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A I R P O R T C O O P E R A T I V E R E S E A R C H P R O G R A M ACRP RESEARCH REPORT 234 2021 Research sponsored by the Federal Aviation Administration Subscriber Categories Aviation â¢ Design â¢ Pavements Rapid Slab Repair and Replacement of Airfield Concrete Pavement Jeff Stempihar Jose Medina Thomas Van Dam Linda Pierce Nichols Consulting Engineers, Chtd. Reno, NV James Bruinsma Kurt Smith David Peshkin Applied Pavement Technology, Inc. Urbana, IL
AIRPORT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM Airports are vital national resources. They serve a key role in transpor- tation of people and goods and in regional, national, and international commerce. They are where the nationâs aviation system connects with other modes of transportation and where federal responsibility for man- aging and regulating air traffic operations intersects with the role of state and local governments that own and operate most airports. Research is necessary to solve common operating problems, to adapt appropriate new technologies from other industries, and to introduce innovations into the airport industry. The Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) serves as one of the principal means by which the airport industry can develop innovative near-term solutions to meet demands placed on it. The need for ACRP was identified in TRB Special Report 272: Airport Research Needs: Cooperative Solutions in 2003, based on a study spon- sored by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). ACRP carries out applied research on problems that are shared by airport operating agen- cies and not being adequately addressed by existing federal research pro- grams. ACRP is modeled after the successful National Cooperative High- way Research Program (NCHRP) and Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP). ACRP undertakes research and other technical activi- ties in various airport subject areas, including design, construction, legal, maintenance, operations, safety, policy, planning, human resources, and administration. ACRP provides a forum where airport operators can cooperatively address common operational problems. ACRP was authorized in December 2003 as part of the Vision 100â Century of Aviation Reauthorization Act. The primary participants in the ACRP are (1) an independent governing board, the ACRP Oversight Committee (AOC), appointed by the Secretary of the U.S. Department of Transportation with representation from airport operating agencies, other stakeholders, and relevant industry organizations such as the Airports Council International-North America (ACI-NA), the American Associa- tion of Airport Executives (AAAE), the National Association of State Aviation Officials (NASAO), Airlines for America (A4A), and the Airport Consultants Council (ACC) as vital links to the airport community; (2) TRB as program manager and secretariat for the governing board; and (3) the FAA as program sponsor. In October 2005, the FAA executed a contract with the National Academy of Sciences formally initiating the program. ACRP benefits from the cooperation and participation of airport professionals, air carriers, shippers, state and local government officials, equipment and service suppliers, other airport users, and research organi- zations. Each of these participants has different interests and responsibili- ties, and each is an integral part of this cooperative research effort. Research problem statements for ACRP are solicited periodically but may be submitted to TRB by anyone at any time. It is the responsibility of the AOC to formulate the research program by identifying the highest priority projects and defining funding levels and expected products. Once selected, each ACRP project is assigned to an expert panel appointed by TRB. Panels include experienced practitioners and research specialists; heavy emphasis is placed on including airport professionals, the intended users of the research products. The panels prepare project statements (requests for proposals), select contractors, and provide technical guidance and counsel throughout the life of the project. The process for developing research problem statements and selecting research agencies has been used by TRB in managing coop- erative research programs since 1962. As in other TRB activities, ACRP project panels serve voluntarily without compensation. Primary emphasis is placed on disseminating ACRP results to the intended users of the research: airport operating agencies, service pro- viders, and academic institutions. ACRP produces a series of research reports for use by airport operators, local agencies, the FAA, and other interested parties; industry associations may arrange for workshops, training aids, field visits, webinars, and other activities to ensure that results are implemented by airport industry practitioners. ACRP RESEARCH REPORT 234 Project 09-18 ISSN 2572-3731 (Print) ISSN 2572-374X (Online) ISBN 978-0-309-67417-1 Library of Congress Control Number 2021942922 Â© 2021 National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. COPYRIGHT INFORMATION Authors herein are responsible for the authenticity of their materials and for obtaining written permissions from publishers or persons who own the copyright to any previously published or copyrighted