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Committee on Human Rights: Year in Review 2018 (2019)

Chapter: Committee on Human Rights: Year in Review 2018

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Suggested Citation:"Committee on Human Rights: Year in Review 2018." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Committee on Human Rights: Year in Review 2018. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26273.
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Page 1
Suggested Citation:"Committee on Human Rights: Year in Review 2018." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Committee on Human Rights: Year in Review 2018. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26273.
×
Page 2
Suggested Citation:"Committee on Human Rights: Year in Review 2018." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Committee on Human Rights: Year in Review 2018. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26273.
×
Page 3
Suggested Citation:"Committee on Human Rights: Year in Review 2018." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Committee on Human Rights: Year in Review 2018. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26273.
×
Page 4
Suggested Citation:"Committee on Human Rights: Year in Review 2018." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Committee on Human Rights: Year in Review 2018. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26273.
×
Page 5
Suggested Citation:"Committee on Human Rights: Year in Review 2018." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Committee on Human Rights: Year in Review 2018. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26273.
×
Page 6
Suggested Citation:"Committee on Human Rights: Year in Review 2018." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Committee on Human Rights: Year in Review 2018. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26273.
×
Page 7
Suggested Citation:"Committee on Human Rights: Year in Review 2018." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Committee on Human Rights: Year in Review 2018. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26273.
×
Page 8
Suggested Citation:"Committee on Human Rights: Year in Review 2018." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Committee on Human Rights: Year in Review 2018. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26273.
×
Page 9
Suggested Citation:"Committee on Human Rights: Year in Review 2018." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Committee on Human Rights: Year in Review 2018. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26273.
×
Page 10
Suggested Citation:"Committee on Human Rights: Year in Review 2018." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Committee on Human Rights: Year in Review 2018. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26273.
×
Page 11
Suggested Citation:"Committee on Human Rights: Year in Review 2018." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Committee on Human Rights: Year in Review 2018. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26273.
×
Page 12
Suggested Citation:"Committee on Human Rights: Year in Review 2018." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Committee on Human Rights: Year in Review 2018. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26273.
×
Page 13
Suggested Citation:"Committee on Human Rights: Year in Review 2018." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Committee on Human Rights: Year in Review 2018. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26273.
×
Page 14
Suggested Citation:"Committee on Human Rights: Year in Review 2018." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Committee on Human Rights: Year in Review 2018. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26273.
×
Page 15

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In October 2018, the H.R. Network held its thirteenth biennial meeting in Seoul, at the MESSAGE Korean Academy of Science and Technology. Representatives from more than 20 MARTIN CHALFIE national academies, including some current and former Academy Presidents, attended this successful meeting, which focused on the role of academies in responding to pressing science and human rights matters. A public symposium held as part of FROM THE CHAIR the meeting explored issues related to science, human rights, and the sustainable development goals. As we are all too well aware, human rights have come under increasing Finally, during 2018 the Committee continued to promote the role of scientists, engineers, attack in many parts of the world. Over the course of the past year, and health professionals in protecting the rights of refugees and other forcibly displaced the National Academies’ Committee on Human Rights (CHR) has persons, including through participation in invited talks and in an international working responded by expanding its advocacy in support of colleagues under group (led by the International Science Council, the InterAcademy Partnership, and threat, including through a new collaboration with Washington D.C.- The World Academy of Sciences) that explores mechanisms of assistance for displaced based law firm Gibson, Dunn & Crutcher, which now provides pro bono scientists and scholars. The CHR has also published a Proceedings-in-Brief from its legal assistance with CHR’s human rights casework. December 2017 symposium, Protecting the Rights of Individuals Fleeing Conflict, which provides information about innovative ways in which scientists, engineers, and health I am pleased to report that, during 2018, 27 colleagues subjected to professionals are using their skills to address displacement-related challenges. human rights abuses saw significant positive developments in their cases (e.g., release from prison, reduced sentences, dismissal of These are just a few of the Committee’s recent efforts, none of which would have been criminal charges). The following pages provide information about possible without support from the National Academies and their members. We invite these positive case developments and about CHR’s casework more members to learn about other aspects of the CHR’s work by reading this annual report broadly. and by checking the CHR website periodically for updates on the Committee’s news and activities, such as information on the CHR’s fall 2019 symposium on Human Rights In 2018, the CHR also developed and disseminated materials to and Digital Technologies. promote greater engagement with human rights by members of the global scientific, engineering, and medical communities. First, We invite members who wish to learn more about the Committee to register as CHR the Committee’s new web-based resources, 8 Things You Can Do “Correspondents”. Correspondents receive periodic information about the Committee’s to Promote Human Rights in Science, Engineering, and Medicine, activities and opportunities to take action in response to human rights violations. As contain information on topics such as lending expertise to human always, we also encourage members to contact us with human rights questions and rights projects, integrating human rights into teaching, and assisting concerns. colleagues under threat. These resources are available on the CHR’s website, along with a downloadable poster on the same theme. We Thank you again for helping to promote and protect human rights worldwide. hope that you will display the poster on your office door, in your laboratory, or elsewhere where you work to inspire you, your students, Yours sincerely, and your colleagues to explore ways of engaging with human rights. Additionally, in its role as Secretariat of the International Human Rights Network of Academies and Scholarly Societies (H.R. Network), the CHR produced a resource guide on Engaging with Human Rights in the National Academy Context. This guide highlights the many creative ways in which national academies around the world are integrating Dr. Martin Chalfie (NAS/NAM) human rights activities into their work, from research and dialogue CHR Chair on human rights themes to assistance following conflict and human rights abuse. Our hope is that it will lead to even greater involvement by academies with human rights issues and concerns. 1 2

