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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Committee and Staff Biographies." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine and National Academy of Medicine. 2022. Countering the Pandemic Threat Through Global Coordination on Vaccines: The Influenza Imperative. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26284.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Committee and Staff Biographies." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine and National Academy of Medicine. 2022. Countering the Pandemic Threat Through Global Coordination on Vaccines: The Influenza Imperative. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26284.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Committee and Staff Biographies." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine and National Academy of Medicine. 2022. Countering the Pandemic Threat Through Global Coordination on Vaccines: The Influenza Imperative. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26284.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Committee and Staff Biographies." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine and National Academy of Medicine. 2022. Countering the Pandemic Threat Through Global Coordination on Vaccines: The Influenza Imperative. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26284.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Committee and Staff Biographies." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine and National Academy of Medicine. 2022. Countering the Pandemic Threat Through Global Coordination on Vaccines: The Influenza Imperative. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26284.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Committee and Staff Biographies." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine and National Academy of Medicine. 2022. Countering the Pandemic Threat Through Global Coordination on Vaccines: The Influenza Imperative. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26284.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Committee and Staff Biographies." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine and National Academy of Medicine. 2022. Countering the Pandemic Threat Through Global Coordination on Vaccines: The Influenza Imperative. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26284.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Committee and Staff Biographies." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine and National Academy of Medicine. 2022. Countering the Pandemic Threat Through Global Coordination on Vaccines: The Influenza Imperative. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26284.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Committee and Staff Biographies." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine and National Academy of Medicine. 2022. Countering the Pandemic Threat Through Global Coordination on Vaccines: The Influenza Imperative. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26284.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Committee and Staff Biographies." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine and National Academy of Medicine. 2022. Countering the Pandemic Threat Through Global Coordination on Vaccines: The Influenza Imperative. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26284.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Committee and Staff Biographies." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine and National Academy of Medicine. 2022. Countering the Pandemic Threat Through Global Coordination on Vaccines: The Influenza Imperative. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26284.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Committee and Staff Biographies." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine and National Academy of Medicine. 2022. Countering the Pandemic Threat Through Global Coordination on Vaccines: The Influenza Imperative. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26284.
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Appendix A Committee and Staff Biographies Peter Sands, M.P.A. (Chair), has been the executive director of The Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria since March 2018. Since June 2015, he has been a research fellow at Harvard University, dividing his time between the Mossavar-Rahmani Center for Business and Government at the Harvard Kennedy School and the Harvard Global Health Institute. Mr. Sands was the group chief executive officer of Standard Chartered PLC from No- vember 2006 to June 2015, having joined the board of Standard Chartered as group chief financial officer in May 2002. Earlier, he was a senior partner at McKinsey & Company. Mr. Sands graduated from Oxford University with a first-class degree in politics, philosophy, and economics. He also received an M.P.A. from Harvard University, where he was a Harkness Fellow. Mr. Sands has served on various boards and commissions, including the UK Department of Health, the World Economic Forum, and the International Advisory Board of the Monetary Authority of Singapore. In 2016–2017, he chaired the International Working Group on Financing Pandemic Prepared- ness at the World Bank. In 2015–2016, he was the chair of the U.S. National Academy of Medicine’s Commission on a Global Health Risk Framework for the Future, which published the influential report The Neglected Dimension of Global Security: A Framework to Counter Infectious Disease Threats in January 2016. Mr. Sands is also a member of the National Academies’ Forum on Microbial Threats and served on the Committee on Ensuring Patient Ac- cess to Affordable Drugs Therapies. Devi Sridhar, D.Phil., M.Phil. (Vice Chair), is a professor at the University of Edinburgh Medical School and holds a personal chair in global public 191

