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Public Health Lessons for Non-Vaccine Influenza Interventions: Looking Past COVID-19 (2021)

Chapter: Appendix A: Committee and Staff Biographies

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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Committee and Staff Biographies." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine and National Academy of Medicine. 2021. Public Health Lessons for Non-Vaccine Influenza Interventions: Looking Past COVID-19. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26283.
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Page 171
Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Committee and Staff Biographies." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine and National Academy of Medicine. 2021. Public Health Lessons for Non-Vaccine Influenza Interventions: Looking Past COVID-19. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26283.
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Page 172
Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Committee and Staff Biographies." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine and National Academy of Medicine. 2021. Public Health Lessons for Non-Vaccine Influenza Interventions: Looking Past COVID-19. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26283.
×
Page 173
Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Committee and Staff Biographies." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine and National Academy of Medicine. 2021. Public Health Lessons for Non-Vaccine Influenza Interventions: Looking Past COVID-19. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26283.
×
Page 174
Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Committee and Staff Biographies." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine and National Academy of Medicine. 2021. Public Health Lessons for Non-Vaccine Influenza Interventions: Looking Past COVID-19. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26283.
×
Page 175
Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Committee and Staff Biographies." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine and National Academy of Medicine. 2021. Public Health Lessons for Non-Vaccine Influenza Interventions: Looking Past COVID-19. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26283.
×
Page 176
Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Committee and Staff Biographies." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine and National Academy of Medicine. 2021. Public Health Lessons for Non-Vaccine Influenza Interventions: Looking Past COVID-19. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26283.
×
Page 177
Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Committee and Staff Biographies." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine and National Academy of Medicine. 2021. Public Health Lessons for Non-Vaccine Influenza Interventions: Looking Past COVID-19. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26283.
×
Page 178
Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Committee and Staff Biographies." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine and National Academy of Medicine. 2021. Public Health Lessons for Non-Vaccine Influenza Interventions: Looking Past COVID-19. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26283.
×
Page 179
Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Committee and Staff Biographies." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine and National Academy of Medicine. 2021. Public Health Lessons for Non-Vaccine Influenza Interventions: Looking Past COVID-19. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26283.
×
Page 180
Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Committee and Staff Biographies." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine and National Academy of Medicine. 2021. Public Health Lessons for Non-Vaccine Influenza Interventions: Looking Past COVID-19. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26283.
×
Page 181
Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Committee and Staff Biographies." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine and National Academy of Medicine. 2021. Public Health Lessons for Non-Vaccine Influenza Interventions: Looking Past COVID-19. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26283.
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Page 182

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Appendix A Committee and Staff Biographies COMMITTEE Alexander M. Capron, L.L.B., M.A. (Chair), is a professor at the Univer- sity of Southern California, where he teaches public health law and policy, bioethics, and torts. He occupies the Scott H. Bice Chair in Healthcare Law, Policy, and Ethics in the Gould School of Law, is a professor of medicine and law in the Keck School of Medicine, and is the co-director of the Pacific Center for Health Policy and Ethics. He previously taught at Georgetown University, the University of Pennsylvania, and Yale University. His 10 books and hundreds of articles cover a wide range of topics in law, medi- cine, ethics, and public health. He served as the principal rapporteur for the International Ethical Guidelines for Epidemiological Studies issued by the Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences (Geneva, 2008). In 1966, he received a B.A. in economics with high honors from Swarthmore College. In 1969, he earned an L.L.B. from Yale University, where he was an officer of the Yale Law Journal. Mr. Capron was ap- pointed by Congress as the chair of the Biomedical Ethics Advisory Com- mittee and by President Clinton as a member of the National Bioethics Advisory Commission. From 1980 to 1983, he was the executive director of the President’s Commission for the Study of Ethical Problems in Medi- cine and Biomedical and Behavioral Research, which was established by Congress and appointed by Presidents Carter and Reagan. From 2002 to 2006, he served as the director of the Department of Ethics, Trade, Human Rights and Health Law at the World Health Organization, where he co-led its global work on establishing equitable access to antiretroviral treatment 171 PREPUBLICATION COPY—Uncorrected Proofs

