pp. 52–61. 25. Brown, D. B., S. Maghsoodloo, and M. E. McArdle (1991). “The Safety Impact of the 65 mph Speed Limit: A Case Study Using Alabama Accident Records.” Journal of Safety Research, Vol. 21, No. 4, pp. 125–139. 26. Parker, Jr., M. (1997). Effects of Raising and Lowering Speed Limits on Selected Roadway Sections. Federal Highway Administration. 27. Dixon, K. K., C. H. Wu, W. Sarasua, and J. Daniels (1999). “Posted and Free-Flow Speeds for Rural Multilane Highways in Georgia.” Journal of Transportation Engineering, Vol. 125, No. 6, pp. 487–494. 28. Souleyrette, R. R., T. B. Stout, and A. Carriquiry (2009). Evaluation of Iowa’s 70 mph Speed Limit-2.5 Year Update. CTRE Project 06-247. Iowa State University, Iowa Department of Transportation. 29. Utah Department of Transportation (2009). “Utah DOT: No Downside to 80 mph Speed Limit Increase.” The Truth about Cars. Available at http://www.thetruthaboutcars.com/2009/10/utah-dot-no-downside-to- 80-mph-speed%20limit-increase/. Accessed November 1, 2014. 30. Musicant, O., H. Bar-Gera, and E. Schechtman (2016). “Impact of Speed Limit Change on Driving Speed and Road Safety on Interurban Roads: Meta-Analysis.” Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Trans- portation Research Board, No. 2601, pp. 42–49. 31. Institute of Transportation Engineers (2010). Designing Walkable Urban Thoroughfares: A Context Sensitive Approach. RP-036A. Institute of Transportation Engineers. 32. Transportation Research Board. NCHRP Project 15-76 [RFP]: “Designing for Target Speed.” Avail- able at https://apps.trb.org/cmsfeed/TRBNetProjectDisplay.asp?ProjectID=4765. Accessed on December 7, 2019. 33. Stamatiadis, N., A. Kirk, D. Hartman, J. Jasper, S. Wright, M. King, and R. Chellman (2018). NCHRP Research Report 855: An Expanded Functional Classification System for Highways and Streets. Transporta- tion Research Board. 34. Stapleton, S., A. Ingle, M. Chakraborty, T. Gates, and P. Savoleinen (2018). “Safety Performance Functions for Rural Two-Lane County Road Segments.” Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, No. 2672, pp. 226–237. 35. Sun, X., S. Das, N. Fruge, R. Bertinot, and D. Magri (2013). “Four-Lane to Five-Lane Urban Roadway Con- versions for Safety.” Journal of Transportation Safety and Security, Vol. 5, No. 2, pp. 106–117. 36. Rahman, M. A., X. Sun, and S. Das (2018). Safety Performance Evaluation of Urban Undivided Four-Lane to Five-Lane Conversion in Louisiana. Paper No. 18-06321. Presented at the 97th Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board, Washington, D.C. 37. Srinivasan, R., M. Parker, D. Harkey, D. Tharpe, and R. Sumner (2006). NCHRP Research Results Digest 318: An Expert System for Recommending Speed Limits in Speed Zones. Transportation Research Board. 38. Gates, T., P. Savolainen, R. Avelar, S. Geedpially, D. Lord, A. Ingle, and S. Stapleton (2018). Safety Perfor- mance Functions for Rural Road Segments and Rural Intersections in Michigan. Michigan Department of Transportation. 39. Wu, H., Z. Han, M. Murphy, and Z. Zhang (2015). “Empirical Bayes Before-After Study on Safety Effect of Narrow Pavement Widening Projects in Texas.” Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transporta- tion Research Board, No. 2515, pp. 63–69. 40. Wang, K., J. Ivan, N. Ravishanker, and E. Jackson (2017). “Multivariate Poisson Lognormal Modeling of Crashes by Type and Severity on Rural Two Lane Highways.” Accident Analysis and Prevention, Vol. 99, pp. 6–19. 41. Toole, J. L., M. T. Pietrucha, and J. Davis (1999). FHWA University Level Course on Bicycle and Pedestrian Transportation. FHWA-RD-99-198. 42. Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (2018). A Policy on the Geometric Design of Highways and Streets. 43. Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (2010). Highway Safety Manual. 1st edition. 44. Federal Highway Administration, Office of Safety Programs (2017). User Guide for USLIMITS2. Available at https://safety.fhwa.dot.gov/uslimits/documents/appendix-l-user-guide.pdf. Accessed on November 20, 2019.