In October 2018, the H.R. Network held its thirteenth biennial meeting in Seoul, at the MESSAGE Korean Academy of Science and Technology. Representatives from more than 20 MARTIN CHALFIE national academies, including some current and former Academy Presidents, attended this successful meeting, which focused on the role of academies in responding to pressing science and human rights matters. A public symposium held as part of FROM THE CHAIR the meeting explored issues related to science, human rights, and the sustainable development goals. As we are all too well aware, human rights have come under increasing Finally, during 2018 the Committee continued to promote the role of scientists, engineers, attack in many parts of the world. Over the course of the past year, and health professionals in protecting the rights of refugees and other forcibly displaced the National Academies’ Committee on Human Rights (CHR) has persons, including through participation in invited talks and in an international working responded by expanding its advocacy in support of colleagues under group (led by the International Science Council, the InterAcademy Partnership, and threat, including through a new collaboration with Washington D.C.- The World Academy of Sciences) that explores mechanisms of assistance for displaced based law firm Gibson, Dunn & Crutcher, which now provides pro bono scientists and scholars. The CHR has also published a Proceedings-in-Brief from its legal assistance with CHR’s human rights casework. December 2017 symposium, Protecting the Rights of Individuals Fleeing Conflict, which provides information about innovative ways in which scientists, engineers, and health I am pleased to report that, during 2018, 27 colleagues subjected to professionals are using their skills to address displacement-related challenges. human rights abuses saw significant positive developments in their cases (e.g., release from prison, reduced sentences, dismissal of These are just a few of the Committee’s recent efforts, none of which would have been criminal charges). The following pages provide information about possible without support from the National Academies and their members. We invite these positive case developments and about CHR’s casework more members to learn about other aspects of the CHR’s work by reading this annual report broadly. and by checking the CHR website periodically for updates on the Committee’s news and activities, such as information on the CHR’s fall 2019 symposium on Human Rights In 2018, the CHR also developed and disseminated materials to and Digital Technologies. promote greater engagement with human rights by members of the global scientific, engineering, and medical communities. First, We invite members who wish to learn more about the Committee to register as CHR the Committee’s new web-based resources, 8 Things You Can Do “Correspondents”. Correspondents receive periodic information about the Committee’s to Promote Human Rights in Science, Engineering, and Medicine, activities and opportunities to take action in response to human rights violations. As contain information on topics such as lending expertise to human always, we also encourage members to contact us with human rights questions and rights projects, integrating human rights into teaching, and assisting concerns. colleagues under threat. These resources are available on the CHR’s website, along with a downloadable poster on the same theme. We Thank you again for helping to promote and protect human rights worldwide. hope that you will display the poster on your office door, in your laboratory, or elsewhere where you work to inspire you, your students, Yours sincerely, and your colleagues to explore ways of engaging with human rights. Additionally, in its role as Secretariat of the International Human Rights Network of Academies and Scholarly Societies (H.R. Network), the CHR produced a resource guide on Engaging with Human Rights in the National Academy Context. This guide highlights the many creative ways in which national academies around the world are integrating Dr. Martin Chalfie (NAS/NAM) human rights activities into their work, from research and dialogue CHR Chair on human rights themes to assistance following conflict and human rights abuse. Our hope is that it will lead to even greater involvement by academies with human rights issues and concerns. 1 2

CHR CHR ABOUT US C A S E S TAT I S T I CS COMMITTEE ON HUMAN RIGHTS In 2018 the CHR worked on 86 cases involving colleagues in the Middle East and North Africa, Europe and Eurasia, the Asia-Pacific region, the Americas, and sub-Saharan Africa. Of these colleagues, 52% were scientists, 17% were engineers, and 31% were The Committee on Human Rights (CHR), created by NAS members in 1976, is a standing membership health professionals. committee of the National Academy of Sciences (NAS), National Academy of Engineering (NAE), and National Academy of Medicine (NAM). The CHR is composed of 12 members drawn from the membership of the three Academies and appointed by the Academies’ Presidents, as well as the foreign secretaries of the NAS, NAE, and NAM, who serve in an ex officio capacity. The Committee advocates in support of scientists, engineers, and health professionals subjected to serious human rights abuses worldwide, including in the United States, with a focus on individuals targeted for their professional activities and/or for having exercised the universally protected right to freedom of expression, which provides a crucial foundation for scientific research and progress. CHR cases involve long-term arbitrary detention, gross violations of the right to fair trial, withdrawal of citizenship without due process, torture, and disappearance, among other serious violations of international human rights law. Alongside the CHR’s advocacy, the committee provides assistance to professional colleagues under threat by linking them to the wider international scientific community and to organizations that provide pro bono legal support and other services. CHR members, and other members of the Academies, play a distinctive and influential advocacy role as globally respected individuals expressing solidarity with colleagues under threat. More than 1,500 members of the three Academies are CHR Correspondents, many of whom regularly take action on urgent human rights cases. The CHR also raises awareness concerning the links between science, technology, health, and human rights, including through briefings for Academy members. The CHR serves as the Secretariat of the International Human Rights Network of Academies and Scholarly Societies (H.R. Network), which brings together more than 90 academies and scholarly societies to address shared science and human rights concerns. Chris Beyrer Vanessa Northington Michael Katz CHR John Hopkins Bloomberg Gamble Columbia University/ School of Public Health The George Washington Stanford University Membership John Carlson University Anthony Leggett Chair Yale University Margaret Hamburg University of Illinois at Martin Chalfie NAM Foreign Secretary Urbana-Champaign Christine Cassel Columbia University University of California, San Franciso Elaine Oran Vice Chair John Hildebrand University of Maryland, Mary Jane West-Eberhard Michael T. Clegg NAS Foreign Secretary College Park Smithsonian Tropical Research University of California, Institute/University of Costa Rica Irvine Elsa Reichmanis John G. Kassakian Ruth David Massachusetts Institute Georgia Institute of NAE Foreign Secretary of Technology Technology 3 4