172 NON-VACCINE INFLUENZA INTERVENTIONS for HIV and influenza pandemics. He is an elected member of the National Academy of Medicine and the American Law Institute and an elected fel- low of the American Association for the Advancement of Science and The Hastings Center. He has served as the president of the American Society for Law, Medicine, and Ethics and the International Association of Bioethics. Patricia J. García, M.D., Ph.D., M.P.H. (Vice Chair), is a professor at the School of Public Health at Cayetano Heredia University (UPCH) in Lima, Peru, and a member of the National Academy of Medicine (NAM). She was the minister of health of Peru, the dean of the School of Public Health at UPCH, and the chief of the Peruvian National Institute of Health. She is recognized as a leader in global health. She is an affiliate professor with the Department of Global Health at the University of Washington and the School of Public Health at Tulane University. She is actively involved in research and training in global health, reproductive health, sexually transmitted infection/HIV, human papillomavirus, and medical informatics and has expertise in public health interventions, infectious diseases, and implementation science. Dr. García is a member of the advisory board of the Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovations and the International Committee, coordinated by the NAM, that set the Statement of Task for this consensus study report. During the COVID-19 pandemic, she is leading clinical trials in Peru for SOLIDARITY, convalescent plasma, and ivermec- tin and has been chairing the advising governmental committee on innova- tions to fight the pandemic. She is active with the media providing public information about COVID-19 and other health information. Lukoye Atwoli, M.B.Ch.B., M.Med.Psych., Ph.D., is a professor of psy- chiatry and the dean of the Medical College, East Africa, at Aga Khan Uni- versity. He also holds visiting and honorary appointments at the Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health and the University of Cape Town. His current research interests center on psychiatric epidemiology, and he has carried out research on trauma and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), youth and adolescent mental health, and substance use. He has also been involved in policy development and advocacy across a wide range of mental health issues and was recently appointed to chair the board of the Math- ari National Mental Health Teaching and Referral Hospital, the premier psychiatric facility in the region. Dr. Atwoli obtained his medical train- ing at Moi University in 2001 and completed his residency in psychiatry in 2006 at the University of Nairobi, both in Kenya. He was awarded a Ph.D. in psychiatry and mental health from the University of Cape Town in South Africa in 2015 with a thesis exploring the epidemiology of trauma and PTSD in South Africa. He has participated in previous workshops organized by the National Academies: Strengthening Human Resources PREPUBLICATION COPY—Uncorrected Proofs

APPENDIX A 173 Through Development of Candidate Core Competencies for Mental, Neu- rological, and Substance Use Disorders in Sub-Saharan Africa (2013) and Providing Sustainable Mental and Neurological Health Care in Ghana and Kenya (2016). Peter Daszak, Ph.D., is the president and the chief executive officer of Eco- Health Alliance. His research uses epidemiology and mathematical model- ing coupled with field and laboratory analyses to understand infectious disease emergence, especially wildlife-origin viruses. He has worked more recently on severe acute respiratory syndrome, Nipah and Hendra, Ebola, and avian influenza viruses, while his earlier work was on wildlife diseases, including the discovery of a fungal pathogen, chytridiomycosis, causing global amphibian population declines and extinctions. His policy interests are in global health, infectious disease surveillance, emerging diseases, biodefense, public health, conservation medicine, One Health, EcoHealth, and Planetary Health. He has a keen interest in gain-of-function issues, pandemic prediction and prevention, and infectious disease threats to low- and middle-income countries. Adolfo García-Sastre, Ph.D., M.P.S., has a research laboratory that focuses on a wide variety of viral pathogens, host–pathogen interactions, and vaccine and antiviral drug development. A major focus is influenza virus research. The lab is using both hypothesis-driven and systems biology– based approaches to understand virus pathogenesis and develop improved antivirals and vaccines. These studies are also geared toward identifying novel regulators of innate and adaptive immune responses leading to new vaccines and therapies against infectious diseases and cancer. Specifically, it is working to understand the factors associated with severe influenza virus infection, the development of pan-influenza virus vaccines, the discovery of novel adjuvants, and the use of engineered viruses as vaccine vectors and anti-tumor agents. Denise Gray-Felder, M.A., is the founding president and the chief executive officer of the Communication for Social Change Consortium, a nonprofit organization working globally to equip people in marginalized communities, using participatory methods at the grassroots level to bring about the social change they define and need. She has held progressively more responsible communication positions during her more than 40-year career, including her current position since 2003, 4.5 years as the chief communication officer for Michigan Medicine, 9 years as a vice president of administration and the director of communication for The Rockefeller Foundation, 16 years in pro- gressively more responsible public relations management positions at AT&T, the associate director of public relations for the United Way of Detroit, the PREPUBLICATION COPY—Uncorrected Proofs

