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Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Addressing Disaster Vulnerability among Homeless Populations during COVID-19. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26220.
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Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Addressing Disaster Vulnerability among Homeless Populations during COVID-19. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26220.
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Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Addressing Disaster Vulnerability among Homeless Populations during COVID-19. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26220.
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Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Addressing Disaster Vulnerability among Homeless Populations during COVID-19. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26220.
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Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Addressing Disaster Vulnerability among Homeless Populations during COVID-19. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26220.
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Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Addressing Disaster Vulnerability among Homeless Populations during COVID-19. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26220.
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Addressing Disaster Vulnerability among Homeless Populations during COVID-19 19 REFERENCES ASPE (Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation). (2020). Individuals Experiencing Homelessness Are Likely to Have Medical Conditions Associated with Severe Illness: From COVID-19 Issue Brief. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Available: https://aspe.hhs.gov/pdf-report/individuals- experiencing-homelessness-are-likely-have-medical-conditions-associated-severe-illness- covid-19-issue-brief. Baker, L.R., and Cormier, L.A. (2014). Disasters and Vulnerable Populations: Evidence-Based Practice for the Helping Professions. New York: Springer Publishing Company. Barile, J.P., Pruitt, A.S., and Parker, J.L. (2020). Identifying and understanding gaps in services for adults experiencing homelessness. Journal of Community & Applied Social Psychology, 30(3), 262–277. doi: https://doi.org/10.1002/casp.2440. Benfer, E.A., Vlahov, D., Long, M.Y., Walker-Wells, E., Pottenger, J. L., Gonsalves, G., and Keene, D.E. (2021). Eviction, health inequity, and the spread of COVID-19: Housing policy as a primary pandemic mitigation strategy. Journal of Urban Health, 98(1), 1–12. doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11524-020-00502-1. Black, C., Tesfaigzi, Y., Bassein, J.A., and Miller, L.A. (2017). Wildfire smoke exposure and human health: Significant gaps in research for a growing public health issue. Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology, 55, 186–195. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.etap.2017.08.022. Brudney, J.L., and Meijs, L.C.P.M. (2009). It ain’t natural: Toward a new (natural) resource conceptualization for volunteer management. Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, 38(4), 564–581. doi: https://doi.org/10.1177/0899764009333828. Calabro, A., Patton, N., and Saadian, S. (2020). Housing Is Healthcare: Challenges, Best Practices, and Policy Recommendations to Improve FEMA Programs to House People Experiencing Homelessness in Non-Congregate Shelters During the Pandemic. Washington, DC: National Low Income Housing Coalition. Available: https://nlihc.org/sites/default/files/FEMA_Housing-Is-Healthcare.pdf. Campbell, A.M. (2020). An increasing risk of family violence during the Covid-19 pandemic: Strengthening community collaborations to save lives. Forensic Science International: Reports, 2, 100089. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fsir.2020.100089. Canvan, D., Ledger, F., Edington, S., National Health Care for the Homeless Council, Fogel, S., and Ersing, R. (2016). Send Red, Not Blue: The Homeless Resident. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development. Available: https://www.hudexchange.info/resource/5073/send-red-not-blue. CDC (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention). (2020, February 11). COVID-19 and Your Health. Available: https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/need-extra- precautions/people-with-medical-conditions.html. Chandra, A., Kim, J., Pieters, H.C., Tang, J., McCreary, M., Schreiber, M., and Wells, K. (2014). Implementing psychological first-aid training for medical reserve corps volunteers. Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness, 8(1), 95–100. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/dmp.2013.112. Chisolm-Straker, M., Sze, J., Einbond, J., White, J., and Stoklosa, H. (2019). Screening for human trafficking among homeless young adults. Children and Youth Services Review, 98, 72–79. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.childyouth.2018.12.014.