CHR CHR ABOUT US C A S E S TAT I S T I CS COMMITTEE ON HUMAN RIGHTS In 2018 the CHR worked on 86 cases involving colleagues in the Middle East and North Africa, Europe and Eurasia, the Asia-Pacific region, the Americas, and sub-Saharan Africa. Of these colleagues, 52% were scientists, 17% were engineers, and 31% were The Committee on Human Rights (CHR), created by NAS members in 1976, is a standing membership health professionals. committee of the National Academy of Sciences (NAS), National Academy of Engineering (NAE), and National Academy of Medicine (NAM). The CHR is composed of 12 members drawn from the membership of the three Academies and appointed by the Academies’ Presidents, as well as the foreign secretaries of the NAS, NAE, and NAM, who serve in an ex officio capacity. The Committee advocates in support of scientists, engineers, and health professionals subjected to serious human rights abuses worldwide, including in the United States, with a focus on individuals targeted for their professional activities and/or for having exercised the universally protected right to freedom of expression, which provides a crucial foundation for scientific research and progress. CHR cases involve long-term arbitrary detention, gross violations of the right to fair trial, withdrawal of citizenship without due process, torture, and disappearance, among other serious violations of international human rights law. Alongside the CHR’s advocacy, the committee provides assistance to professional colleagues under threat by linking them to the wider international scientific community and to organizations that provide pro bono legal support and other services. CHR members, and other members of the Academies, play a distinctive and influential advocacy role as globally respected individuals expressing solidarity with colleagues under threat. More than 1,500 members of the three Academies are CHR Correspondents, many of whom regularly take action on urgent human rights cases. The CHR also raises awareness concerning the links between science, technology, health, and human rights, including through briefings for Academy members. The CHR serves as the Secretariat of the International Human Rights Network of Academies and Scholarly Societies (H.R. Network), which brings together more than 90 academies and scholarly societies to address shared science and human rights concerns. Chris Beyrer Vanessa Northington Michael Katz CHR John Hopkins Bloomberg Gamble Columbia University/ School of Public Health The George Washington Stanford University Membership John Carlson University Anthony Leggett Chair Yale University Margaret Hamburg University of Illinois at Martin Chalfie NAM Foreign Secretary Urbana-Champaign Christine Cassel Columbia University University of California, San Franciso Elaine Oran Vice Chair John Hildebrand University of Maryland, Mary Jane West-Eberhard Michael T. Clegg NAS Foreign Secretary College Park Smithsonian Tropical Research University of California, Institute/University of Costa Rica Irvine Elsa Reichmanis John G. Kassakian Ruth David Massachusetts Institute Georgia Institute of NAE Foreign Secretary of Technology Technology 3 4

CHR POSITIVE CASE DEVELOPMENTS THAI SCHOLARS In 2018, the CHR, together with many CHR Correspondents and national academies participating in the H.R. Network, took over 1,000 actions in support of colleagues On December 25, 2018, the Chiang Mai District Court in under threat (including through appeals, petitions, meetings, and submissions to Thailand dismissed a criminal case that had been brought human rights complaint mechanisms). Over the course of the year, 27 colleagues saw against Thai anthropologists Chayan Vaddhanaphuti and significant positive developments in their cases (e.g., release from prison, reduced Chaipong Samnieng and three other individuals for peacefully sentences, dismissal of criminal charges) in Azerbaijan, Cuba, Ethiopia, Iran, Malaysia, protesting during an the Philippines, Thailand, and Turkey. Additionally, the conditions of confinement academic conference. The of several other colleagues have improved. Click here for more details on cases with court’s decision followed positive developments. Thai Prime Minister Prayut Chan-o-cha’s revocation, two weeks prior, of ILGAR MAMMADOV an ordinance banning political gatherings of five or more people, under Azerbaijani political scientist and opposition leader which the individuals had Ilgar Mammadov was freed from prison on August been prosecuted. 13, 2018, after serving five and a half years of his seven-year prison sentence. Upon reviewing his In August 2017, authorities case, a court of appeals ordered his conditional summoned Dr. Chayan, release. He is on parole for two years, during which Mr. Chaipong, and the time he is banned from foreign travel. three other individuals to the Chang Phuak In addition to his work as a political analyst and Police Station in Chiang former director of the Baku School of Political Mai and accused them Studies, Mr. Mammadov is well-known for his of violating the National leadership of the Azerbaijani ReAl (Republican Council for Peace and Alternative) opposition movement and his advocacy Order’s then ban on efforts in support of freedom of expression and political gatherings. The Mr. Mammadov reunites with a friend after his release from prison. [Photo credit: RFE/RL] assembly in Azerbaijan. At the time of his arrest in accusation stemmed from February 2013, he was expected to be a candidate the group’s participation Mr. Chaipong (second from left) and Dr. Chayan (second from right) with the in the October 2013 presidential elections. Mr. Mammadov was taken into custody after in the 2017 International three other individuals against whom charges were brought. [Photo credit: Thai traveling to northwest Azerbaijan to report on riots that had begun the day before he arrived. Conference on Thai Lawyers for Human Rights] He was subsequently charged with organizing and inciting violent protests and, in March Studies at Chiang Mai 2014, was convicted and sentenced to seven years in prison. Two months later, the European University, which brought Court of Human Rights issued a unanimous judgment in Mr. Mammadov’s favor, finding together scholars from around the world and had the official that several of his fundamental rights had been violated and that there was no reasonable support of the Governor of the Province of Chiang Mai. The basis for suspecting him of having committed the offenses concerned. The Court, whose event was heavily surveilled by both uniform and plainclothes rulings are binding on Azerbaijan as a member of the Council of Europe (CoE) and a party military and police, which prompted Dr. Chayan—the organizer to the European Convention on Human Rights, further concluded that Mr. Mammadov was of the conference—Mr. Chaipong, and others to hold up a targeted for having criticized the government. A subsequent ruling by the Court found that banner that read, “An academic seminar is not a military his right to a fair trial had been violated. Following numerous unsuccessful requests for Mr. base.” On July 4, 2018, after nearly a year of postponements, Mammadov’s release, the CoE’s Committee of Ministers began infringement proceedings Dr. Chayan, Mr. Chaipong, and the three others were formally against Azerbaijan in late 2017. indicted for “holding an unlawful political gathering.” Had they been convicted, they would have faced up to six months of imprisonment, a fine of up to 10,000 baht (approximately U.S. $300), or both. 5 6

