National Academies Press: OpenBook
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Mid-Term Assessment of Progress on the 2015 Strategic Vision for Antarctic and Southern Ocean Research. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26338.
×
Page R1
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Mid-Term Assessment of Progress on the 2015 Strategic Vision for Antarctic and Southern Ocean Research. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26338.
×
Page R2
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Mid-Term Assessment of Progress on the 2015 Strategic Vision for Antarctic and Southern Ocean Research. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26338.
×
Page R3
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Mid-Term Assessment of Progress on the 2015 Strategic Vision for Antarctic and Southern Ocean Research. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26338.
×
Page R4
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Mid-Term Assessment of Progress on the 2015 Strategic Vision for Antarctic and Southern Ocean Research. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26338.
×
Page R5
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Mid-Term Assessment of Progress on the 2015 Strategic Vision for Antarctic and Southern Ocean Research. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26338.
×
Page R6
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Mid-Term Assessment of Progress on the 2015 Strategic Vision for Antarctic and Southern Ocean Research. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26338.
×
Page R7
Page viii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Mid-Term Assessment of Progress on the 2015 Strategic Vision for Antarctic and Southern Ocean Research. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26338.
×
Page R8
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Mid-Term Assessment of Progress on the 2015 Strategic Vision for Antarctic and Southern Ocean Research. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26338.
×
Page R9
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Mid-Term Assessment of Progress on the 2015 Strategic Vision for Antarctic and Southern Ocean Research. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26338.
×
Page R10
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Mid-Term Assessment of Progress on the 2015 Strategic Vision for Antarctic and Southern Ocean Research. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26338.
×
Page R11
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Mid-Term Assessment of Progress on the 2015 Strategic Vision for Antarctic and Southern Ocean Research. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26338.
×
Page R12

Below is the uncorrected machine-read text of this chapter, intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text of each book. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

PREPUBLICATION COPY Committee on a Mid-Term Assessment of NSF Progress on the 2015 Strategic Vision for Antarctic and Southern Ocean Research Polar Research Board Division on Earth and Life Studies This prepublication version of Mid-Term Assessment of Progress on the 2015 Strategic Vision for Antarctic and Southern Ocean Research has been provided to the public to facilitate timely access to the report. Although the substance of the report is final, editorial changes may be made throughout the text and citations will be checked prior to publication. The final report will be available through the National Academies Press in fall 2021. A Consensus Study Report of

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 This activity was supported by a contract between the National Academy of Sciences and the National Science Foundation under Grant No. 2022844. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect the views of any organization or agency that provided support for the project. International Standard Book Number-13: 978-0-309-XXXXX-X International Standard Book Number-10: 0-309-XXXXX-X Digital Object Identifier: https://doi.org/10.17226/26338 Additional copies of this publication are available from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, NW, Keck 360, Washington, DC 20001; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313; http://www.nap.edu. Copyright 2021 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America Suggested citation: National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Mid-Term Assessment of Progress on the 2015 Strategic Vision for Antarctic and Southern Ocean Research. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. https://doi.org/10.17226/26338. Image credits (front cover): Left: Paul Cziko, University of Oregon, and Chi-Hing Christina Cheng, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign Center: Jim Yungel, NASA Right: Keith Vanderlinde, National Science Foundation Background: Oscar Schofield, Rutgers University, Committee member

The National Academy of Sciences was established in 1863 by an Act of Congress, signed by President Lincoln, as a private, nongovernmental institution to advise the nation on issues related to science and technology. Members are elected by their peers for outstanding contributions to research. Dr. Marcia McNutt is president. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to bring the practices of engineering to advising the nation. Members are elected by their peers for extraordinary contributions to engineering. Dr. John L. Anderson is president. The National Academy of Medicine (formerly the Institute of Medicine) was established in 1970 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to advise the nation on medical and health issues. Members are elected by their peers for distinguished contributions to medicine and health. Dr. Victor J. Dzau is president. The three Academies work together as the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine to provide independent, objective analysis and advice to the nation and conduct other activities to solve complex problems and inform public policy decisions. The National Academies also encourage education and research, recognize outstanding contributions to knowledge, and increase public understanding in matters of science, engineering, and medicine. Learn more about the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine at www.nationalacademies.org.

Consensus Study Reports published by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine document the evidence-based consensus on the study’s statement of task by an authoring committee of experts. Reports typically include findings, conclusions, and recommendations based on information gathered by the committee and the committee’s deliberations. Each report has been subjected to a rigorous and independent peer-review process and it represents the position of the National Academies on the statement of task. Proceedings published by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine chronicle the presentations and discussions at a workshop, symposium, or other event convened by the National Academies. The statements and opinions contained in proceedings are those of the participants and are not endorsed by other participants, the planning committee, or the National Academies. For information about other products and activities of the National Academies, please visit www.nationalacademies.org/about/whatwedo.