174 NON-VACCINE INFLUENZA INTERVENTIONS scriptwriter for Criminal Justice Institute-Detroit, the promotion coordi- nator for WKBD-TV Detroit, the editor and the publisher of community publications, a radio and television scriptwriter, and a reporter for Lansing State Journal (daily newspaper). Her research interests include community dialogue as a change agent; participatory communication, monitoring, and evaluation; storytelling to impact community values, attitudes, and beliefs; vaccine hesitancy/influencing anti-vax communities; HIV/AIDS communica- tion; community radio; communication for development; health communi- cation; and communication for social and community-level change. She has also worked with UNICEF in four northern Nigeria states on polio vac- cination, the World Health Organization on tuberculosis, the West African Health Organization on neglected tropical diseases in the Sahel, WaterAid to address clean water communication in four West African countries, the International AIDS Vaccine Initiative to create initial communication plans for aids vaccines, and the GIZ on African shared values (with the African Union), community radio, and sanitation. Ms. Gray-Felder has also spent years working with Public Health Schools Without Walls, girls’ education in Africa, and agricultural sciences in Africa and Asia, Green Revolution for Africa. She is a board member of the Millbank Foundation and a former appointee of the M.L. King Commission for the State of New Jersey. Her honors include the Spirit of Detroit Award and other recognitions for com- munity service. Gabriel Leung, M.D., M.P.H., is the 40th dean of medicine (2013–present) and the inaugural Helen and Francis Zimmern Professor in Population Health at The University of Hong Kong (HKU). He was the head of com- munity medicine (2012–2013) at HKU, Hong Kong’s first Undersecretary for Food and Health (2008–2011), and the fifth director of the chief execu- tive’s office (2011–2012) in government. Mr. Leung is one of Asia’s lead- ing epidemiologists and global health exponents. His research defined the epidemiology of three novel viral epidemics: severe acute respiratory syn- drome in 2003, influenza A (H7N9) in 2013, and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). He led Hong Kong’s government’s efforts against pandemic influenza A (H1N1) in 2009 and served as the advisor for both the Hong Kong and mainland Chinese governments on COVID-19. He was the founding co-director of HKU’s World Health Organization (WHO) Col- laborating Centre for Infectious Disease Epidemiology and Control (2014– 2018) and directs the Laboratory of Data Discovery for Health at the Hong Kong Science and Technology Park (2020–present). Mr. Leung regularly ad- vises national and international agencies, including WHO, the World Bank, the Asian Development Bank, the Boao Forum for Asia, Institut Pasteur, the Japan Center for International Exchange, and the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention. He is an adjunct professor at the Peking PREPUBLICATION COPY—Uncorrected Proofs