CHR POSITIVE CASE DEVELOPMENTS THAI SCHOLARS In 2018, the CHR, together with many CHR Correspondents and national academies participating in the H.R. Network, took over 1,000 actions in support of colleagues On December 25, 2018, the Chiang Mai District Court in under threat (including through appeals, petitions, meetings, and submissions to Thailand dismissed a criminal case that had been brought human rights complaint mechanisms). Over the course of the year, 27 colleagues saw against Thai anthropologists Chayan Vaddhanaphuti and significant positive developments in their cases (e.g., release from prison, reduced Chaipong Samnieng and three other individuals for peacefully sentences, dismissal of criminal charges) in Azerbaijan, Cuba, Ethiopia, Iran, Malaysia, protesting during an the Philippines, Thailand, and Turkey. Additionally, the conditions of confinement academic conference. The of several other colleagues have improved. Click here for more details on cases with court’s decision followed positive developments. Thai Prime Minister Prayut Chan-o-cha’s revocation, two weeks prior, of ILGAR MAMMADOV an ordinance banning political gatherings of five or more people, under Azerbaijani political scientist and opposition leader which the individuals had Ilgar Mammadov was freed from prison on August been prosecuted. 13, 2018, after serving five and a half years of his seven-year prison sentence. Upon reviewing his In August 2017, authorities case, a court of appeals ordered his conditional summoned Dr. Chayan, release. He is on parole for two years, during which Mr. Chaipong, and the time he is banned from foreign travel. three other individuals to the Chang Phuak In addition to his work as a political analyst and Police Station in Chiang former director of the Baku School of Political Mai and accused them Studies, Mr. Mammadov is well-known for his of violating the National leadership of the Azerbaijani ReAl (Republican Council for Peace and Alternative) opposition movement and his advocacy Order’s then ban on efforts in support of freedom of expression and political gatherings. The Mr. Mammadov reunites with a friend after his release from prison. [Photo credit: RFE/RL] assembly in Azerbaijan. At the time of his arrest in accusation stemmed from February 2013, he was expected to be a candidate the group’s participation Mr. Chaipong (second from left) and Dr. Chayan (second from right) with the in the October 2013 presidential elections. Mr. Mammadov was taken into custody after in the 2017 International three other individuals against whom charges were brought. [Photo credit: Thai traveling to northwest Azerbaijan to report on riots that had begun the day before he arrived. Conference on Thai Lawyers for Human Rights] He was subsequently charged with organizing and inciting violent protests and, in March Studies at Chiang Mai 2014, was convicted and sentenced to seven years in prison. Two months later, the European University, which brought Court of Human Rights issued a unanimous judgment in Mr. Mammadov’s favor, finding together scholars from around the world and had the official that several of his fundamental rights had been violated and that there was no reasonable support of the Governor of the Province of Chiang Mai. The basis for suspecting him of having committed the offenses concerned. The Court, whose event was heavily surveilled by both uniform and plainclothes rulings are binding on Azerbaijan as a member of the Council of Europe (CoE) and a party military and police, which prompted Dr. Chayan—the organizer to the European Convention on Human Rights, further concluded that Mr. Mammadov was of the conference—Mr. Chaipong, and others to hold up a targeted for having criticized the government. A subsequent ruling by the Court found that banner that read, “An academic seminar is not a military his right to a fair trial had been violated. Following numerous unsuccessful requests for Mr. base.” On July 4, 2018, after nearly a year of postponements, Mammadov’s release, the CoE’s Committee of Ministers began infringement proceedings Dr. Chayan, Mr. Chaipong, and the three others were formally against Azerbaijan in late 2017. indicted for “holding an unlawful political gathering.” Had they been convicted, they would have faced up to six months of imprisonment, a fine of up to 10,000 baht (approximately U.S. $300), or both. 5 6