192 THE INFLUENZA IMPERATIVE health. She is the founding director of the Global Health Governance Pro- gramme and won a Wellcome Trust Investigator Award. She was the associ- ate professor in global health politics and a fellow at Wolfson College and a postdoctoral research fellow at All Souls College, both at Oxford University. She was also a visiting associate professor at Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich and a guest lecturer at the Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health and Public Health Foundation of India. Her books include Govern- ing Global Health: Who Runs the World and Why? (Oxford University Press, 2017) and The Battle Against Hunger: Choice, Circumstance and the World Bank (Oxford University Press, 2007), and she has published in Nature, Science, New England Journal of Medicine, Lancet, and British Medical Journal. She served on the board of Save the Children UK and the World Economic Forum Council on the Health Industry and co-chaired the Harvard/London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine Independent Panel on the Global Response to Ebola. She holds a D.Phil. and an M.Phil. from Oxford University as a Rhodes Scholar and a B.S. from the University of Miami in the Honors Medical Program. Her work is concentrated in three areas: international health organizations, financing of global public health, and development of better tools for priority-setting. Salah T. Al Awaidy, M.D., is a communicable diseases advisor in Health Affairs, Ministry of Health (MoH), Muscat, Oman. He is a medical doc- tor with an M.A. in epidemiology. He is the advisor on communicable disease surveillance, elimination and eradication of communicable diseases of public health importance, Expanded Program on Immunization, vaccine supply chain system, and the International Health Regulations (IHR) at the MoH, Oman. He was the director of communicable disease surveillance and control at the MoH, Oman (1997–2011), IHR national focal point (2002–2013), and a member of several of the professional committees: Stra- tegic Advisory Group on Immunization, WHO, Geneva (2005–2007); Stra- tegic Advisor Group on Vaccine and Store Management Training Courses (2005–2008), WHO; Strategic TB Advisory Board (2007–2011) and AIDS Regional Advisory Group, WHO Eastern Mediterranean Regional Office since 2005; and a member of the Gavi Independent Review Committee since 2014. He also serves on the IHR Emergency Committee on Polio and MERS-CoV. He was a member and the secretary of the National Immunization Technical Advisory Group of the MoH, Oman from 1997 to August 2011. Dr. Al Awaidy has been involved in research related to vaccine-preventable diseases, communicable diseases surveillance, and other communicable diseases, locally, regionally, and globally. He has played a pivotal role in national preparedness and management of SARS, pH1N1, and avian influenza; eradication of polio; elimination of measles, rubella, maternal and neonatal tetanus; leprosy; and control of tuberculosis, schis-

APPENDIX A 193 tosomiasis, and other vaccine-preventable diseases. Under his leadership, Oman established a certified Central Vaccine Store and was also certified as dracunculiasis and polio free. William Ampofo, Ph.D., is an associate professor and the head of the virology department, Noguchi Memorial Institute for Medical Research, College of Health Sciences, University of Ghana. Dr. Ampofo runs the National Influenza Center, National HIV Drug Resistance Genotyping laboratory, and serves as the laboratory focal point for the National Emergency Operations Center of the Ministry of Health. He is a member of various national bodies, including the IHR Steering Committee, HIV Technical Working Group, and Food and Drugs Authority Technical Advisory Committee on Vaccines and Biologicals. He has conducted temporary assignments throughout Africa on behalf of the World Health Organization (WHO), the Commonwealth Secretariat Health Division, the U.S. Department of Defense, the German International Development Agency, and the U.S. Agency for International Development. Since 2011, he has also served on WHO advisory groups for influenza, including global vaccine production, immunization, and pandemic preparedness. He was an advisor for the WHO IHR Emergency Committee on Ebola. Dr. Ampofo is the chair of the African Vaccine Manufacturing Initiative, the senior editor for the African Journal for Laboratory Medicine, and the ambassador for Ghana, African Society for Laboratory Medicine. Phyllis Arthur, M.B.A., is responsible for working with member companies in vaccines, molecular diagnostics, and biodefense on policy, legislative, and regulatory issues in her role at the Biotechnology Innovation Associa- tion (BIO). Ms. Arthur joined BIO in July 2009 as the director of health care regulatory affairs. Earlier, she worked in numerous marketing and sales positions in Merck, Inc.’s vaccine division. Over her 16-year career in vaccines, Ms. Arthur launched several exciting new vaccines in the United States and internationally, including the first human papillomavirus vaccine, Gardasil. During her years in marketing, she worked closely with clinical and academic thought leaders in infectious diseases, oncology, and public health. In addition, Ms. Arthur also led a large vaccine sales organization of more than 75 representatives and managers covering 14 states. Before graduate school, Ms. Arthur was a research assistant for two economists at the Brookings Institution in Washington, DC, where she conducted analyses related to savings and investment policies for the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development countries. Ms. Arthur received her B.A. in 1987 in economics and international politics from Goucher College and her M.B.A. in 1991 from the Wharton School of Business at the University of Pennsylvania.