Addressing Disaster Vulnerability among Homeless Populations during COVID-19 20 Chrastil, N. (2020, September 23). Dozens of Hurricane Laura evacuees have been arrested in New Orleans, as public defenders urge restraint. The Lens. Available: https://thelensnola.org/2020/09/23/dozens-of-hurricane-laura-evacuees-have-been- arrested-as-public-defenders-urge-restraint. City of Oakland. (2021). COVID-19: Support for Unsheltered Residents. Available: https://www.oaklandca.gov/resources/covid-19-support-for-unsheltered-residents. City of San Francisco. (2021). Shelter Recovery and New Shelter Programs. Available: https://data.sfgov.org/stories/s/Shelter-Recovery-and-New-Shelter-Programs/j4np-tfg4. Clift, T. (2021, January 31). Night of terror: Sacramento homeless lined up for shelter during storm. The doors never opened. Sacramento Bee. Available: https://www.sacbee.com/news/local/article248818310.html. Coalition for the Homeless. (2019). Housing for Harvey. Available: https://irp.cdn- website.com/2d521d2c/files/uploaded/Housing-for-Harvey-FINAL-31.pdf. Cofer, F. (2021, February 18). Sacramento’s homeless people deserve more concern than Mayor Steinberg’s “landscaping.” Sacramento Bee. Available: https://www.sacbee.com/opinion/op-ed/article249311150.html. Cutter, S.L. (2001). The changing nature of risks and hazards. In American Hazardscapes: The Regionalization of Hazards and Disasters. Washington, DC: Joseph Henry Press. Damaske, S., Bratter, J.L., and Frech, A. (2017). Single mother families and employment, race, and poverty in changing economic times. Social Science Research, 62, 120–133. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ssresearch.2016.08.008. Dreier, H. (2021, April 25). Assistance not approved. Washington Post. Available: https://www.washingtonpost.com/nation/2021/04/25/fema-disaster-assistance-denied. Easterday, A., Driscoll, D., and Ramaswamy, S. (2019). Rural homelessness: Its effect on healthcare access, healthcare outcomes, mobility, and perspectives of novel technologies. Journal of Social Distress and the Homeless, 28(1), 56–64. doi: https://doi.org/10.1080/10530789.2019.1567978. Edgington, S., Canvan, D., Ledger, F., Fogel, S., and Ersing, R. (2014). Integrating homeless service providers and clients in disaster preparedness, response, and recovery. In Handbook of Disaster Research, edited by Havidán Rodríguez, William Donner, and Joseph E. Trainor, pp. 205–223. Champagne: Springer International Publishing. doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-63254-4_11. FEMA (Federal Emergency Management Agency). (2021, February 3). FEMA Statement on 100% Cost Share. Available: https://www.fema.gov/press-release/20210203/fema- statement-100-cost-share. Figgatt, M.C., Salazar, Z., Day, E., Vincent, L., and Dasgupta, N. (2021). Take-home dosing experiences among persons receiving methadone maintenance treatment during COVID- 19. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, 123, 108276. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsat.2021.108276 Finchum-Mason, E.A., Husted, K., Gugerty, M.K.G., and Barnhart, E.M. (2020). Local Impacts of a Global Crisis: How Washington State Nonprofits Are Responding to COVID-19. Seattle, WA: Nancy Bell Evans Center on Nonprofits & Philanthropy. Available: https://digital.lib.washington.edu:443/researchworks/handle/1773/46585. Fothergill, A., and Peek, L.A. (2004). Poverty and disasters in the United States: A review of recent sociological findings. Natural Hazards, 32(1), 89–110. doi: https://doi.org/10.1023/B:NHAZ.0000026792.76181.d9.

Addressing Disaster Vulnerability among Homeless Populations during COVID-19 21 Gin, J.L., Eisner, R.K., Der-Martirosian, C., Kranke, D., and Dobalian, A. (2018). Preparedness is a marathon, not a sprint: A tiered maturity model for assessing preparedness in homeless residential organizations in Los Angeles. Natural Hazards Review, 19(1), 04017027. doi: https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)NH.1527-6996.0000276. Gin, J.L., Levine, C.A., Canavan, D., and Dobalian, A. (2020). Including homeless populations in disaster preparedness, planning, and response: A toolkit for practitioners. Journal of Public Health Management and Practice. doi: https://doi.org/10.1097/PHH.0000000000001230. Guidi, J., Lucente, M., Sonino, N., and Fava, G.A. (2021). Allostatic load and its impact on health: A systematic review. Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics, 90(1), 11–27. doi: https://doi.org/10.1159/000510696. Hauptman, M., Balmes, J.R., and Miller, M.D. (2020). The hazards of wildfire smoke exposure for children. Current Problems in Pediatric and Adolescent Health Care, 50(2), 100756. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cppeds.2020.100756. Henderson, S.B. (2020). The COVID-19 pandemic and wildfire smoke: Potentially concomitant disasters. American Journal of Public Health, 110(8), 1140–1142. doi: https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2020.305744. Holliday, S.B., Hunter, S.B., Dopp, A.R., Chamberlin, M., and Iguchi, MY. (2020). Exploring the impact of COVID-19 on social services for vulnerable populations in Los Angeles: Lessons learned from community providers. Santa Monica, CA: RAND Corporation. Available: https://www.rand.org/pubs/research_reports/RRA431-1.html. (HUD) Housing and Urban Development. (n.d.). Disaster Recovery Homelessness Toolkit Local Planning Guide. Available: https://www.hudexchange.info/homelessness- assistance/disaster-recovery-homelessness-toolkit/local-planning-guide. ———. (2015). The 2015 Annual Homeless Assessment Report (AHAR) to Congress Part 1: Point-in-Time Estimates of Homelessness. Available: https://www.hudexchange.info/resource/4832/2015-ahar-part-1-pit-estimates-of- homelessness. ———. (2020). COVID-19 Homeless System Response: Rehousing Activation and Racial Equity. Available: https://www.hudexchange.info/resource/6048/covid19-homeless- system-response-rehousing-activation-and-racial-equity. Klaiman, T., Knorr, D., Fitzgerald, S., DeMara, P., Thomas, C., Heake, G., and Hausman, A. (2010). Locating and communicating with at-risk populations about emergency preparedness: The vulnerable populations outreach model. Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness, 4(3), 246–251. Lake, J. (2020). The Pandemic Has Exacerbated Housing Instability for Renters of Color. Washington, DC: Center for American Progress. Available: https://www.americanprogress.org/issues/poverty/reports/2020/10/30/492606/pandemic- exacerbated-housing-instability-renters-color. Lane Pixley, C., Henry, F., DeYoung, S.E., and Settembrino, M.R. (2021). The role of homelessness community based organizations during COVID-19. Journal of Community Psychology. doi: https://doi.org/10.1002/jcop.22609. Lemmerman, E., Louis, R., and Hepburn, P. (2020). Preliminary ANALYSIS: Who Is Being Filed Against during the Pandemic? Princeton, NJ: The Eviction Lab. Available: https://evictionlab.org/pandemic-filing-demographics.