APPENDIX A 175 Union Medical College Hospital and an adjunct professorial researcher at the China National Health Development Research Center. He edited the Journal of Public Health (2007–2014), was the inaugural co-editor of Epidemics and the associate editor of Health Policy, and is the founding deputy editor in chief of China CDC Weekly. He currently serves on the editorial boards of seven journals, including the British Medical Journal. Chandini Raina MacIntyre, M.B.B.S., M.App.Epid., Ph.D., FRACP, FAFPHM, is a professor of global biosecurity, a National Health and Medical Research Council principal research fellow, and the head of the Biosecurity Program at the Kirby Institute, UNSW, Australia. She leads a research program in control and prevention of infectious diseases, spanning vaccinology, pandemics, bioterrorism and emerging infections, and personal protective equipment. She has led a large body of clinical trial, modeling, and experimental research on face masks and respirators for the prevention of infection. Her area of expertise is the vaccination of older adults and immunosuppressed people and the role of influenza and other infections on triggering cardiovascular events and how these can be prevented by vac- cines. She is interested in surveillance for epidemics and biothreats and de- veloped an automated, open-source, rapid epidemic observatory, Epiwatch, to detect early signals of serious epidemic or bioterrorism events. She has more than 400 peer-reviewed publications. She has received many awards, including the Sir Henry Wellcome Medal and Prize from the Association of Military Surgeons of the United States, the Public Health Association of Australia’s National Immunization Award (for her research on adult vac- cination), and the Frank Fenner Award for Research in Infectious Diseases. Linsey C. Marr, Ph.D., is the Charles P. Lunsford Professor of Civil and Environmental Engineering at Virginia Tech. Dr. Marr’s research interests include characterizing the emissions, fate, and transport of air pollutants to provide the scientific basis for improving air quality and health. She also conducts research on airborne transmission of infectious diseases. Dr. Marr was affiliated with the advisory board of Phylagen until January 2021 and currently consults for Smiths Detection, CrossFit, Inc., and the MITRE Corporation. She is a member of the National Academies’ Board on En- vironmental Science and Toxicology and recently served on the planning committee for Airborne Transmission of SARS-CoV-2: A Virtual Workshop from the Environmental Health Matters Initiative and on the Committee on Grand Challenges in Environmental Engineering for the 21st Century. In 2013, she received a New Innovator Award from the National Institutes of Health director. Dr. Marr received a B.S. in engineering science from Har- vard University and a Ph.D. in civil and environmental engineering from the University of California, Berkeley. PREPUBLICATION COPY—Uncorrected Proofs

176 NON-VACCINE INFLUENZA INTERVENTIONS Tolbert Nyenswah, LL.B., M.P.H., is a senior research associate with the Department of International Health at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. He is an internationally recognized legal scholar and a global public health expert. Prior to joining Johns Hopkins Univer- sity, he was the deputy minister of health of Liberia, the chief executive officer of the National Public Health Institute, and the assistant minister of health of the Republic of Liberia during the administration of President Ellen Johns Sirleaf, appointed by the president and confirmed by the senate three times. He specializes in high-income countries and low- and middle- income countries, health policies and systems, and public health emergen- cies preparedness and response, advising on incident management system functionalities. He has been engaged with several public health emergen- cies, including as the incident manager of the 2014–2016 Ebola epidemic in West Africa, Lassa Fever, Zika, meningitis, and the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Some of his major contributions to the COVID-19 re- sponse include developing a contact tracing course that has more than 15 million viewers, including 1.1 million enrolled and certified. He has been interviewed by multiple African, North American, Asian, European, and South American media outlets, including The Washington Post, The Hill, Business Insider, Bloomberg, USA Today, NPR Radio, BBC, VOA News, World Economic Forum, The Philadelphia Inquirer, VOA Africa, The New Yorker, STAT, and Politico. He has attended and presented as an expert panelist on a couple of National Academies seminars. He is also a member of the Global Health Index International panel of experts, which assesses the overall health security capacities of nations based on a multitude of health indicators. He has received numerous awards, notably the Bloom- berg Hopkins Emerging Leader, Outstanding Recent Graduate from the Johns Hopkins University Alumni Association, TIME Magazine Persons of the Year for Ebola Fighters in West Africa, the Medal of Excellence for Public Health Services, the Medal from the Surgeon General of the United States, and the highest Liberian civilian award for leading the Ebola crisis. He has authored and co-authored numerous scientific publications. Rosanna Peeling, Ph.D., is currently a professor and the chair of diagnos- tics research at the London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine and the director of the International Diagnostic Centre (IDC). Trained as a medical microbiologist, she was previously the research coordinator and the head of diagnostics research at the UNICEF/United Nations Develop- ment Programme/World Bank/World Health Organization (WHO) Special Program for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases (WHO/TDR) in Geneva and the chief of the National Laboratory for Sexually Transmitted Diseases in Canada. Her research focuses on defining unmet diagnostic needs and facilitating test development, evaluation, and implementation PREPUBLICATION COPY—Uncorrected Proofs