194 THE INFLUENZA IMPERATIVE Christopher T. Bauch, Ph.D., is in the Department of Applied Mathematics, University of Waterloo, Canada. He specializes in the mathematical mod- eling of infectious diseases, the impact of interventions such as vaccines, and the applications of game theory to studying vaccine decision making. He earned his Ph.D. in mathematics from the University of Warwick in 2000. He has worked with partners such as the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, the World Health Organization, and the U.S. Food and Drug Administration on problems in vaccination policy. He has published more than 100 peer-reviewed journal articles, reviews, and opinion pieces on this research topic, in journals including Science, Lancet Infectious Diseases, and Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. Gian Luca Burci, J.S.D., is an adjunct professor of international law at the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva, since 2012. Since 2016, Dr. Burci has been a visiting professor and a se- nior scholar at the O’Neill Center on National and Global Health Law at the Georgetown University School of Law. Before the Graduate Institute, Dr. Burci served in the World Health Organization (WHO) Legal Office from 1998 to 2016 and was its legal counsel from 2005 to 2016. Dr. Burci worked in the Department of International Cooperation of the Interna- tional Atomic Energy Agency (1998–1999) and the United Nations (UN) Office of the Legal Counsel, where he was designated focal point for UN economic sanctions (1989–1998). During his service at WHO, he was in- volved in revising and implementing the International Health Regulations, WHO’s response to the 2009–2010 H1N1 influenza pandemic and the 2014–2016 Ebola outbreak, and institutional aspects of WHO reform. Dr. Burci holds a postgraduate degree in law from the University of Genova, Italy. His areas of expertise are public international law, the law and practice of international organizations, and global health governance and law. His courses at the Graduate Institute include the law and practice of international organizations, international legal advising and advocacy, and global health law. Dr. Burci is the co-author of the leading English book on WHO, the editor of the first research collection on global health law, the co-editor of the first research handbook on global health law, and the author of numerous articles and book chapters. Keiji Fukuda, M.D., M.P.H., is the director and a clinical professor at The University of Hong Kong School of Public Health. He worked at the World Health Organization (WHO) in Geneva as the assistant director- general for health security, the special advisor to the director-general for pandemic influenza and antimicrobial resistance, and the director of the Global Influenza Program. Before that, he worked at the U.S. Centers for

APPENDIX A 195 Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) as the epidemiology chief of the Influenza Branch. He has been a global public health leader in many areas. At CDC, he led the first field teams that investigated the emergence of H5N1 in Hong Kong in 1997 and worked in China on the emergence and control of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in 2003 and later on the global re-emergence of H5N1. In the United States, he oversaw national influenza disease surveillance and worked on influenza vaccination guidelines and pandemic preparedness. At WHO, he supervised the Global Influenza Surveillance Network and the response to the 2009 H1N1 pandemic. He led several field missions related to the emergence and control of Middle East respiratory syndrome in Saudi Arabia and Korea, Ebola in West Africa in 2014, and H5N1 in Egypt. He was responsible for WHO’s global influenza surveillance, biannual global influenza vaccine recommendations, influenza pandemic preparedness work, and oversight of the International Health Regulations and participated in global negotiations on the Pandemic Influenza Preparedness Framework, the Global Health Security Agenda, and antimicrobial resistance. He was a member of the Forum on Microbial Threats of the National Academies and currently advises the Hong Kong government on its COVID-19 response and vaccines and antimicrobial resistance. He received his B.A. from Oberlin College (1978), M.D. from the University of Vermont (1984), M.P.H. from the University of California, Berkeley (1989), and Epidemic Intelligence Service training at CDC. Bruce G. Gellin, M.D., M.P.H., is the former president of Global Immuniza- tion at the Sabin Vaccine Institute in Washington, DC, where he oversaw Sabin’s mission to make vaccines more accessible, enable innovation, and expand immunization across the globe. In June 2021, he transitioned to The Rockefeller Foundation, where he is currently the chief of global pub- lic health strategy. Dr. Gellin served at the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) as the deputy assistant secretary for health and the director of the National Vaccine Program Office. Dr. Gellin has had broad experience in public health aspects of infectious diseases. He has held posi- tions at the U.S. National Institutes of Health, U.S. the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), The Rockefeller Foundation, the Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, and the Johns Hopkins Bloom- berg School of Public Health. He was the founder and the executive direc- tor of the National Network for Immunization Information, intended to be a resource of up-to-date, authoritative information about vaccines and immunizations. Dr. Gellin earned a B.A. (Highest Honors) from the Univer- sity of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, where he graduated Phi Beta Kappa and was a Morehead Scholar; M.D. from the Cornell University Medical College; and M.P.H. (epidemiology) from the Columbia University School

