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182 Glossary of Terms Key Term Definition Application Programming Interface A computing interface that defines interactions between multiple software intermediaries. Artificial Intelligence (AI) Intelligence demonstrated by machines, unlike the natural intel- ligence displayed by humans and animals. Automated Guided Vehicles (AGV) A portable robot that follows along marked long lines or wires on the floor, or uses radio waves, vision cameras, magnets, or lasers for navigation. CX Benchmarking Index The index of the organizationâs overall level of customer expe- rience. The index factors in the customersâ holistic experience (emotions, thoughts, and behaviors), the employee experience, the organizationâs customer experience strategy and practices, as well as the organizationâs industry-specific customer experience performances. It contains three components: â¢ A score on the organizationâs overall customer experience (range from 0 to 5, higher scores indicate better performance); â¢ A score on the organizationâs specific customer experience (range from 0 to 5, higher scores indicate better performance); and â¢ A letter grade on the organizationâs CX strategy and practices. Customer Experience (CX) Criteria The five essential and four value-add criteria of customer expe- rience. These criteria (or specific experiences) cover the most important behaviors and needs of airport passengers and are used as an evaluation of customer experience. Disruptive Events Unexpected, uncertain, or inconvenient situations. Emotional Intelligence (EI) Ability to sense, understand, and react to our own emotions (self-awareness) and othersâ emotions (social awareness). Employee Engagement Processes that enhance the nature of the relationship between an organization and its employees. Employee Rating Employeesâ rating of the organizationâs working environment. Employee experience is a key indicator of customer experience. Ranges from 1 to 5, a higher score indicates higher satisfaction with the organization. A P P E N D I X B
Glossary of Terms 183Â Â Key Term Definition Environs Factors Environmental factors positively or negatively influencing the travelersâ experiences. Factors could include the use of plants, lighting, temperature, artwork, colors, advertising, smells, sound, open-air, and layout. Fulfilling Basic Needs Deliver on basic customer expectations, and provision of basic acceptable level of service in areas of hygiene, comfort, and safety. Fulfilling Specific Needs Activities and amenities to meet the needs of specific customer groups (e.g., nursing moms, kids, travelers with different kinds of disabilities, older adults, people with pets, etc.). Hierarchy of Needs A description of the needs that motivate human behavior (Maslowâs hierarchy of needs). Interacting with Employees Any interaction (face-to-face, phone, email, text, or virtual) with any employee of the organization. Internet of Things (IoT) The interconnection via the internet of computing devices embedded in everyday objects, enabling them to send and receive data. Journey Mapping Visualization of the process a person goes through to accomplish a certain goal. The airport traveler journey begins with the antici- pation of travel, including the journey to the airport, departing on a flight, and ending with the return journey back to the home airport. Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) As a type of performance measurement, KPIs evaluate the success of an organization or of a particular activity in which it engages. Leisure Fun activities related to entertainment and relaxation, including fine dining and shopping experiences. Media Analysis The process of collecting formal and informal online media data, analyzing the data, and evaluating results to make strategic decisions. Nap Pods Structures or chairs that allow people to nap and are often used in corporate/workplace environments, hospitals, and universities. Net Promoter Score (NPS) The extent to which an employee recommends the company to a friend. NPS is based on the principle that the better experience people have, the more likely they are to promote the business to friends and family. The NPS is one of the most valid and recom- mended CX metrics. Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) Protective clothing, helmets, goggles, or other garments or equipment designed to protect the wearerâs body from injury or infection. Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) Equipment that uses electromagnetic fields to automatically identify and track tags attached to objects. An RFID tag consists of a tiny radio transponder, a radio receiver, and a transmitter. Review Rating Ratings provided by the customers/employees when submitting reviews or comments on social media platforms. Most platforms (e.g., Google review, Yelp) collect a rating between 1 and 5; a higher score indicates a more positive experience.
184 Evaluating the Travelerâs Perspective to Improve the Airport Customer Experience Key Term Definition Review Rating Specific Average customer review ratings on comments related to the selected CX criteria. Sense of Place Oneâs feelings, thoughts, and emotions regarding an organiza- tionâs environment and atmosphere. Sentiment Analysis An analysis that derives the attitude of customers by determining the extent to which comments or reviews are positive, negative, or neutral. Social Media Analysis The process of collecting data from social media sites, analyzing the data, and evaluating results to make strategic decisions. Specific Experience Indicator (SEI) Captures the experience and emotions of customers on a specific CX criterion, measured by the expressed sentiment from social media reviews related to the selected criteria. Normalized on a scale of 0â100, higher scores indicate better performance. Total Experience Indicator (TEI) Captures the experience and the emotions of customers, measured by the overall sentiment from social media reviews. Normalized to a scale of 0â100, higher scores indicate better performance. Transportation Network Company (TNC) A business model that offers pre-arranged rides or car rentals for a fee, utilizing an online application (app) via a mobile device to connect passengers or automobile renters with drivers/car owners. Examples include Uber, Lyft, and Zipcar. Traveler Segmentation The process of defining and subdividing a large group of trav- elers into clearly identifiable segments having similar needs, wants, or demand characteristics. Its objective is to design a cus- tomer experience that matches the expectations of customers in the targeted segment. Queuing/Waiting Activities involving standing in lines or waiting idly for an event to happen. Wayfinding Activities related to getting from point A to point B; effectiveness of the maps, signs, and visual cues.