APPENDIX A 177 in developing countries. She established the IDC to advocate for the value of diagnostics, foster innovation, and accelerate access to quality-assured diagnostics to improve global health and combat antimicrobial resistance (AMR). She is a member of the Prize Advisory Panel for the UK Longitude Prize, the European Commission Horizon 2020 AMR Prize, and the Global AMR Innovation Fund. She contributed to WHO Testing Guidelines for HIV, hepatitis, dengue, and sexually transmitted infections and served as a member of the WHO/TDR Scientific and Technical Advisory Committee and the WHO Strategic Advisory Group of Experts on In Vitro Diagnos- tics. She is a member of the Global Validation Advisory Committee for the Elimination of Mother to Child Transmission of HIV and Syphilis, the Social Innovation in Health Initiative, and the WHO COVID-19 Advisory panel for developing target product profiles for diagnostics. She is a member of the Africa Centres for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Laboratory Working Group for the COVID-19 Pandemic Response and has worked with the Africa CDC to set up a Biobanking Network for the evaluation of diagnostic tests for diseases of epidemic potential. Marybeth Sexton, M.D., M.Sc., graduated summa cum laude from George- town University with a B.S. in biology in 2005 and summa cum laude from the Emory University School of Medicine with an M.D. in 2011. She completed an internal medicine residency at the New York Presbyterian- Columbia University Medical Center in 2014 and an infectious disease fellowship at Emory University in 2017 while also earning an M.S. in clinical research. She is now an assistant professor of infectious diseases at Emory, a health care epidemiologist for the Emory Clinic, and a member of the Serious Communicable Diseases Unit team at Emory Healthcare, with responsibilities for overseeing communicable disease response and preparedness, including for the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). When the outbreak began, she was responsible for coordinating initial re- sponse efforts and developing an infrastructure that informed the creation of a health care incident command structure. She then led efforts around infection prevention policy development, care delivery, and implementa- tion of programs for novel therapeutic agent use and vaccination. She has been responsible for policy development, implementation, and related patient and staff communication on personal protective equipment (PPE) selection, training, disinfection, and extended use protocols; universal masking and eye protection; patient and staff screening; patient visitation protocols; COVID-19 and influenza testing guidelines; contact tracing; return to work guidance for employees and patients; and efforts around recovery and safe maintenance of patient services. Her research during this time has focused on the safety and efficacy of infection control interven- tions, including evaluating PPE during a supply crisis and working with PREPUBLICATION COPY—Uncorrected Proofs

178 NON-VACCINE INFLUENZA INTERVENTIONS a multidisciplinary team to evaluate the impact of racial disparities on COVID-19 readmission. CONSULTANT TO THE COMMITTEE Marc Lipsitch, D.Phil., has been a global scientific leader in the epidemiol- ogy, modeling, policy, and other aspects of the COVID-19 pandemic, with more than two dozen publications and advisory roles to state, national, and global organizations. Before the pandemic, he authored more than 300 peer-reviewed publications on antimicrobial resistance, epidemiologic methods, mathematical modeling of infectious disease transmission, patho- gen population genomics, immunoepidemiology of Streptococcus pneu- moniae, vaccine trial design, and research ethics as they relate to infectious diseases. He was a co-founder of the Cambridge Working Group in 2014, whose efforts helped to initiate a pause in U.S. government funding for research involving the creation of potential pandemic pathogens, such as transmission-enhanced avian influenza strains. He is a fellow of the Ameri- can Academy of Microbiology and a member of the National Academy of Medicine. He is or was on the editorial advisory boards/associate editor of eLife, PLOS Medicine, Journal of Infectious Diseases, American Journal of Epidemiology, Epidemiology, and Epidemics. He received his B.A. in philosophy from Yale University in 1991 and his D.Phil. in zoology from Oxford University in 1995. He was a postdoc with Bruce Levin at Emory University and a visiting scientist at the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention before starting as a faculty member at the Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health in 1999. Since 2006, he has been a professor of epidemiology, and he is the director of the Center for Communicable Disease Dynamics, which he founded in 2009. STAFF Ellen Schenk, Ph.D., M.P.H., was this study’s director until July 2021 and a program officer with the Board on Global Health at the National Acad- emies. She recently completed her Ph.D. with the Health Systems Program of the Department of International Health at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, where she worked on a number of projects, includ- ing studying the security situation of hospitals in Afghanistan, and traveled to Liberia during the tail end of the Ebola epidemic to work on strengthen- ing the health system. Prior to her Ph.D., she was a fellow with the Office of Emergency Medical Services (EMS) at the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA), through which she interfaced with the National Academies’ Forum on Medical and Public Health Preparedness for Disasters and Emergencies and did national expert consensus-building work PREPUBLICATION COPY—Uncorrected Proofs