196 THE INFLUENZA IMPERATIVE of Public Health. He was a Luce Scholar in the Philippines and a Warren Weaver Fellow at The Rockefeller Foundation focused on global health. He completed his internship and residency in internal medicine at Vanderbilt University and later was a preventive medicine resident at Cornell and CDC’s Arctic Investigations Program in Anchorage, Alaska, and completed a fellowship in infectious diseases at Cornell/New York Hospital. He is an adjunct professor at the Georgetown University School of Medicine with appointments in the Division of Infectious Diseases and the Center for Global Health and Security and has been a regular consultant to the World Health Organization. Among other achievements, he received the American Medical Association Nathan Davis Award, the Infectious Diseases Society of America citation for a lifetime of outstanding achievement, and HHS Secretary Award for Distinguished Service. Dr. Gellin achieved board cer- tification in internal medicine and infectious diseases, is an active member of numerous professional organizations, serves as a peer reviewer for more than a dozen medical journals, and was a medical advisor to Encyclopedia Britannica. Amanda L. Glassman, M.Sc., is the executive vice president and the senior fellow at the Center for Global Development (CGD) and also the chief executive officer of CGD Europe. Her research focuses on priority-setting, resource allocation, and value for money in global health, as well as data for development. She served as the director for global health policy at CGD from 2010 to 2016 and has more than 25 years of experience working on health and social protection policy and programs in Latin America and else- where in the developing world. Prior to joining CGD, Ms. Glassman was the principal technical lead for health at the Inter-American Development Bank, where she led policy dialogue with member countries, designed the results-based grant program Salud Mesoamerica 2015, and was the team leader for conditional cash transfer programs, such as Mexico’s Oportuni- dades and Colombia’s Familias en Accion. From 2005 to 2007, Ms. Glass- man was the deputy director of the Global Health Financing Initiative at the Brookings Institution and carried out policy research on aid effectiveness and domestic financing issues in the health sector in low-income countries. Before that, she designed, supervised, and evaluated health and social protection loans at the Inter-American Development Bank and worked as a Population Reference Bureau fellow at the U.S. Agency for International Development. Ms. Glassman holds an M.Sc. from the Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health and a B.A. from Brown University, has published on a wide range of health and social protection finance and policy top- ics, and is the editor and co-author of the books What’s In, What’s Out: Designing Benefits for Universal Health Coverage (Center for Global De- velopment, 2017), Millions Saved: New Cases of Proven Success in Global Health (Center for Global Development, 2016), From Few to Many: A

