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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Materials Science and Engineering in a Post-Pandemic World: A DoD Perspective: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26226.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Materials Science and Engineering in a Post-Pandemic World: A DoD Perspective: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26226.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Materials Science and Engineering in a Post-Pandemic World: A DoD Perspective: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26226.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Materials Science and Engineering in a Post-Pandemic World: A DoD Perspective: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26226.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Materials Science and Engineering in a Post-Pandemic World: A DoD Perspective: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26226.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Materials Science and Engineering in a Post-Pandemic World: A DoD Perspective: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26226.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Materials Science and Engineering in a Post-Pandemic World: A DoD Perspective: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26226.
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Page viii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Materials Science and Engineering in a Post-Pandemic World: A DoD Perspective: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26226.
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Page R8
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Materials Science and Engineering in a Post-Pandemic World: A DoD Perspective: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26226.
×
Page R9
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Materials Science and Engineering in a Post-Pandemic World: A DoD Perspective: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26226.
×
Page R10
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Materials Science and Engineering in a Post-Pandemic World: A DoD Perspective: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26226.
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Page R11
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Materials Science and Engineering in a Post-Pandemic World: A DoD Perspective: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26226.
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Below is the uncorrected machine-read text of this chapter, intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text of each book. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

Prepublication Copy – Subject to Further Editorial Correction Materials Science and Engineering in a Post-Pandemic World: A DoD Perspective PROCEEDINGS OF A WORKSHOP Anne Frances Johnson, Rapporteur National Materials and Manufacturing Board Defense Materials Manufacturing and Infrastructure Standing Committee Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences National Academy of Engineering PREPUBLICATION COPY—SUBJECT TO FURTHER EDITORIAL CORRECTION

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 This study was supported by Contract/Grant No. W911NF-10-C-0098 with the Department of Defense. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of any organization or agency that provided support for the project. International Standard Book Number-13: 978-0-309-XXXXX-X International Standard Book Number-10: 0-309-XXXXX-X Digital Object Identifier: https://doi.org/10.17226/26226 Cover: No one knows what will drive the next pandemic or how severe it will be. The cover is a rendering of an unexpected novel virus from the future for which one can only begin to prepare now and in the coming post-pandemic world. Graphic Artist: Erik Svedberg. This publication is available in limited quantities from National Materials and Manufacturing Board 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 nmmb@nas.edu http://www.nationalacademies.edu/nmmb Additional copies of this publication are available from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, NW, Keck 360, Washington, DC 20001; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313; http://www.nap.edu. Copyright 2021 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America Suggested citation: National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Materials Science and Engineering in a Post-Pandemic World: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. https://doi.org/10.17226/26226. PREPUBLICATION COPY—SUBJECT TO FURTHER EDITORIAL CORRECTION

The National Academy of Sciences was established in 1863 by an Act of Congress, signed by President Lincoln, as a private, nongovernmental institution to advise the nation on issues related to science and technology. Members are elected by their peers for outstanding contributions to research. Dr. Marcia McNutt is president. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to bring the practices of engineering to advising the nation. Members are elected by their peers for extraordinary contributions to engineering. Dr. John L. Anderson is president. The National Academy of Medicine (formerly the Institute of Medicine) was established in 1970 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to advise the nation on medical and health issues. Members are elected by their peers for distinguished contributions to medicine and health. Dr. Victor J. Dzau is president. The three Academies work together as the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine to provide independent, objective analysis and advice to the nation and conduct other activities to solve complex problems and inform public policy decisions. The National Academies also encourage education and research, recognize outstanding contributions to knowledge, and increase public understanding in matters of science, engineering, and medicine. Learn more about the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine at www.nationalacademies.org. PREPUBLICATION COPY—SUBJECT TO FURTHER EDITORIAL CORRECTION