COMMITTEE ON A MID-TERM ASSESSMENT OF NSF PROGRESS ON THE 2015 STRATEGIC VISION FOR ANTARCTIC AND SOUTHERN OCEAN RESEARCH OSCAR SCHOFIELD, Chair, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ AMY BARGER, University of Wisconsin–Madison KELLY BRUNT,1 NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD ROBERT CLAUER, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg INDRANI DAS, Columbia University, New York, NY WILLIAM DETRICH, Northeastern University, Boston, MA MICHAEL GOOSEFF, University of Colorado Boulder KEN HALANYCH, University of North Carolina, Wilmington MARK HALPERN, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada ALISON MURRAY, Desert Research Institute, Reno, NV ERIC RIGNOT (NAS), University of California, Irvine AMELIA SHEVENELL, University of South Florida, St. Petersburg HELIO TAKAI, Pratt Institute, New York, NY TERRY WILSON, The Ohio State University, Columbus ERIC WOLFF, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine Staff STEPHANIE JOHNSON, Study Director LAURIE GELLER, Senior Program Officer, Polar Research Board STEVEN MOSS, Program Officer, Board on Life Sciences CALLA ROSENFELD, Senior Program Assistant 1 Resigned from the committee on June 24, 2021. PREPUBLICATION COPY v

POLAR RESEARCH BOARD DIANA WALL (Chair), Colorado State University, Fort Collins LAWSON BRIGHAM, University of Alaska, Fairbanks PABLO CLEMENTE-COLÓN, National/Naval Ice Center, Suitland, MD MICHAEL N. GOOSEFF, University of Colorado Boulder NAGRUK HARCHAREK, UIC Lands, Barrow, AK THEODORE A. SCAMBOS, University of Colorado Boulder KRISTEN ST. JOHN, James Madison University, Harrisonburg, VA LYNNE TALLEY, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, San Diego, CA MERRITT TURETSKY, University of Colorado Boulder ROSS VIRGINIA, Dartmouth College, Hanover, NH MARGARET WILLIAMS, World Wildlife Fund, Washington, DC Ex-Officio MATTHEW DRUCKENMILLER (Alternate U.S. Delegate to IASC), University of Colorado Boulder ANDREY PETROV (Alternate U.S. Delegate to IASC), University of Northern Iowa, Cedar Falls DENEB KARENTZ (U.S. Delegate to SCAR), University of San Francisco, San Francisco, CA ALLAN WEATHERWAX (Alternate U.S. Delegate to SCAR), Merrimack College, North Andover, MA National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine Staff AMANDA STAUDT, Board Director LAURIE GELLER, Program Manager LAUREN EVERETT, Senior Program Officer APRIL MELVIN, Senior Program Officer RITA GASKINS, Administrative Coordinator ROB GREENWAY, Program Associate PREPUBLICATION COPY vi

Reviewers This Consensus Study Report was reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine in making each published report as sound as possible and to ensure that it meets the institutional standards for quality, objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We thank the following individuals for their review of this report: CHARLES AMSLER, University of Alabama at Birmingham ROBIN BELL, Columbia University AMY BENDER, Argonne National Laboratory CHRISTO BUIZERT, Oregon State University JAMES T. HOLLIBAUGH, University of Georgia CHRISTINA HULBE, University of Otago TIMOTHY NAISH, Victoria University of Wellington SEAN PLACE, Sonoma State University CRISTINA TAKACS-VESBACH, University of New Mexico ALLAN WEATHERWAX, Merrimack College ROBERT WELLER, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution Although these reviewers provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions and recommendations nor did they see the final draft of the report before its release. The review of this report was overseen by W. BERRY LYONS (The Ohio State University) and KATHERINE H. FREEMAN (The Pennsylvania State University). They were responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments received full consideration. Responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the authoring committee and the National Academies. PREPUBLICATION COPY vii

Contents Acronyms and Abbreviations ............................................................................................................................................... xi Summary ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1 1 Introduction ............................................................................................................................................................... 11 NSF Support for Antarctic Research, 12 National Academies’ 2015 Strategic Priorities, 17 Study Task, 20 Metrics for Committee Evaluation, 21 Report Organization, 22 2 Priority I: Changing Antarctic Ice Sheets ....................................................................................................... 23 Evaluation of Progress, 24 Key Implementation Challenges Across Priorities I.i and I.ii, 40 Opportunities to Improve Progress, 43 Conclusions and Recommendations, 47 3 Priority II: Using Genomics to Understand How Antarctic Biota Evolve and Adapt ............................................................................................................................................................................ 49 Evaluation of Progress, 50 Scientific Community and Partnerships, 54 Key Implementation Challenges, 56 Opportunities to Improve Progress, 61 Conclusions and Recommendations, 65 4 Priority III: How Did the Universe Begin? ..................................................................................................... 67 Evaluation of Progress, 67 Key Implementation Challenges, 72 Opportunities to Improve Progress, 74 Conclusions and Recommendations, 74 5 Broad-Based Investigator-Driven Antarctic Research ............................................................................... 77 Evaluation of Progress, 78 Key Implementation Challenges: Logistics, 84 Conclusions, 84 6 Cross-Cutting Research-Wide Issues ................................................................................................................ 85 Research Infrastructure and Logistics, 85 Collaboration and Partnerships, 89 Diversity and Inclusion, 90 Scientific Community Development, 92 Assessing Continued Progress in the Strategic Priorities, 94 Conclusions and Recommendations, 95 References .................................................................................................................................................................................. 97 Appendixes A Biographical Sketches of Committee Members and Staff........................................................................ 113 B Community Input Participants ......................................................................................................................... 119 PREPUBLICATION COPY ix