APPENDIX A 197 Decade of Health Insurance Expansion in Colombia (IDB and Brookings, 2010), and The Health of Women in Latin America and the Caribbean (World Bank, 2001). Richard J. Hatchett, M.D., is the chief executive officer of the Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovations (CEPI), a partnership of public, private, philanthropic, and civil organizations that supports vaccine development against high-priority public health threats and technology platforms to allow the rapid vaccine development against emerging infectious diseases, such as COVID-19. Dr. Hatchett was the acting director of the Biomedical Advanced Research and Development Authority and the director of medi- cal preparedness policy on the Homeland and National Security Councils under Presidents Bush and Obama, respectively. He received his M.D. from Vanderbilt University and completed clinical training in internal medicine and medical oncology at Cornell University and Duke University. John Nkengasong, Ph.D., M.Sc., is the director of the Africa Centres for Disease Control and Prevention. Earlier, he served as the acting deputy principal director (acting) of the Center for Global Health, U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), and chief of the International Laboratory Branch, Division of Global HIV and TB, U.S. CDC. He received an M.A. in tropical biomedical science at the Institute of Tropical Medicine in Antwerp, Belgium, and a Ph.D. in medical sciences (virology) from the University of Brussels, Belgium. He has received numerous awards for his work, including the Sheppard Award and William Watson Medal of Excellence, the highest recognition awarded by U.S. CDC. He is also recipient of the Knight of Honor Medal by the Government of Cote d’Ivoire, was knighted in 2017 as the Officer of Loin by the President of Senegal, H.E. Macky Sall, and knighted in November 2018 by the government of Cameroon for his significant contributions to public health. He is an adjunct professor at the Emory University School of Public Health. He serves on several international advisory boards, including the Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Initiative and International AIDS Vaccine Initiative. He has authored more than 250 peer-reviewed articles in international journals and published several book chapters. Charles “OK” Pannenborg, Ph.D., served as the World Bank’s chief health scientist/director until his retirement 10 years ago, after which he was a director at Pan American Health Organization/World Health Organization (WHO), chairman of the Netherlands Commission on Global Health Re- search, and served on many boards in the field of global health (R&D, hu- man resources for health, tropical diseases, biotech, etc.); he is also on the Lancet COVID-19 Commission Task Force for Global Governance. Prior to joining the World Bank in 1985, he worked for nongovernmental orga-

198 THE INFLUENZA IMPERATIVE nizations, United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, and WHO in several Asian and African countries, then joined the Netherlands Ministry of Health, where he directed strategic health policy, before moving to Wash- ington, DC. During the late 1990s and 2000s, he chaired the World Bank/ International Monetary Fund Pandemic Committee. He served on many technical committees of the Netherlands Medical Research Council, more recently on the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medi- cine’s Committee on the Evaluation of Strengthening Human Resources for Health Capacity in the Republic of Rwanda under the President’s Emer- gency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR), and he continues to advise interna- tional agencies and governments in fields of global health, such as infectious diseases, research innovation, health workforce systems, pharmaceuticals/ vaccines and medical technology, and health financing and economics. Of Dr. Pannenborg’s many publications, his A New International Health Order (1978) was among the earliest global health publications at the time. Alexandra L. Phelan, J.S.D., LL.M., LL.B., is an assistant professor at the Center for Global Health Science and Security in the Microbiology and Im- munology Department at the Georgetown University School of Medicine. She also holds an appointment as an adjunct professor of law at the Georgetown University Law Center and the Walsh School of Foreign Service. Dr. Phelan works on global public health law and governance, with a focus on emerging and reemerging infectious diseases and international law. She has worked as a consultant for the World Health Organization, the World Bank, and Gavi and advised on matters including influenza and non-influenza pathogen and genetic sequence data sharing, equitable vaccine distribution, human rights, and contract law. She is admitted to practice to the High Court of Australia and the Supreme Court of Victoria and worked as a solicitor at a large firm in Melbourne, Australia. Dr. Phelan holds an S.J.D. (2019) from the Georgetown University Law Center, where she was a General Sir John Monash Scholar. She also holds an M.S. in laws (2013), specializing in international law, from the Australian National University, a B.S. in biomedical science/laws (honors; 2009), and a diploma of languages (Mandarin Chinese; 2007) from Monash University. She is a member of the National Academies’ Standing Committee on Emerging Infectious Diseases and Twenty-First Century Health Threats. Christopher Snyder, Ph.D., has been the Joel and Susan Hyatt Professor in the Department of Economics at Dartmouth College for the past 15 years. He graduated from Fordham University with a B.A. in mathematics and economics in 1989 and received his Ph.D. in economics from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 1994. Dr. Snyder is a National Bureau of Economic Research research associate in the law and economics program. He is an editor for the Journal of Law and Economics, an