Consensus Study Reports published by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine document the evidence-based consensus on the study’s statement of task by an authoring committee of experts. Reports typically include findings, conclusions, and recommendations based on information gathered by the committee and the committee’s deliberations. Each report has been subjected to a rigorous and independent peer-review process and it represents the position of the National Academies on the statement of task. Proceedings published by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine chronicle the presentations and discussions at a workshop, symposium, or other event convened by the National Academies. The statements and opinions contained in proceedings are those of the participants and are not endorsed by other participants, the planning committee, or the National Academies. For information about other products and activities of the National Academies, please visit www.nationalacademies.org/about/whatwedo. PREPUBLICATION COPY—SUBJECT TO FURTHER EDITORIAL CORRECTION

WORKSHOP PLANNING COMMITTEE ON MATERIALS SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING IN A POST-PANDEMIC WORLD KATHERINE T. FABER, California Institute of Technology, Chair DIANNE CHONG, NAE,1 Boeing Research and Technology (retired) TERESA CLEMENT, Raytheon Missile Systems ROBERT HULL, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute LOURDES SALAMANCA-RIBA, University of Maryland, College Park SUSAN B. SINNOTT, Pennsylvania State University EDWIN L. THOMAS, NAE, Texas A&M University, College Station HAYDN N.G. WADLEY, University of Virginia Staff ERIK SVEDBERG, Senior Program Officer, Study Director NEERAJ P. GORKHALY, Associate Program Officer AMISHA JINANDRA, Research Associate JOSEPH PALMER, Senior Project Assistant JAMES LANCASTER, Director, National Materials and Manufacturing Board 1 Member, National Academy of Engineering. PREPUBLICATION COPY—SUBJECT TO FURTHER EDITORIAL CORRECTION v

DEFENSE MATERIALS MANUFACTURING AND INFRASTRUCTURE STANDING COMMITTEE HAYDN WADLEY, University of Virginia, Chair DIANNE CHONG, Boeing (retired), Vice Chair DAVID E. ASPNES, NAS,1 North Carolina State University KATHERINE T. FABER, California Institute of Technology ANDREA M. HODGE, University of Southern California ROBERT HULL, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute ANGUS KINGON, Brown University JOHN J. KOSZEWNIK, NAE,2 Achates Power (retired) THOMAS R. KURFESS, NAE, Oak Ridge National Laboratory CARLOS LEVI, University of California, Santa Barbara LOURDES SALAMANCA-RIBA, University of Maryland SUBHASH C. SINGHAL, NAE, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (retired) SUSAN B. SINNOTT, Pennsylvania State University EDWIN L. THOMAS, NAE, Texas A&M University PABLO D. ZAVATTIERI, Purdue University Staff ERIK SVEDBERG, Senior Program Officer, Study Director NEERAJ P. GORKHALY, Associate Program Officer AMISHA JINANDRA, Research Associate JOSEPH PALMER, Senior Project Assistant MICHELLE K. SCHWALBE, Acting Director, National Materials and Manufacturing Board (from April 2021) JAMES LANCASTER, Acting Director, National Materials and Manufacturing Board (through April 2021) 1 Member, National Academy of Sciences. 2 Member, National Academy of Engineering. PREPUBLICATION COPY—SUBJECT TO FURTHER EDITORIAL CORRECTION vi

NATIONAL MATERIALS AND MANUFACTURING BOARD THERESA KOTANCHEK, Evolved Analytics, LLC, Chair KEVIN ANDERSON, NAE,1 Brunswick Corporation CRAIG ARNOLD, Princeton University TERESA CLEMENT, Raytheon Technologies THOMAS M. DONNELLAN, Applied Research Laboratory, Pennsylvania State University STEPHEN FORREST, NAS2/NAE, University of Michigan JULIA GREER, California Institute of Technology JOHN KLIER, University of Massachusetts, Amherst DAVID C. LARBALESTIER, NAE, Florida State University MICK MAHER, Maher & Associates, LLC ROBERT MILLER, NAE, IBM Almaden Research Center GREGORY TASSEY, University of Washington STEVEN J. ZINKLE, NAE, University of Tennessee, Knoxville Staff MICHELLE K. SCHWALBE, Acting Director (from April 2021) JAMES LANCASTER, Acting Director (through April 2021) ERIK SVEDBERG, Senior Program Officer NEERAJ P. GORKHALY, Associate Program Officer JOSEPH PALMER, Senior Project Assistant AMISHA JINANDRA, Research Associate 1 Member, National Academy of Engineering. 2 Member, National Academy of Sciences. PREPUBLICATION COPY—SUBJECT TO FURTHER EDITORIAL CORRECTION vii