Addressing Disaster Vulnerability among Homeless Populations during COVID-19 22 Mader, C. (2021, April 1). Acadiana’s hotel shelters wind down as COVID and housing insecurity persist. The Current. Available: https://thecurrentla.com/2021/acadianas-hotel- shelters-wind-down-as-covid-and-housing-insecurity-persist_sojo. Merlo, K., Conen, K., Yusuf, W., Marshall, J., Behr, J., and Dunn, E. (2021, February 26). Hurricane Shelters and COVID-19: Protecting Workers’ Emotional Well-Being. Boulder, CO: Natural Hazards Center. Available: https://hazards.colorado.edu/news/research- counts/hurricane-shelters-and-covid-19-protecting-workers-emotional-well-being-of- shelter-workers. Morton, M.H., Dworsky, A., Matjasko, J.L., Curry, S.R., Schlueter, D., Chávez, R., and Farrell, A.F. (2018). Prevalence and correlates of youth homelessness in the United States. Journal of Adolescent Health, 62(1), 14–21. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jadohealth.2017.10.006. Moses, J., Gardner, J., Treglia, E., Rice, E., and Culhane, D. (2020). Surveying Local Homeless Service Providers (Part 3): Responses from November 2020. Washington, DC: National Alliance to End Homelessness. Available: https://endhomelessness.org/surveying-local- homeless-service-providers-part-3-responses-from-november-2020. Moya, E.M., Chavez-Baray, S.M., Loweree, J., Mattera, B., and Martinez, N. (2017). Adults experiencing homelessness in the US–Mexico border region: A photovoice project. Frontiers in Public Health, 5. doi: https://doi.org/10.3389/fpubh.2017.00113. National Health Care for the Homeless Council. (2019). Homelessness & Health: What’s the Connection? Available: https://nhchc.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/08/homelessness- and-health.pdf. National Network to End Domestic Violence. (2020). 14th Annual Domestic Violence Counts Report. Available: https://nnedv.org/content/domestic-violence-counts-14th-annual- census-report. Palinkas, L.A., Springgate, B.F., Sugarman, O.K., Hancock, J., Wennerstrom, A., Haywood, C., Meyers, D., Johnson, A., Polk, M., Pesson, C.L., Seay, J.E., Stallard, C.N., and Wells, K. B. (2021). A rapid assessment of disaster preparedness needs and resources during the COVID-19 pandemic. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 18(2), 425. doi: https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18020425. Payne, K. (2020, December 30). Winter Storm an Added Challenge for Iowans Still Rebuilding from Derecho. Iowa Public Radio. Available: https://www.iowapublicradio.org/ipr- news/2020-12-30/winter-storm-an-added-challenge-for-iowans-still-rebuilding-from- derecho. Pham, O., Rudowitz, R., and Tolbert, J. (2021, March 24). COVID-19 risks and vaccine access for individuals experiencing homelessness: Key issues to consider. KFF Blog. https://www.kff.org/medicaid/issue-brief/covid-19-risks-vaccine-access-individuals- experiencing-homelessness-key-issues. Ritchie, L.A., Tierney, K.J., and Gilbert, B. (2010). Disaster preparedness among community- based organizations in the city and county of San Francisco: Serving the most vulnerable. Community Disaster Recovery and Resiliency: Exploring Global Opportunities and Challenges, 3–39. Rogan, M. (2014). “Poverty May Have Declined, but Women and Female-Headed Households Still Suffer Most.” Available: www. Econ3x3. Org/Article/Poverty-May-Have-Declined- Womenand-Female-Headed-Households-Still-Suffer-Most.