APPENDIX A 199 associate editor for the Review of Industrial Organization, and the treasurer of the Industrial Organization Society. He specializes in the fields of industrial organization, law and economics, and microeconomic theory. He continues a general research interest in vertical contractual relations between firms with a recent focus on applications in health care markets. He is the co-author, with Walter Nicholson, of two widely used textbooks in intermediate microeconomics. Dr. Snyder served on expert committees that helped design the pilot advance market commitment for pneumococcus vaccine and the Global Fund’s program to stockpile drugs against multidrug-resistant tuberculosis. Most recently, he advised various international and U.S. agencies on the design of the funding facilities to accelerate the development of a COVID-19 vaccine and coordinate its distribution. Charlotte (Charlie) Weller, Ph.D., is the head of prevention at Wellcome with a focus on developing new and improved vaccines and strengthening the connection between research and decision making to ensure better use of vaccines. Her work spans multiple disease areas, including epidemics, antimicrobial resistance, and endemic diseases. Her team also manages the epidemics research work at Wellcome, which includes the Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovations (CEPI). Wellcome is a founding member of CEPI and a continued funder. Dr. Weller has chaired the Investors Council since April 2020. She joined Wellcome in 2014 as a senior portfolio developer, where she oversaw the immunology portfolio, led the funding response to the Ebola epidemic of 201–2015, and contributed to strategy development in preparedness for future epidemics, prior to taking the lead on vaccines and epidemics. She has more than 16 years of research experience in both academic and pharmaceutical environments, ranging from host pathogen interactions to cellular and molecular immunology. Before joining Wellcome, she was a laboratory head at the Novartis Institute for Biomedical Research engaged in target identification and validation within the respiratory disease area, focusing on innate immune responses in respiratory exacerbations and leading multiple biologics programs. Earlier, Dr. Weller investigated mast cell localization and function in health, respiratory disease, and parasite infections as a postdoctoral fellow at Imperial College London. She holds a B.Sc. in genetics at Birmingham University and a Ph.D. in immunology at Imperial College London. STAFF Janelle Winters, Ph.D., M.A., M.S., was a program officer at the Board on Global Health and directed this study from its launch through entering external review. Dr. Winters is serving as a visiting assistant professor

200 THE INFLUENZA IMPERATIVE in global health studies at the University of Iowa and will take up a postdoctoral research associate post at the University of Oxford in early 2022, focused on the modern history of COVID-19 hydroxychloroquine prophylaxis trials. She holds a Ph.D. in population health sciences from the University of Edinburgh, where she was based in the Global Health Governance Group. In Edinburgh, she undertook research for the Economic Gaze project, which studied the World Bank’s impact on global health. Dr. Winters has a special interest in global health partnerships and emerging infectious disease epidemiology—and the history of both. She earned an M.A. in the history of medicine from Newcastle University, an M.S. in the epidemiology of microbial diseases from Yale University, and a B.S. in zoology and the history of science from the University of Wisconsin– Madison. Before her time at the National Academies, Dr. Winters managed U.S. Department of State global health security programs at the Henry M. Jackson Foundation and the American Society for Microbiology, which took her to the Middle East/North Africa, South Asia, and sub-Saharan Africa. Claire Moerder was a research associate working on the influenza consensus studies, with a focus on public health countermeasures and global coordination, partnerships, and financing. In 2015, she graduated from Virginia Tech with a B.S. in nutrition and exercise science, and has experience with special education teaching and in the sustainable jewelry industry. Since joining the National Academies, she has been working on a variety of global health topics such as violence prevention, public–private partnerships, conflict and security issues, and urban health. Emilie Ryan-Castillo is a senior program assistant working on the new influenza consensus studies. She has a B.S. in public health from American University. She was a program assistant at FHI 360 and worked on diabetes prevention and childhood obesity research projects, helping execute several large meetings bringing together the top researchers from the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the U.S. National Institutes of Health, the U.S. Department of Agriculture, and the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation for the National Collaborative on Childhood Obesity Research. Recently, she was a rural community health volunteer in the Peace Corps in Benin, where she worked on improving maternal health, vaccination rates, and community outreach at a local clinic in the Borgou Department. Patricia A. Cuff, M.S., M.P.H., is a senior program officer and directs the Global Forum on Innovation in Health Professional Education since 2012. Ms. Cuff is also working on a special COVID-related project with select academies in Africa. Ms. Cuff worked for 11 years on the African Science Academy Development Initiative, where she was the country liaison to the