APPENDIX A 179 and technical writing with the National EMS Advisory Council. While at NHTSA, she also did a detail with the Health Resources and Services Ad- ministration. She holds an M.P.H. in global health from Emory University, where she worked with the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and traveled to Mozambique to implement a trauma registry at Hospital Central de Maputo. Emilie Ryan-Castillo is a senior program assistant with the Board on Global Health, working on the influenza consensus studies. She has a B.S. in public health from American University. In the past, she was a program assistant at FHI 360 and worked on diabetes prevention and childhood obesity research projects. In this role, she helped execute several large meetings, bringing together the top researchers from the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the National Institutes of Health, the U.S. Department of Ag- riculture, and the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation for the National Col- laborative on Childhood Obesity Research. Recently, she served as a Rural Community Health Volunteer in Peace Corps Benin, where she worked on improving maternal health, vaccination rates, and community outreach at a local clinic in the Borgou Department. Claire Moerder was a research associate until June 2021 working on the new influenza consensus studies while wrapping up final activities for the Forum on Global Violence Prevention and the Forum on Public–Private Partnerships for Global Health and Safety. In 2015, she graduated from Virginia Tech with a B.S. in nutrition and exercise science, and she has worked in a variety of interesting jobs since then, starting with a special education teaching fellowship and ending with a gig in the sustainable jewelry industry. Adrienne Formentos was a research associate until July 2021 for the Board on Health Care Services at the National Academies. Prior to her work on this study, she was the research associate on The Future of Nursing 2020–2030 study and a research assistant with Knowledge Ecology Inter- national, focusing on advocacy for access to medication. She served as a volunteer with the American Red Cross on the disaster action team and case management and as the team administrator in San Francisco County. Early in her career, she was an AmeriCorps volunteer in Los Angeles, working at St. Vincent Medical Center as a patient advocate and community services coordinator, organizing health fairs and outreach to uninsured and under- insured populations. She has a dual B.A. in political science and English from Dominican University of California and an M.S. in global health from Georgetown University, where she co-led and authored a qualitative study on adolescents with mental and neurological disorders in Kintampo, Ghana. PREPUBLICATION COPY—Uncorrected Proofs