CHR A W A R E N E S S R A I S I N G A C T I V I T I E S Web Resources Briefings Scientists, engineers, and health professionals have a unique role to play in the promotion of human rights. In recognition of this role, APRIL the CHR has developed a collection of web resources that provides information about NAS Annual Meeting - CHR Breakfast Briefing how these groups can promote human rights. During the NAS Annual Meeting, guest speaker Homa Hoodfar, Professor The resources, which are part of a growing Emerita of Sociocultural Anthropology at Concordia University, effort by national academies worldwide to discussed the importance of academic freedom and human rights. Dr. integrate human rights into their activities, can Hoodfar was arrested and detained in Iran in 2016 for allegedly “dabbling be accessed by clicking here. The CHR has also in feminism”. Since her release, she has focused her work on issues created a corresponding poster (”8 Things You related to academic freedom. Dr. Hoodfar discussed the importance of Can Do to Promote Human Rights”), which can the 1997 UNESCO “Recommendation Concerning the Status of Higher- be downloaded here. Education Teaching Personnel” and briefed the audience on the need to view academic freedom as a collective right and responsibility, as opposed to as a privilege. According to Dr. Hoodfar, academic freedom must be viewed as a universal right, as opposed to a Western value, for C H R S y m p o s i u m o n Fo r c e d it to be persuasively invoked around the world. D i s p l a c e m e n t : Fo l l o w - o n A c t i v i t i e s OCTOBER The CHR issued a Proceedings-in-Brief concerning its December 2017 symposium, Protecting the Rights of Individuals Fleeing Conflict: The Role of Scientists, Engineers, and Health Professionals. This NAM Annual Meeting - CHR Lunch Briefing symposium, which was webcast live and explored the role that the international scientific community Led by CHR Member Michael Katz (NAM), the CHR’s lunch briefing during the NAM Annual Meeting can play in helping to address the needs and protect the rights of individuals forced to flee their homes highlighted issues surrounding the challenges faced by populations fleeing conflict. Mr. Jason and communities, was the first in a series on important topics involving science, health, engineering, Mills, Humanitarian Representative at and human rights. Following this event, CHR staff Doctors Without Borders (MSF), presented were invited to participate in an international working on MSF’s efforts to provide medical group to explore ways of addressing challenges assistance to populations fleeing conflict faced by displaced scientists. The working group, of and violence, with a particular focus on which CHR Senior Program Officer Patricia Evers is a the Rohingya crisis. Dr. Colleen Kraft, member, was organized under the umbrella of Science then President of the American Academy International, a joint project of The World Academy of of Pediatrics, presented on the specific Sciences (TWAS), the InterAcademy Partnership (IAP), challenges facing children and families and the International Science Council (ISC). Evers also fleeing conflict, including families and participated in a panel at St. Mary’s University (Halifax, children at the U.S.-Mexico border. Both Canada) to examine ways in which universities and guest speakers offered suggestions as to national academies can support displaced scholars how the medical community can use its (read more here). expertise to offer support to and minimize the negative impacts on these populations. Left to right: Patricia Evers, CHR Senior Program Officer; S. Karly Kehoe, Canada Research Chair in Atlantic Canada Communities at St. Mary’s University; and Edward Lempinen, Public Information Officer at The World Academy of Sciences, following the panel discussion at St. Mary’s University. 7 8

CHR A W A R E N E S S R A I S I N G A C T I V I T I E S Web Resources Briefings Scientists, engineers, and health professionals have a unique role to play in the promotion of human rights. In recognition of this role, APRIL the CHR has developed a collection of web resources that provides information about NAS Annual Meeting - CHR Breakfast Briefing how these groups can promote human rights. During the NAS Annual Meeting, guest speaker Homa Hoodfar, Professor The resources, which are part of a growing Emerita of Sociocultural Anthropology at Concordia University, effort by national academies worldwide to discussed the importance of academic freedom and human rights. Dr. integrate human rights into their activities, can Hoodfar was arrested and detained in Iran in 2016 for allegedly “dabbling be accessed by clicking here. The CHR has also in feminism”. Since her release, she has focused her work on issues created a corresponding poster (”8 Things You related to academic freedom. Dr. Hoodfar discussed the importance of Can Do to Promote Human Rights”), which can the 1997 UNESCO “Recommendation Concerning the Status of Higher- be downloaded here. Education Teaching Personnel” and briefed the audience on the need to view academic freedom as a collective right and responsibility, as opposed to as a privilege. According to Dr. Hoodfar, academic freedom must be viewed as a universal right, as opposed to a Western value, for C H R S y m p o s i u m o n Fo r c e d it to be persuasively invoked around the world. D i s p l a c e m e n t : Fo l l o w - o n A c t i v i t i e s OCTOBER The CHR issued a Proceedings-in-Brief concerning its December 2017 symposium, Protecting the Rights of Individuals Fleeing Conflict: The Role of Scientists, Engineers, and Health Professionals. This NAM Annual Meeting - CHR Lunch Briefing symposium, which was webcast live and explored the role that the international scientific community Led by CHR Member Michael Katz (NAM), the CHR’s lunch briefing during the NAM Annual Meeting can play in helping to address the needs and protect the rights of individuals forced to flee their homes highlighted issues surrounding the challenges faced by populations fleeing conflict. Mr. Jason and communities, was the first in a series on important topics involving science, health, engineering, Mills, Humanitarian Representative at and human rights. Following this event, CHR staff Doctors Without Borders (MSF), presented were invited to participate in an international working on MSF’s efforts to provide medical group to explore ways of addressing challenges assistance to populations fleeing conflict faced by displaced scientists. The working group, of and violence, with a particular focus on which CHR Senior Program Officer Patricia Evers is a the Rohingya crisis. Dr. Colleen Kraft, member, was organized under the umbrella of Science then President of the American Academy International, a joint project of The World Academy of of Pediatrics, presented on the specific Sciences (TWAS), the InterAcademy Partnership (IAP), challenges facing children and families and the International Science Council (ISC). Evers also fleeing conflict, including families and participated in a panel at St. Mary’s University (Halifax, children at the U.S.-Mexico border. Both Canada) to examine ways in which universities and guest speakers offered suggestions as to national academies can support displaced scholars how the medical community can use its (read more here). expertise to offer support to and minimize the negative impacts on these populations. Left to right: Patricia Evers, CHR Senior Program Officer; S. Karly Kehoe, Canada Research Chair in Atlantic Canada Communities at St. Mary’s University; and Edward Lempinen, Public Information Officer at The World Academy of Sciences, following the panel discussion at St. Mary’s University. 7 8