APPENDIX A 201 Uganda National Academy of Sciences. She has directed and co-directed multiple studies at the National Academies, including Clinical Trials During the 2014–2015 Ebola Outbreak, Options for Overseas Placement of U.S. Health Professionals, and Enhancing the Behavioral and Social Science Content of Medical School Curricula. She joined the National Academies staff to work on the report Emerging Microbial Threats to Health in the Twenty-First Century. Earlier, Ms. Cuff worked at St. Luke’s-Roosevelt Hospital Center in New York City in the field of HIV nutrition as a counselor, researcher, and lecturer on topics of adult and pediatric HIV. She received an M.S. in nutrition and an M.P.H. in population and family health from Columbia University and performed her undergraduate studies at the University of Connecticut. Julie A. Pavlin, M.D., Ph.D., M.P.H., is the senior director of the Board on Global Health and board certified in preventive medicine and public health. She is a retired colonel in the U.S. Army with assignments including the Armed Forces Research Institute of Medical Sciences in Bangkok, Thailand, the Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, and the U.S. Army Medical Research Institute for Infectious Diseases. After she retired from active duty, she served as the deputy director of the Armed Forces Health Surveillance Center. She concentrated most of her time with the U.S. Department of Defense in the design of real-time disease surveillance systems and was a co-founder of the International Society for Disease Surveillance. Frances Sharples served as the director of the National Academies’ Board on Life Sciences until March 1, 2020, where she supervised a group of staff who developed reports, workshops, and other products dealing with the life sciences and their policy implications. Dr. Sharples joined the National Academies in October 2000. Immediately prior to that, she spent 4 years as a senior policy analyst in the Environment Division of the Office of Science and Technology Policy, Executive Office of the President. Earlier, she served in various roles in the Environmental Sciences Division of the National Laboratory in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Dr. Sharples did her undergraduate education at Barnard College and received an M.A. and a Ph.D. from the Department of Zoology at the University of California, Davis. Dr. Sharples continues to work at the National Academies in a part-time, semi-retired mode. Roger Yat-Nork Chung, Ph.D., M.H.S., is the inaugural National Academy of Medicine International Health Policy Fellow (2019–2021), studying the issues of health equity and social determinants of healthy longevity. He is also an appointed vice chair of the Public Health Global Challenge Steering Group of the Worldwide Universities Network, spearheading the direction of research and collaboration in public health for 23 universities. A social

epidemiologist by training, Dr. Chung conceptualizes the population health and health care issues using the lens of health equity and social justice in the areas of social determinants of health, poverty and deprivation, migrants’ health, patients with serious illness (including rare diseases and terminal illness), and aging-related issues of multimorbidity and long-term/end-of- life care. He has been involved in government-commissioned projects on elderly and end-of-life care, financing mechanisms for medical assistance programs, and health care resource allocation exercises. Dr. Chung obtained a B.A. in Public Health from Johns Hopkins University, an M.H.S. from the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, and a Ph.D. from the School of Public Health of The University of Hong Kong. He is an assistant professor of the School of Public Health and Primary Care of the Chinese University of Hong Kong. He is also the associate director of the Institute of Health Equity and the Centre for Bioethics, a founding member of the Centre for Health Systems and Policy Research and the Research Centre for Migration and Mobility, an executive member of the Centre for Quality of Life, and an assistant professor (by courtesy) at the Institute of Ageing.

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The COVID-19 pandemic has laid bare the fragility of the global system of preparedness and response to pandemics and the fragmentation of our research and development ecosystem. The pandemic has provided a disruptive moment to advance new norms and frameworks for influenza. It also has demonstrated how innovative global public-private partnerships and coordination mechanisms can lead to rapid successes in viral vaccine research, manufacturing, and risk pooling.

Countering the Pandemic Threat Through Global Coordination on Vaccines identifies ways to strengthen pandemic and seasonal influenza global coordination, partnerships, and financing. This report presents seven overarching recommendations for how the urgent influenza threat should be conceptualized and prioritized within the global pandemic preparedness and response agenda in the future.

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