material used herein. Cooperative Research Programs (CRP) grants permission to reproduce material in this publication for classroom and not-for-profit purposes. Permission is given with the understanding that none of the material will be used to imply TRB, AASHTO, FAA, FHWA, FTA, GHSA, NHTSA, or TDC endorsement of a particular product, method, or practice. It is expected that those reproducing the material in this document for educational and not-for-profit uses will give appropriate acknowledgment of the source of any reprinted or reproduced material. For other uses of the material, request permission from CRP. NOTICE The research report was reviewed by the technical panel and accepted for publication according to procedures established and overseen by the Transportation Research Board and approved by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. The opinions and conclusions expressed or implied in this report are those of the researchers who performed the research and are not necessarily those of the Transporta- tion Research Board; the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine; or the program sponsors. The Transportation Research Board; the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine; and the sponsors of the Airport Cooperative Research Program do not endorse products or manufacturers. Trade or manufacturersâ names or logos appear herein solely because they are considered essential to the object of the report. Published research reports of the AIRPORT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM are available from Transportation Research Board Business Office 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 and can be ordered through the Internet by going to https://www.mytrb.org/MyTRB/Store/default.aspx Printed in the United States of America
The National Academy of Sciences was established in 1863 by an Act of Congress, signed by President Lincoln, as a private, non- governmental institution to advise the nation on issues related to science and technology. Members are elected by their peers for outstanding contributions to research. Dr. Marcia McNutt is president. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to bring the practices of engineering to advising the nation. Members are elected by their peers for extraordinary contributions to engineering. Dr. John L. Anderson is president. The National Academy of Medicine (formerly the Institute of Medicine) was established in 1970 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to advise the nation on medical and health issues. Members are elected by their peers for distinguished contributions to medicine and health. Dr. Victor J. Dzau is president. The three Academies work together as the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine to provide independent, objective analysis and advice to the nation and conduct other activities to solve complex problems and inform public policy decisions. The National Academies also encourage education and research, recognize outstanding contributions to knowledge, and increase public understanding in matters of science, engineering, and medicine. Learn more about the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine at www.nationalacademies.org. The Transportation Research Board is one of seven major programs of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. The mission of the Transportation Research Board is to provide leadership in transportation improvements and innovation through trusted, timely, impartial, and evidence-based information exchange, research, and advice regarding all modes of transportation. The Boardâs varied activities annually engage about 8,000 engineers, scientists, and other transportation researchers and practitioners from the public and private sectors and academia, all of whom contribute their expertise in the public interest. The program is supported by state transportation departments, federal agencies including the component administrations of the U.S. Department of Transportation, and other organizations and individuals interested in the development of transportation. Learn more about the Transportation Research Board at www.TRB.org.
C O O P E R A T I V E R E S E A R C H P R O G R A M S CRP STAFF FOR ACRP RESEARCH REPORT 234 Christopher J. Hedges, Director, Cooperative Research Programs Lori L. Sundstrom, Deputy Director, Cooperative Research Programs Marci A. Greenberger, Manager, Airport Cooperative Research Program Brittany Summerlin-Azeez, Program Coordinator Natalie Barnes, Director of Publications Janet M. McNaughton, Senior Editor ACRP PROJECT 09-18 PANEL Field of Maintenance Karen A. Scott, Inspired Strategies LLC, Louisville, KY (Chair) Diane Hofer, Olsson, Lincoln, NE Matthew Johnson, City of ScottsdaleâScottsdale Airport, Scottsdale, AZ Angel E. Ramos, AECOM, Phoenix, AZ Quintin B. Watkins, Michael Baker International, Peachtree Corners, GA Shenghua Wu, University of South Alabama, Mobile, AL Mike Rottinghaus, FAA Liaison Christopher J. Oswald, Airports Council InternationalâNorth America Liaison AUTHOR ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The research reported herein was performed under ACRP Project 09-18 by Nichols Consulting Engineers, Chtd. (NCE), with assistance from Applied Pavement Technology, Inc., C&S Engineers, Inc. (C&S), and