CHR H E A L T H A N D H U M A N R I G H T S SPOTLIGHT Family Separations at the U.S. Border Attacks on Higher Education and Medical Neutrality in Nicaragua In June 2018, the Presidents of the NAS, the NAE, and the NAM issued a statement urging the U.S. Department Following widespread student-led protests in Nicaragua that began in mid-April 2018—in response to proposed of Homeland Security to immediately stop separating migrant children from their families. Reports from the changes to the country’s social security system—the Inter-American Commission on Human Rights (IACHR) and National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine contain an extensive body of evidence on factors the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights, among other respected bodies, reported affecting the welfare of children – evidence that points to the danger of immigration enforcement actions persistent and disproportionate use of force by government security forces and armed pro-government groups that separate children from their parents. The statement mentions that the CHR “stresses that the practice of to suppress the protests. These violent confrontations have resulted in the deaths of more than 300 people and separating parents from their children at the border is inconsistent with U.S. obligations under the International injuries to more than 2,000 others. Covenant on Civil and Political Rights.” These violent incidents have been compounded by repressive steps taken against health professionals who sought to provide medical care to wounded protestors, as well as other measures taken to restrict access to medical care by the injured. Hundreds of health professionals have been fired from public health centers and universities. “ Doctors have also suffered other forms of intimidation, including death threats, which have forced a significant number of them to flee the country. At the height of the protests, the IACHR documented reports of frequent Parents take enormous risks - leaving their loved ones and friends refusal to provide medical care to patients, unwarranted delays in doing so, and, in some cases involving the death behind, uprooting from their community, giving up all assets, and of protestors, public hospitals refusing to arrange autopsies to determine the cause of death. exposing themselves to danger, physical harm, and financial risks - for the future of their children. The narrative that migrant parents Many of the violent attacks against protestors have taken place on or around university campuses, and university are irresponsible or careless about the well-being of their children cannot be further from the truth. This, in fact, is the story of my life. My parents fled China, giving up everything, for a better future for “ faculty, including professors who have spoken out about such attacks, have been the target of threats and harassment. The erosion of safety and security in Nicaragua’s universities has had a negative impact on the state of research and education in the country. Universities have fired dozens of faculty and staff members who have their children. I cannot forget that. criticized the government’s handling of the demonstrations. Other universities have seen their state funding reduced. In a December 2018 article in Nature about the negative repercussions of the current situation in Nicaragua on its scientific community, CHR Chair Martin Chalfie expressed the CHR’s deep concern regarding the “threats and violence against our colleagues and the apparent targeting of academic institutions.” The Executive -Victor J. Dzau, MD, President, National Academy of Medicine Committee of the H.R. Network, for which the CHR serves as Secretariat, issued a public statement in June 2018 on the issue as well. 9 10

CHR H E A L T H A N D H U M A N R I G H T S SPOTLIGHT Family Separations at the U.S. Border Attacks on Higher Education and Medical Neutrality in Nicaragua In June 2018, the Presidents of the NAS, the NAE, and the NAM issued a statement urging the U.S. Department Following widespread student-led protests in Nicaragua that began in mid-April 2018—in response to proposed of Homeland Security to immediately stop separating migrant children from their families. Reports from the changes to the country’s social security system—the Inter-American Commission on Human Rights (IACHR) and National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine contain an extensive body of evidence on factors the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights, among other respected bodies, reported affecting the welfare of children – evidence that points to the danger of immigration enforcement actions persistent and disproportionate use of force by government security forces and armed pro-government groups that separate children from their parents. The statement mentions that the CHR “stresses that the practice of to suppress the protests. These violent confrontations have resulted in the deaths of more than 300 people and separating parents from their children at the border is inconsistent with U.S. obligations under the International injuries to more than 2,000 others. Covenant on Civil and Political Rights.” These violent incidents have been compounded by repressive steps taken against health professionals who sought to provide medical care to wounded protestors, as well as other measures taken to restrict access to medical care by the injured. Hundreds of health professionals have been fired from public health centers and universities. “ Doctors have also suffered other forms of intimidation, including death threats, which have forced a significant number of them to flee the country. At the height of the protests, the IACHR documented reports of frequent Parents take enormous risks - leaving their loved ones and friends refusal to provide medical care to patients, unwarranted delays in doing so, and, in some cases involving the death behind, uprooting from their community, giving up all assets, and of protestors, public hospitals refusing to arrange autopsies to determine the cause of death. exposing themselves to danger, physical harm, and financial risks - for the future of their children. The narrative that migrant parents Many of the violent attacks against protestors have taken place on or around university campuses, and university are irresponsible or careless about the well-being of their children cannot be further from the truth. This, in fact, is the story of my life. My parents fled China, giving up everything, for a better future for “ faculty, including professors who have spoken out about such attacks, have been the target of threats and harassment. The erosion of safety and security in Nicaragua’s universities has had a negative impact on the state of research and education in the country. Universities have fired dozens of faculty and staff members who have their children. I cannot forget that. criticized the government’s handling of the demonstrations. Other universities have seen their state funding reduced. In a December 2018 article in Nature about the negative repercussions of the current situation in Nicaragua on its scientific community, CHR Chair Martin Chalfie expressed the CHR’s deep concern regarding the “threats and violence against our colleagues and the apparent targeting of academic institutions.” The Executive -Victor J. Dzau, MD, President, National Academy of Medicine Committee of the H.R. Network, for which the CHR serves as Secretariat, issued a public statement in June 2018 on the issue as well. 9 10