Acknowledgment of Reviewers This Proceedings of a Workshop was reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine in making each published proceedings as sound as possible and to ensure that it meets the institutional standards for quality, objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the process. We thank the following individuals for their review of this proceedings: Aziz I. Asphahani, NAE,1 QuesTek Innovations, LLC, Lisa Axe, New Jersey Institute of Technology, Nathalie Le Galloudec, Sandia National Laboratories, and Dongxia Liu, Maryland Energy Innovation Institute. Although the reviewers listed above provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the content of the proceedings nor did they see the final draft before its release. The review of this proceedings was overseen by Michael F. McGrath, McGrath Analytics, LLC. He was responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this proceedings was carried out in accordance with standards of the National Academies and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content rests entirely with the rapporteur and the National Academies. 1 Member, National Academy of Engineering. PREPUBLICATION COPY—SUBJECT TO FURTHER EDITORIAL CORRECTION ix

Contents OVERVIEW 1 INTRODUCTION 2 THE TALENT PIPELINE: WORKFORCE DATA AND TRENDS 3 FROM LAB TO FIELD: RECENT UNIVERSITY-GOVERNMENT SUCCESSES 4 THE GLOBAL STAGE 5 POSITIONING DOD AND ITS WORKFORCE FOR NEW OR EXPANDED AREAS 6 FINDING AND RETAINING TALENT AT NON-DOD AGENCIES 7 THE FUTURE WITH COVID 8 TRADITIONAL EDUCATION REIMAGINED 9 DEVELOPING A DIVERSE WORKFORCE APPENDIXES A Statement of Task B Workshop Agenda C Acronyms and Abbreviations D Biographical Information for Speakers PREPUBLICATION COPY—SUBJECT TO FURTHER EDITORIAL CORRECTION xi

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Advances in materials science and engineering play a crucial role in supporting the U.S. economy and national security. To maintain its leading edge in the field, the United States relies on a rich and diverse innovation ecosystem encompassing industry, academic institutions, and government laboratories. While this ecosystem has generated numerous gains for defense agencies, the technology sector, consumers, and the country as a whole over many decades, recent years have brought new challenges and a shifting global dynamic in the field. The United States, long a global magnet for science, technology, engineering, and mathematics education and expertise, has seen its competitive edge slip as other countries in Europe and Asia have increased their investments in cultivating science and engineering talent and innovation. In 2020, the emergence of the COVID-19 pandemic caused far-reaching disruptions for both education and supply chains across the world, compounding many of the dynamics that were already affecting materials science and engineering in the United States.

To explore these issues, the Workshop on Materials Science and Engineering in a Post-Pandemic World was organized as part of a workshop series on Defense Materials Manufacturing and Its Infrastructure. Hosted by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine, the virtual event brought together approximately 30 speakers and attendees representing materials science, engineering, and manufacturing experts from industry, academia, and government agencies. The 3-day workshop explored education and workforce trends across the nation and the globe, with particular focus on the U.S. Department of Defense and university-government collaborations. Participants discussed how the COVID-19 pandemic has affected science and engineering education, opportunities to reimagine traditional education for the field, and the imperative to develop a more diverse workforce. Several speakers presented their views on what the post-pandemic future may hold, and many offered perspectives on key concerns and priorities for the field moving forward. This publication summarizes the presentations and discussion of the workshop.

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