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Suggested Citation:"Appendix C: Study Approach." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine and National Academy of Medicine. 2021. Public Health Lessons for Non-Vaccine Influenza Interventions: Looking Past COVID-19. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26283.
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Page 189
Suggested Citation:"Appendix C: Study Approach." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine and National Academy of Medicine. 2021. Public Health Lessons for Non-Vaccine Influenza Interventions: Looking Past COVID-19. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26283.
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Page 190
Suggested Citation:"Appendix C: Study Approach." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine and National Academy of Medicine. 2021. Public Health Lessons for Non-Vaccine Influenza Interventions: Looking Past COVID-19. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26283.
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Page 191
Suggested Citation:"Appendix C: Study Approach." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine and National Academy of Medicine. 2021. Public Health Lessons for Non-Vaccine Influenza Interventions: Looking Past COVID-19. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26283.
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Page 192

Below is the uncorrected machine-read text of this chapter, intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text of each book. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

Appendix C Study Approach INFORMATION-GATHERING ACTIVITIES The committee deliberated to fulfill the study’s charge from March through early June 2021, with three full committee meetings during this time frame. The committee gathered information through a number of means to inform its deliberations: (1) an initial literature search to glean a landscape of the key topics related to the committee’s charge, as described further in the Introduction (Chapter 1) as well as the section below; (2) the public speaker sessions at the full committee meetings, also detailed below; (3) solicitation of response to written follow-up questions from speakers at the committee meeting; and (4) written statements and information re- ceived from the public from stakeholders, which are stored in the study’s Public Access File. Two of the full committee meetings involved sessions that were open to the public. The agendas of the open sessions can be found in Appendix B. The first committee meeting in March 2021 involved open sessions each of the 3 days during which eight speakers provided a general landscape of key issues on the topics related to the study Statement of Task and fielded questions from the committee. The second full committee meeting involved two open sessions during which three speakers provided commentary to the committee on specific information-gathering needs— therapeutics research and implementation science, identified in advance by the committee based on the deliberation and stage of development of the study findings, conclusions, and recommendations. The committee formed four workgroups corresponding to the first four tasks in the Statement of Task. Each workgroup also addressed research priorities, the fifth task. 189 PREPUBLICATION COPY—Uncorrected Proofs

190 NON-VACCINE INFLUENZA INTERVENTIONS Two to four committee members served as the primary members of each workgroup, based on expertise, with a committee member lead for each workgroup, mentioned in the acknowledgments. Each workgroup met twice in between each full committee meeting and corresponded offline regarding the study progress. The committee also corresponded as needed via e-mail, Zoom, and phone. LITERATURE REVIEWS The staff conducted an initial series of literature searches to provide to the committee a landscape of the key topics related to the Statement of Task, focused on finding information via the following databases: Scopus, Embase, Pubmed, Medline, ProQuest, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and Google Scholar. The search terms are listed below. The re- sults obtained via these searches were screened primarily for relevance to the study’s Statement of Task. Initial literature search reductions strategies focused on any systematic reviews and highly cited literature. The search terms below do not represent an exhaustive list of the searches and research carried out during the study. As described in Chapter 1, committee work- ing groups and individual members identified priority topics related to the study Statement of Task and particular articles to consider. The resulting searches were careful but not comprehensive. More targeted literature searches were done over the course of the committee’s deliberations as in- formation needs, research gaps, and questions were identified. Search Parameters • Date parameters: November 2019–early June 2021 • Include international citations—foreign languages Publication Types Systematic reviews, rapid reviews, peer-reviewed literature, grey litera- ture (including but not limited to federal government agencies and health science organizations), news articles, reports, case studies, clinical trials Non-Vaccine Intervention Effectiveness Terms covid-19 AND control AND measures AND NOT vaccines; covid-19 AND control AND measures AND social AND distancing; covid-19 AND control AND measures AND quarantine; covid-19 AND con- tainment AND mask; covid-19 AND containment AND ventilation PREPUBLICATION COPY—Uncorrected Proofs