THE I N T E R N AT I O N A L H U M A N R I G H T S N E T WO R K OF ACADEMIES AND SCHOLARY SOCIETIES The CHR serves as the Secretariat of the International Human Rights Network of Academies and in science, engineering, health, Scholarly Societies (H.R. Network), an international consortium of honorary societies in the sciences, and other fields engaged with engineering, and medicine with a shared interest in human rights. speakers at a special student session on the intersection The H.R. Network was founded in 1993 to alert national academies to human rights abuses involving between science and human fellow scientists and scholars and to equip academies with the tools to provide support in such rights. cases. Today the H.R. Network advocates in support of professional colleagues suffering human rights abuses, promotes the free exchange of ideas and opinions among scientists and scholars, and Click here to view a summary supports the independence and autonomy of national academies and scholarly societies worldwide. of the symposium and student The H.R. Network, which is open to all interested academies, also raises global awareness about the session on the H.R. Network connections between human rights and science, engineering, and medicine. website. To view the programs for the symposium and student The H.R. Network’s Secretariat issues regular alerts to H.R. Network-participating academies session, please click on the concerning urgent cases involving scientists, engineers, and health professionals under threat as a images to the right. result of their legitimate professional work or other peaceful activities. The H.R. Network’s Executive Committee, composed of academy members from 12 countries, also periodically issues public statements on topical issues of global concern, such as gender discrimination in higher education and threats to scientific freedom. H.R. Network-participating academies assist in disseminating the Executive Committee’s statements, and many academies use the alerts and statements as a starting point for their own advocacy (with each academy acting at its own discretion). The H.R. Network has, to date, held 13 biennial meetings around the world to provide an opportunity for academy members to explore topical science and human rights themes and to share information Resources and strategies on matters of human rights concern. In recognition of the unique and important role national academies play in promoting human rights, the H.R. Network has developed the resource guide, Engaging with Human Rights in the National Academy Context. Around the world, national academies 13th Biennial Meeting and their members have made outstanding contributions to the improvement of the human condition. Their knowledge and expertise is essential in addressing pressing The thirteenth biennial meeting of domestic and international concerns related to science and the H.R. Network was hosted by the technology. Engagement with internationally recognized Korean Academy of Science and human rights norms complements this vital work and helps Technology (KAST) and took place to shape responsible solutions to new global challenges. in Seoul, Korea from October 25-27, The H.R. Network's guide, funded by the Richard Lounsbery 2018. Representatives of more than Foundation, highlights the creative, and varying, ways in 20 national scientific academies which national academies around the world are integrating and scholarly societies from around human rights activities into their work. the world were in attendance. A webinar was held in October 2018 to delve further into The meeting included a one- certain key themes addressed in the resource guide. day symposium, Science and the Speakers from several national academies participating in Right to Development. During the the H.R. Network shared their views on the importance of meeting, higher education students human rights. Prof. Changrok Soh, a member of the U.N. Human Rights Council Advisory Committee, provided the Keynote Address at the 13th Biennial Meeting of the H.R. Network. 11 12

THE I N T E R N AT I O N A L H U M A N R I G H T S N E T WO R K OF ACADEMIES AND SCHOLARY SOCIETIES The CHR serves as the Secretariat of the International Human Rights Network of Academies and in science, engineering, health, Scholarly Societies (H.R. Network), an international consortium of honorary societies in the sciences, and other fields engaged with engineering, and medicine with a shared interest in human rights. speakers at a special student session on the intersection The H.R. Network was founded in 1993 to alert national academies to human rights abuses involving between science and human fellow scientists and scholars and to equip academies with the tools to provide support in such rights. cases. Today the H.R. Network advocates in support of professional colleagues suffering human rights abuses, promotes the free exchange of ideas and opinions among scientists and scholars, and Click here to view a summary supports the independence and autonomy of national academies and scholarly societies worldwide. of the symposium and student The H.R. Network, which is open to all interested academies, also raises global awareness about the session on the H.R. Network connections between human rights and science, engineering, and medicine. website. To view the programs for the symposium and student The H.R. Network’s Secretariat issues regular alerts to H.R. Network-participating academies session, please click on the concerning urgent cases involving scientists, engineers, and health professionals under threat as a images to the right. result of their legitimate professional work or other peaceful activities. The H.R. Network’s Executive Committee, composed of academy members from 12 countries, also periodically issues public statements on topical issues of global concern, such as gender discrimination in higher education and threats to scientific freedom. H.R. Network-participating academies assist in disseminating the Executive Committee’s statements, and many academies use the alerts and statements as a starting point for their own advocacy (with each academy acting at its own discretion). The H.R. Network has, to date, held 13 biennial meetings around the world to provide an opportunity for academy members to explore topical science and human rights themes and to share information Resources and strategies on matters of human rights concern. In recognition of the unique and important role national academies play in promoting human rights, the H.R. Network has developed the resource guide, Engaging with Human Rights in the National Academy Context. Around the world, national academies 13th Biennial Meeting and their members have made outstanding contributions to the improvement of the human condition. Their knowledge and expertise is essential in addressing pressing The thirteenth biennial meeting of domestic and international concerns related to science and the H.R. Network was hosted by the technology. Engagement with internationally recognized Korean Academy of Science and human rights norms complements this vital work and helps Technology (KAST) and took place to shape responsible solutions to new global challenges. in Seoul, Korea from October 25-27, The H.R. Network's guide, funded by the Richard Lounsbery 2018. Representatives of more than Foundation, highlights the creative, and varying, ways in 20 national scientific academies which national academies around the world are integrating and scholarly societies from around human rights activities into their work. the world were in attendance. A webinar was held in October 2018 to delve further into The meeting included a one- certain key themes addressed in the resource guide. day symposium, Science and the Speakers from several national academies participating in Right to Development. During the the H.R. Network shared their views on the importance of meeting, higher education students human rights. Prof. Changrok Soh, a member of the U.N. Human Rights Council Advisory Committee, provided the Keynote Address at the 13th Biennial Meeting of the H.R. Network. 11 12