58 Posted Speed Limit Setting Procedure and Tool: User Guide 45. Solomon, D. (1964). Accidents on Main Rural Highways Related to Speed, Driver, and Vehicle. U.S. Gov- ernment Printing Office. 46. Everett, T. D. (2015). “Relationship between Design Speed and Posted Speed.” Available at https://www.fhwa. dot.gov/design/standards/151007.cfm. Accessed on September 19, 2019. 47. Donnell, E. T., S. C. Hines, K. M. Mahoney, R. J. Porter, and H. McGee (2009). Speed Concepts: Informa- tional Guide. FHWA-SA-10-001. 48. Gitelman, V., E. Doveh, and S. Bekhor (2017) “The Relationship between Free-Flow Travel Speeds, Infra- structure Characteristics and Accidents, on Single-Carriageway Roads.” Science Direct Transportation Research Procedia, Vol. 25, pp. 2026–2043. 49. Wang, C., M. A. Quddus, and S. G. Ison (2013). “The Effect of Traffic and Road Characteristics on Road Safety: A Review and Future Research Direction.” Safety Science, Vol. 57, pp. 264–275. 50. Kay, J. J., T. J. Gates, and P. T. Savolainen (2017). “Raising Speed Limits on Rural Highways: A Process for Identification of Candidate Nonfreeway Segments.” Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Trans- portation Research Board, No. 2618, pp. 58–68. 51. Gluck, J., H. S. Levinson, and V. Stover (1999). NCHRP Report 420: Impact of Access Management Techniques. TRB, National Research Council.

Abbreviations and acronyms used without de nitions in TRB publications: A4A Airlines for America AAAE American Association of Airport Executives AASHO American Association of State Highway Officials AASHTO American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials ACI–NA Airports Council International–North America ACRP Airport Cooperative Research Program ADA Americans with Disabilities Act APTA American Public Transportation Association ASCE American Society of Civil Engineers ASME American Society of Mechanical Engineers ASTM American Society for Testing and Materials ATA American Trucking Associations CTAA Community Transportation Association of America CTBSSP Commercial Truck and Bus Safety Synthesis Program DHS Department of Homeland Security DOE Department of Energy EPA Environmental Protection Agency FAA Federal Aviation Administration FAST Fixing America’s Surface Transportation Act (2015) FHWA Federal Highway Administration FMCSA Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration FRA Federal Railroad Administration FTA Federal Transit Administration HMCRP Hazardous Materials Cooperative Research Program IEEE Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers ISTEA Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991 ITE Institute of Transportation Engineers MAP-21 Moving Ahead for Progress in the 21st Century Act (2012) NASA National Aeronautics and Space Administration NASAO National Association of State Aviation Officials NCFRP National Cooperative Freight Research Program NCHRP National Cooperative Highway Research Program NHTSA National Highway Traffic Safety Administration NTSB National Transportation Safety Board PHMSA Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration RITA Research and Innovative Technology Administration SAE Society of Automotive Engineers SAFETEA-LU Safe, Accountable, Flexible, Efficient Transportation Equity Act: A Legacy for Users (2005) TCRP Transit Cooperative Research Program TDC Transit Development Corporation TEA-21 Transportation Equity Act for the 21st Century (1998) TRB Transportation Research Board TSA Transportation Security Administration U.S. DOT United States Department of Transportation

NON-PROFIT ORG. U.S. POSTAGE PAID COLUMBIA, MD PERMIT NO. 88 Transportation Research Board 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 ADDRESS SERVICE REQUESTED ISBN 978-0-309-67404-1 9 7 8 0 3 0 9 6 7 4 0 4 1 9 0 0 0 0

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Several factors are considered within engineering studies when determining the posted speed limit, including the 85th percentile speed, which is based on the driving behavior of most drivers (85 percent). The 85th percentile speed is believed to represent a safe speed that would minimize crashes.

The TRB National Cooperative Highway Research Program's NCHRP Research Report 966: Posted Speed Limit Setting Procedure and Tool: User Guide provides and explains a speed limit setting procedure (SLS-Procedure) that considers factors beyond the 85th percentile speed, including both driver speed choice and safety associated with the roadway. This report also provides instructions for using an automated version of the SLS-Procedure via a spreadsheet-based Speed Limit Setting Tool (SLS-Tool). Two versions of the SLS-Tool are available:

N17-76 SLS-Tool (with macros) and

N17-76 SLS-Tool (without macros).

The “without macros” version is made available for users who are not able to use macro codes on their computers. Please see the User Guide for more detailed information on using both versions of the SLS-Tool.

The report is also accompanied by NCHRP Web-Only Document 291: Development of a Posted Speed Limit Setting Procedure and Tool, which documents the research efforts of NCHRP Project 17-76 - Guidance for the Setting of Speed Limits and a Presentation that offers an overview of the project.

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