180 NON-VACCINE INFLUENZA INTERVENTIONS Patricia A. Cuff, M.S., M.P.H., is a senior program officer for the Board on Global Health within the division of Health and Medicine, where she di- rects the Global Forum on Innovation in Health Professional Education—a position she has held since 2012. She is also leading the U.S. Food and Drug Administration–funded study looking at mutual recognition agreements in the regulation of medicines, and a special COVID-19-related project with select academies in Africa. She worked for 11 years on the African Science Academy Development Initiative, where she was the country liaison to the Uganda National Academy of Sciences. She has directed and co-directed multiple studies at the National Academies, including Clinical Trials Dur- ing the 2014–2015 Ebola Outbreak, Options for Overseas Placement of U.S. Health Professionals, and Enhancing the Behavioral and Social Science Content of Medical School Curricula. She joined the National Academies staff to work on the report Emerging Microbial Threats to Health in the 21st Century. Before coming to Washington, DC, she worked at St. Luke’s- Roosevelt Hospital Center in New York City in the field of HIV nutrition as a counselor, researcher, and lecturer on topics of adult and pediatric HIV. She received an M.S. in nutrition and an M.P.H. in population and family health from Columbia University and performed her undergraduate studies at the University of Connecticut. Julie A. Pavlin, M.D., Ph.D., M.P.H., is the senior director of the Board on Global Health and board certified in preventive medicine and public health. She is a retired colonel in the U.S. Army; her previous assignments included the Armed Forces Research Institute of Medical Sciences in Bangkok, Thai- land; the Walter Reed Army Institute of Research; and the U.S. Army Medi- cal Research Institute for Infectious Diseases. After she retired from active duty, she served as the deputy director of the Armed Forces Health Surveil- lance Center. She concentrated most of her time with the U.S. Department of Defense in the design of real-time disease surveillance systems and was a co-founder of the International Society for Disease Surveillance. CONSULTANTS Anna Nicholson, Ph.D., M.A., M.Phil., is the founder and the lead writer of Doxastic, a science writing firm based in Chapel Hill, North Carolina. She created Doxastic after completing graduate degrees in linguistics, phi- losophy, and cognitive science at Indiana University Bloomington, Trinity College, Dublin, and University College, Dublin. Doxastic supports clients seeking to disseminate the latest advances in research, translate knowledge into improved practice and better outcomes, and shape health policy to- ward broader and more equitable access to care. PREPUBLICATION COPY—Uncorrected Proofs

APPENDIX A 181 Megan Snair, M.P.H., is a partner and a consultant for SGNL Solutions and has more than 10 years of experience as a science writer, program director, analyst, and public health subject-matter expert. She led multiple landmark activities and oversaw multiple scientific publications as a senior program officer and study director at the National Academies. Covering topics of national policy, infectious disease outbreaks, health system resilience, and social determinants of health, she convened more than 30 initiatives in- volving experts from the United States and internationally. She is adept at working with people from various backgrounds and industries and enjoys making connections in meetings that are often difficult to realize. Prior to joining the National Academies, she worked as an emergency planner for local health departments in Massachusetts and an analyst for health services of Boston Public Schools. Ms. Snair holds an M.P.H. from Boston University concentrating in epidemiology and a B.S. in biophysics from St. Lawrence University. Peak Sen Chua is an independent consultant supporting the National Acad- emies’ activities through designing program strategy, establishing projects and initiatives, authoring detailed meeting proceedings, and advising on the drafting of various reports, publications, and case studies. Previously, he was a research associate for the National Academies, where he supported the Global Roadmap for Healthy Longevity Initiative and the Leadership Consortium for Value & Science-Driven Health System. He graduated with a B.S. in public health with a double major in political science from The George Washington University, where he also serves on the Alumni Associa- tion Executive Committee. Sarah Anne New is an experienced science writer and educator with specific interest in global health and emergency preparedness. She is a childbirth doula and an independent consultant for SGNL Solutions. She has expe- rience working with federal organizations, such as the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the U.S. Department of Homeland Security, on emergency preparedness and global laboratory capacity build- ing. Before assuming her current positions, she was an English teacher in the Canary Islands and a senior program assistant for the Board on Global Health at the National Academies. During her time at the National Acad- emies, she worked on two significant reports: Crossing the Global Quality Chasm: Improving Health Care Worldwide (2018) and Stronger Food and Drug Regulatory Systems Abroad (2020). Ms. New has further experience conducting research abroad and studying foreign health care systems in In- dia, Laos, and Thailand as a Public Health Scholar at American University, where she obtained her degree in public health. PREPUBLICATION COPY—Uncorrected Proofs

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The COVID-19 pandemic has challenged the world's preparedness for a respiratory virus event. While the world has been combating COVID-19, seasonal and pandemic influenza remain imminent global health threats. Non-vaccine public health control measures can combat emerging and ongoing influenza outbreaks by mitigating viral spread.

Public Health Lessons for Non-Vaccine Influenza Interventions examines provides conclusions and recommendations from an expert committee on how to leverage the knowledge gained from the COVID-19 pandemic to optimize the use of public health interventions other than vaccines to decrease the toll of future seasonal and potentially pandemic influenza. It considers the effectiveness of public health efforts such as use of masks and indoor spacing, use of treatments such as monoclonal antibodies, and public health communication campaigns.

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