USE OF CHR I N T E R N AT I O N A L INFOGRAPHICS HUMAN RIGHTS MECHANISMS The infographics below provide a professional and regional breakdown of the CHR’s current* and resolved cases. Click on the images below to view enlarged infographics. *as of December 2018 The CHR has long submitted substantial case briefs based on international human rights law to the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). During the past year, in addition to continuing its use of UNESCO’s procedure, the CHR has made use of several other U.N. human rights complaint processes. In 2018, the CHR prepared case briefs concerning nine colleagues—in China, Iran, Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates, and Vietnam—that are being examined by UNESCO’s Committee on Conventions and Recommendations. Because the Committee’s review process is repeated every six months, it allows for a continuing, albeit indirect, dialogue between the CHR and high-level officials of the governments concerned. (Of the 79 admissible cases submitted to UNESCO by the CHR and participants in the H.R. Network over the past 28 years, 69 have been resolved successfully, and 8 of the colleagues whose cases are ongoing have seen positive developments (including improvements in conditions of confinement and granting of medical leave)). The CHR also submitted information on seven cases regarding colleagues from Bahrain, China, Iran, Saudi Arabia, and Turkey to a variety of other U.N. mechanisms, including the Working Group on “ “ Arbitrary Detention; the Special Rapporteur (SR) on the right to health; the SR on peaceful assembly and association; the SR on human rights defenders; the SR on torture; the SR on extrajudicial executions; the SR on human rights in Iran; the SR on freedom of We need the support of the international community. We need to feel that religion; and the SR on minority issues. In 2018, the CHR entered into a formal there are people behind us. It is a moral support. It is not tangible, but it has arrangement with Gibson, Dunn, and a deep meaning the heart. In 2018, the CHR also engaged with European human Crutcher, a global law firm, in which rights mechanisms, including through submissions to the - Dr. Mudawi Ibrahim Adam, law associates assist in preparing case Council of Europe’s Commissioner on Human Rights and Sudanese engineer and former prisoner of conscience submissions to international human to the EU Special Representative for Human Rights, in rights complaint bodies on a pro bono four cases regarding colleagues from Greece, basis. The firm assisted the CHR on three Iran, and Turkey. cases in 2018 and will continue to provide support in the coming year. 13 17 14

USE OF CHR I N T E R N AT I O N A L INFOGRAPHICS HUMAN RIGHTS MECHANISMS The infographics below provide a professional and regional breakdown of the CHR’s current* and resolved cases. Click on the images below to view enlarged infographics. *as of December 2018 The CHR has long submitted substantial case briefs based on international human rights law to the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). During the past year, in addition to continuing its use of UNESCO’s procedure, the CHR has made use of several other U.N. human rights complaint processes. In 2018, the CHR prepared case briefs concerning nine colleagues—in China, Iran, Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates, and Vietnam—that are being examined by UNESCO’s Committee on Conventions and Recommendations. Because the Committee’s review process is repeated every six months, it allows for a continuing, albeit indirect, dialogue between the CHR and high-level officials of the governments concerned. (Of the 79 admissible cases submitted to UNESCO by the CHR and participants in the H.R. Network over the past 28 years, 69 have been resolved successfully, and 8 of the colleagues whose cases are ongoing have seen positive developments (including improvements in conditions of confinement and granting of medical leave)). The CHR also submitted information on seven cases regarding colleagues from Bahrain, China, Iran, Saudi Arabia, and Turkey to a variety of other U.N. mechanisms, including the Working Group on “ “ Arbitrary Detention; the Special Rapporteur (SR) on the right to health; the SR on peaceful assembly and association; the SR on human rights defenders; the SR on torture; the SR on extrajudicial executions; the SR on human rights in Iran; the SR on freedom of We need the support of the international community. We need to feel that religion; and the SR on minority issues. In 2018, the CHR entered into a formal there are people behind us. It is a moral support. It is not tangible, but it has arrangement with Gibson, Dunn, and a deep meaning the heart. In 2018, the CHR also engaged with European human Crutcher, a global law firm, in which rights mechanisms, including through submissions to the - Dr. Mudawi Ibrahim Adam, law associates assist in preparing case Council of Europe’s Commissioner on Human Rights and Sudanese engineer and former prisoner of conscience submissions to international human to the EU Special Representative for Human Rights, in rights complaint bodies on a pro bono four cases regarding colleagues from Greece, basis. The firm assisted the CHR on three Iran, and Turkey. cases in 2018 and will continue to provide support in the coming year. 13 17 14

THE CHR DEDICATES ITS 2018 YEAR IN REVIEW TO FORMER CHR CHAIRS ROBERT SIDNEY K AT E S VERBA 1929-2018 1932-2019 Both NAS members, Dr. Robert Kates and Dr. Sidney Verba served as Chair of the CHR from 1976-1979 and 2008-2014, respectively. Numerous unjustly imprisoned colleagues around the world were released during their tenures. We are deeply grateful for their dedicated leadership and tireless support of the Committee. How You Can Help You can make a secure online gift If you are a member of the at www8.nationalacademies.org/ National Academies interested AcademyGiving/ (please remember in receiving updates on our to designate Committee on Human activities, become a CHR Rights in the gift field), or by Correspondent by emailing the contacting the CHR via phone or CHR at [chr@nas.edu]. email. Contact the CHR: Phone: 202 334 3043 Fax: 202 334 2225 Email: chr@nas.edu

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The annual report of the Committee on Human Rights (CHR) provides an overview of the CHR's activities in 2018, including information on its advocacy, events, and awareness-raising projects.

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