Acronyms and Abbreviations AGU American Geophysical Union AISS Antarctic Integrated System Science AOE Antarctic Organisms and Ecosystems ATAC-seq Assay for Transposase-Accessible Chromatin using sequencing AUV autonomous underwater vehicle BART BICEP Array Replacement Tower BICEP Background Imaging of Cosmic Extragalactic Polarization BRP U.S. Antarctic Program Blue Ribbon Panel CMB cosmic microwave background CMB-S4 CMB Stage IV CRISPR clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats DEI diversity, equity, and inclusion DOE U.S. Department of Energy EAIS East Antarctic Ice Sheet GIA glacial isostatic adjustment GNSS Global Navigation Satellite System GRACE Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment IDP Ice Drilling Program INCLUDES Inclusion across the Nation of Communities of Learners of Underrepresented Discoverers in Engineering and Science INSTANT SCAR Instabilities and Thresholds in Antarctica IODP International Ocean Discovery Program IPCC Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change ITGC International Thwaites Glacier Collaboration LTER Long-Term Ecological Research MAPO Martin A. Pomerantz Observatory MSRI Mid-Scale Research Infrastructure NASA National Aeronautics and Space Administration NERC UK Natural Environment Research Council NIH National Institutes of Health NOAA National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration NSF National Science Foundation OPP Office of Polar Programs PREPUBLICATION COPY xi

xii Mid-Term Assessment of Progress on the 2015 Strategic Vision for Antarctic Research PAUC Palmer Area Users’ Committee POLENET Polar Earth Observing Network R&D research and development RCN Research Coordination Network ROV remotely operated vehicle SCAR Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research SOCCOM Southern Ocean Carbon and Climate Observations and Modeling SPT South Pole Telescope STEM science, technology, engineering, and mathematics USAP U.S. Antarctic Program WAIS West Antarctic Ice Sheet

Next: Summary »
Mid-Term Assessment of Progress on the 2015 Strategic Vision for Antarctic and Southern Ocean Research Get This Book
×
Buy Paperback | $48.00
MyNAP members save 10% online.
Login or Register to save!
Download Free PDF

The Antarctic's unique environment and position on the globe make it a prime location to gain insights into how Earth and the universe operate. This report assesses National Science Foundation (NSF) progress in addressing three priority research areas identified in a 2015 National Academies report: (1) understanding the linkages between ice sheets and sea-level rise, including both a focus on current rates of ice sheet change and studies of past major ice sheet retreat episodes; (2) understanding biological adaptations to the extreme and changing Antarctic environment; and (3) establishing a next-generation cosmic microwave background (CMB) program, partly located in Antarctica, to study the origins of the universe.

NSF has made important progress understanding the impacts of current ice sheet change, particularly through studies focused on the ice sheet and ocean interactions driving ongoing ice mass loss at the Thwaites Glacier and Amundsen Sea region in West Antarctica. Less progress has been made on studies of past major ice sheet retreat episodes. Progress is also strong on CMB research to understand the origins of the universe. Progress has lagged on understanding biological adaptations, in part because of limited community organization and collaboration toward the priority. To accelerate progress during the second half of the initiative, NSF could issue specific calls for proposals, develop strategies to foster collaborations and partnerships, and commission a transparent review of logistical capacity to help illuminate strategies and priorities for addressing resource constraints. Such efforts would also help optimize science and proposal development in an environment of inherently constrained logistics.

  1. ×

    Welcome to OpenBook!

    You're looking at OpenBook, NAP.edu's online reading room since 1999. Based on feedback from you, our users, we've made some improvements that make it easier than ever to read thousands of publications on our website.

    Do you want to take a quick tour of the OpenBook's features?

    No Thanks Take a Tour »
  2. ×

    Show this book's table of contents, where you can jump to any chapter by name.

    « Back Next »
  3. ×

    ...or use these buttons to go back to the previous chapter or skip to the next one.

    « Back Next »
  4. ×

    Jump up to the previous page or down to the next one. Also, you can type in a page number and press Enter to go directly to that page in the book.

    « Back Next »
  5. ×

    To search the entire text of this book, type in your search term here and press Enter.

    « Back Next »
  6. ×

    Share a link to this book page on your preferred social network or via email.

    « Back Next »
  7. ×

    View our suggested citation for this chapter.

    « Back Next »
  8. ×

    Ready to take your reading offline? Click here to buy this book in print or download it as a free PDF, if available.

    « Back Next »
Stay Connected!