Addressing Disaster Vulnerability among Homeless Populations during COVID-19 23 Ryan, B., Franklin, R.C., Burkle Jr, F.M., Aitken, P., Smith, E., Watt, K., and Leggat, P. (2015). Identifying and describing the impact of cyclone, storm and flood related disasters on treatment management, care and exacerbations of non-communicable diseases and the implications for public health. PLoS Currents, 7. Saadian, S., Patton, N., and Arriaga, X. (2020). Disaster Housing Recovery NLIHC Resources. Washington, DC: National Low Income Housing Coalition. Available: https://nlihc.org/explore-issues/projects-campaigns/disaster-housing-recovery/nlihc- resources. SAMHSA (Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration). (2011). Current Statistics on the Prevalence and Characteristics of People Experiencing Homelessness in the United States. Available: https://www.samhsa.gov/sites/default/files/programs_campaigns/homelessness_programs _resources/hrc-factsheet-current-statistics-prevalence-characteristics-homelessness.pdf. ———.(2017). Disaster Technical Assistance Center Supplemental Research Bulletin Greater Impact: How Disasters Affect People of Low Socioeconomic Status. Available: https://www.samhsa.gov/sites/default/files/programs_campaigns/dtac/srb-low-ses.pdf. Settembrino, M.R. (2017). Exercising agency: How men experiencing homelessness employ human, social, and cultural capital to mitigate natural hazards risk. Natural Hazards Review, 18(4). Swanson, C. (2021, January 5). Denver’s safe outdoor spaces offer a glimmer of hope, stability for the homeless. Denver Post. Available: https://www.denverpost.com/2021/01/05/denver-homeless-encampments-safe-outdoor- space. Tsai, J., and Wilson, M. (2020). COVID-19: A potential public health problem for homeless populations. Lancet Public Health, 5(4), e186–e187. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/S2468- 2667(20)30053-0. Treatment Advocacy Center. (2016). Serious Mental Illness and Homelessness. Available: https://www.treatmentadvocacycenter.org/storage/documents/backgrounders/smi-and- homelessness.pdf. Velasco, G., and Langness, M. (2020). COVID-19 Action That Centers Black LGBTQ People Can Address Housing Inequities. Washington, DC: Urban Institute. Available: https://www.urban.org/urban-wire/covid-19-action-centers-black-lgbtq-people-can- address-housing-inequities. VEMEC (Veterans Emergency Management Center). (2017). Disaster Preparedness to Promote Community Resilience: Information and Tool for Homeless Service Providers and Disaster Professionals. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, and U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development. Vickery, J. (2015). “Every day is a disaster”: Challenges faced by homeless service organizations in disaster planning and response. Natural Hazards Observer, XL(2), 10–13. Waegemakers Schiff, J., and Lane, A.M. (2019). PTSD symptoms, vicarious traumatization, and burnout in front line workers in the homeless sector. Community Mental Health Journal, 55(3), 454–462. doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10597-018-00364-7. Yentel, D., and Giridhar, M. (2021). What it will take to address the COVID-19 eviction crisis. RWJF Culture of Health Blog. Available: https://www.rwjf.org/en/blog/2021/04/what-it- will-take-to-address-the-covid-19-eviction-crisis.html.

Addressing Disaster Vulnerability among Homeless Populations during COVID-19 24 Yeo, J., Knox, C.C., and Jung, K. (2018). Unveiling cultures in emergency response communication networks on social media: Following the 2016 Louisiana floods. Quality & Quantity, 52(2), 519–535. doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11135-017-0595-3.

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Addressing Disaster Vulnerability among Homeless Populations during COVID-19 Get This Book
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During the COVID-19 pandemic, disruptions to key services for populations experiencing homelessness may lead to secondary effects in the context of a disaster, including effects on health and safety, which require additional population-specific support. Reducing disaster vulnerability for people experiencing homelessness during the COVID-19 pandemic requires adapting existing preparedness guidance to an evolving situation. Addressing Disaster Vulnerability among Homeless Populations during COVID-19 reviews research on disaster vulnerability, homelessness, the pandemic, and intersecting hazards and disasters. This rapid expert consultation includes considerations for alternative shelter facilities for homeless populations during a disaster; suggestions on how to navigate service reductions and support population-specific needs; and guidance for supporting populations experiencing homelessness in the aftermath of disasters.

This rapid expert consultation was produced through the Societal Experts Action Network (SEAN), an activity of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine that is sponsored by the National Science Foundation and the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation. SEAN links researchers in the social, behavioral, and economic sciences with decision makers to respond to policy questions arising from the COVID-19 pandemic. This project is affiliated with the National Academies' Standing Committee on Emerging Infectious Diseases and 21st Century Health Threats, sponsored by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Preparedness and Response.

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