APPENDIX C 191 Intervention Implementation Terms SDOH - covid-19 AND “social determinants of health” OR SDOH; co- vid-19 AND socioeconomic; covid-19 AND class; covid-19 AND racism; covid-19 AND “health care access”; covid-19 AND poverty; covid-19 AND (“social norms” OR “social beliefs”); covid-19 AND religion; covid-19 AND custom AND culture; covid-19 AND culture AND “united states”; covid-19 AND culture AND compliance AND communal; covid-19 AND culture AND unity; covid-19 AND individualism; covid-19 AND individu- alism AND (partisan*) Communication - covid-19 AND media; covid-19 AND (social media OR mass media); covid-19 AND information AND media; covid-19 AND health literacy AND health education; covid-19 AND compliance AND dis- semination information; covid-19 AND implementation science; covid-19 AND science communication Leadership and Government - covid-19 AND compliance; covid-19 AND policymaker; covid-19 AND communication AND compliance; covid-19 AND “effective communication”; covid-19 AND “trust in leadership”; covid-19 AND leadership; covid-19 AND “government actors”; covid-19 AND compliance AND trust; covid-19 AND behavior change AND edu- cation; covid-19 AND implementation AND compliance; covid-19 AND interventions AND implementation Therapeutics Use Terms Global AND Pandemic AND Stockpile; COVID-19 AND Therapeutics AND Stockpile; antiviral AND stockpile; COVID-19 AND Stockpile AND Barriers; COVID-19 AND Stockpile AND ventilator; pharmaceutical AND supply chain AND COVID-19; Pharmaceutical Preparations/supply AND distribution AND COVID-19/drug therapy OR COVID-19/epide- miology OR COVID-19/legislation and jurisprudence OR COVID-19/or- ganization and administration OR COVID-19/prevention and control OR COVID-19/therapy AND Antiviral Agents AND supply and distribution; treatment AND reduced transmission AND COVID-19 AND meta analy- sis; therapeutics AND reduced transmission AND COVID-19 AND meta analysis; therapeutics AND COVID-19 AND transmission; monoclonal antibody therapy AND effectiveness NOT cancer; monoclonal antibodies AND COVID-19; Biomedical Research / organization & administration and COVID-19 / therapy AND Research Design; COVID-19/therapy AND Clinical Trials as Topic AND Cost-Benefit Analysis PREPUBLICATION COPY—Uncorrected Proofs

192 NON-VACCINE INFLUENZA INTERVENTIONS Surveillance Terms covid-19 AND surveillance AND challenge; covid-19 AND surveillance AND success; covid-19 AND surveillance AND innovation; covid-19 AND data AND sharing; covid-19 AND contact AND tracing; covid-19 AND testing Research Gaps Terms covid-19 AND research; influenza AND research; covid-19 AND research AND agenda; influenza AND research AND agenda; covid-19 AND re- search AND gap; influenza AND research AND gap PREPUBLICATION COPY—Uncorrected Proofs

Public Health Lessons for Non-Vaccine Influenza Interventions: Looking Past COVID-19 Get This Book
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The COVID-19 pandemic has challenged the world's preparedness for a respiratory virus event. While the world has been combating COVID-19, seasonal and pandemic influenza remain imminent global health threats. Non-vaccine public health control measures can combat emerging and ongoing influenza outbreaks by mitigating viral spread.

Public Health Lessons for Non-Vaccine Influenza Interventions examines provides conclusions and recommendations from an expert committee on how to leverage the knowledge gained from the COVID-19 pandemic to optimize the use of public health interventions other than vaccines to decrease the toll of future seasonal and potentially pandemic influenza. It considers the effectiveness of public health efforts such as use of masks and indoor spacing, use of treatments such as monoclonal antibodies, and public health communication campaigns.

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