Pavement Engineering and Research Consultants, Inc. (PERC). NCE was the prime contractor for this study. The authors acknowledge Mark B. Snyder of PERC and Lance McIntosh of C&S for their guidance throughout this project, technical input, and thorough review of this document. The authors greatly appreciate the review efforts of and feedback from the members of the ACRP Project 09-18 Panel. Individuals with the following organizations completed an online survey that provided a general under- standing of industry trends in current rapid slab repair and replacement (RSRR) practices: â¢ Airport International Group, â¢ Airports Authority of India, â¢ Chandler Municipal Airport, â¢ City of San Antonio Aviation Department, â¢ Columbus Regional Airport Authority, â¢ Denver International Airport, â¢ Duluth International Airport, â¢ Golden Triangle Regional Airport, â¢ Hatch Corporation, â¢ Cincinnati/Northern Kentucky International Airport, â¢ Los Angeles World Airports,
AUTHOR ACKNOWLEDGMENTS (Continued) â¢ McFarland Johnson, Inc., â¢ Michael Baker International, â¢ National University of Singapore, â¢ OgdenâHinckley Airport, â¢ Phoenix Sky Harbor International Airport, â¢ Port Authority of New York and New Jersey, â¢ Salt Lake City International Airport, â¢ SeattleâTacoma International Airport, â¢ T-O Engineers, and â¢ Venango Regional Airport. Individuals at the following airport agencies (and/or their engineering consultants) participated in case example interviews or accommodated field visits during construction projects, which allowed documentation of RSRR practices: â¢ Cincinnati/Northern Kentucky International Airport (C&S Engineers), â¢ Gerald R. Ford International Airport (C&S Engineers), â¢ HartsfieldâJackson Atlanta International Airport (Michael Baker International), â¢ John Glenn Columbus International Airport, â¢ Los Angeles International Airport, â¢ Louisville Muhammad Ali International Airport (HNTB Corporation), â¢ McCarran International Airport, â¢ Phoenix Sky Harbor International Airport, â¢ RaleighâDurham International Airport [Jacobs Engineering Group Inc (CH2M)], â¢ San Francisco International Airport, â¢ SeattleâTacoma International Airport, and â¢ Vancouver International Airport (Hatch Corporation and Associated Engineering).
Whether in a commercial service or general aviation airport, the closure of a critical pavement asset has a significant impact on operations, especially if that asset is the runway at a single-runway airport. ACRP Research Report 234: Rapid Slab Repair and Replacement of Airfield Concrete Pavement will assist airport personnel in planning, designing, and con- structing appropriate rapid slab repair and replacement (RSRR) activities to cost-effectively minimize the impact of pavement-related closures. Airports can benefit from guidance on these activities, since their execution can differ from traditional pavement repair and replacement. The cost and inconvenience of closing critical airfield pavement for repair can be significant. Airports want to minimize closures for repair and rehabilitation projects and, therefore, are increasing the use of rapid repair and replacement of airfield concrete pavement slabs. This report provides updated guidance based on recent advancements in materials and procedures for rapid repair of airfield concrete pavement. A team led by Nichols Consulting Engineers, Chtd., was selected to develop guidance to help airports determine whether RSRR activities are appropriate for replacement and rehabilitation of concrete slabs and guide them through the planning, design, and con- struction phases. The developed guidance is based on surveys, interviews, and site visits at air portsÂ engaged in RSRR activities and complements information provided in FAA Advisory CircularÂ 150/5370-16, Rapid Construction of Rigid (Portland Cement Concrete) Airfield Pavements. This guidance will be useful to airport engineering and maintenance staff and engineering consultants at airports of all sizes and will help them select and execute appropriate RSRR activities. F O R E W O R D By Marci A. Greenberger Staff Officer Transportation Research Board
1 Summary 2 Chapter 1 Introduction 2 Background 3 Purpose 3 Key Definitions 5 Current Industry Trends 6 Overview 7 Chapter 2 Planning 7 Identify Need for and Extent of Partial- and Full-Depth Repair Work 8 Consider Conventional Versus Rapid Construction 11 Decide Whether Rapid Slab Repair and Replacement Is Necessary 13 Coordinate with Stakeholders 14 Select Project Delivery Method 16 Identify Design Requirements 19 Chapter 3 Partial-Depth Repair 19 Introduction to Partial-Depth Repair 19 Candidate Distresses and Conditions 21 Material Selection 23 Design 24 Construction 31 Partial-Depth Repair Assessment Tool 38 Chapter 4 Full-Depth Repair 38 Introduction to Full-Depth Repair 40 Candidate Distresses and Conditions 41 Material Selection 44 Design 46 Construction 55 Full-Depth Repair Assessment Tool 62 Chapter 5 Conclusions 65 Abbreviations 67 References 69 Appendix A Airport Case Examples 92 Appendix B Examples of Rapid Slab Repair and Replacement Projects C O N T E N T S Note: Photographs, figures, and tables in this report may have been converted from color to grayscale for printing. The electronic version of the report (posted on the web at www.trb.org) retains the color versions.