National Academies Press: OpenBook

Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap (2021)

Chapter: Appendix G Final Fifteen Portfolios

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Suggested Citation:"Appendix G Final Fifteen Portfolios." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26343.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix G Final Fifteen Portfolios." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26343.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix G Final Fifteen Portfolios." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26343.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix G Final Fifteen Portfolios." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26343.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix G Final Fifteen Portfolios." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26343.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix G Final Fifteen Portfolios." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26343.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix G Final Fifteen Portfolios." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26343.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix G Final Fifteen Portfolios." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26343.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix G Final Fifteen Portfolios." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26343.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix G Final Fifteen Portfolios." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26343.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix G Final Fifteen Portfolios." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26343.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix G Final Fifteen Portfolios." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26343.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix G Final Fifteen Portfolios." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26343.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix G Final Fifteen Portfolios." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26343.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix G Final Fifteen Portfolios." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26343.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix G Final Fifteen Portfolios." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26343.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix G Final Fifteen Portfolios." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26343.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix G Final Fifteen Portfolios." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26343.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix G Final Fifteen Portfolios." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26343.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix G Final Fifteen Portfolios." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26343.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix G Final Fifteen Portfolios." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26343.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix G Final Fifteen Portfolios." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26343.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix G Final Fifteen Portfolios." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26343.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix G Final Fifteen Portfolios." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26343.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix G Final Fifteen Portfolios." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26343.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix G Final Fifteen Portfolios." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26343.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix G Final Fifteen Portfolios." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26343.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix G Final Fifteen Portfolios." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26343.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix G Final Fifteen Portfolios." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26343.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix G Final Fifteen Portfolios." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26343.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix G Final Fifteen Portfolios." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26343.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix G Final Fifteen Portfolios." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26343.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix G Final Fifteen Portfolios." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26343.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix G Final Fifteen Portfolios." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26343.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix G Final Fifteen Portfolios." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26343.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix G Final Fifteen Portfolios." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26343.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix G Final Fifteen Portfolios." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26343.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix G Final Fifteen Portfolios." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26343.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix G Final Fifteen Portfolios." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26343.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix G Final Fifteen Portfolios." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26343.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix G Final Fifteen Portfolios." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26343.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix G Final Fifteen Portfolios." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26343.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix G Final Fifteen Portfolios." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26343.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix G Final Fifteen Portfolios." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26343.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix G Final Fifteen Portfolios." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26343.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix G Final Fifteen Portfolios." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26343.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix G Final Fifteen Portfolios." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26343.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix G Final Fifteen Portfolios." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26343.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix G Final Fifteen Portfolios." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26343.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix G Final Fifteen Portfolios." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26343.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix G Final Fifteen Portfolios." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26343.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix G Final Fifteen Portfolios." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26343.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix G Final Fifteen Portfolios." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26343.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix G Final Fifteen Portfolios." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26343.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix G Final Fifteen Portfolios." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26343.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix G Final Fifteen Portfolios." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26343.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix G Final Fifteen Portfolios." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26343.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix G Final Fifteen Portfolios." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26343.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix G Final Fifteen Portfolios." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26343.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix G Final Fifteen Portfolios." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26343.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix G Final Fifteen Portfolios." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26343.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix G Final Fifteen Portfolios." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26343.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix G Final Fifteen Portfolios." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26343.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix G Final Fifteen Portfolios." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26343.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix G Final Fifteen Portfolios." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26343.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix G Final Fifteen Portfolios." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26343.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix G Final Fifteen Portfolios." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26343.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix G Final Fifteen Portfolios." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26343.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix G Final Fifteen Portfolios." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26343.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix G Final Fifteen Portfolios." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26343.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix G Final Fifteen Portfolios." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26343.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix G Final Fifteen Portfolios." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26343.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix G Final Fifteen Portfolios." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26343.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix G Final Fifteen Portfolios." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26343.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix G Final Fifteen Portfolios." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26343.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix G Final Fifteen Portfolios." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26343.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix G Final Fifteen Portfolios." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26343.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix G Final Fifteen Portfolios." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26343.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix G Final Fifteen Portfolios." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26343.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix G Final Fifteen Portfolios." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26343.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix G Final Fifteen Portfolios." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26343.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix G Final Fifteen Portfolios." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26343.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix G Final Fifteen Portfolios." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26343.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix G Final Fifteen Portfolios." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26343.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix G Final Fifteen Portfolios." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26343.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix G Final Fifteen Portfolios." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26343.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix G Final Fifteen Portfolios." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26343.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix G Final Fifteen Portfolios." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26343.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix G Final Fifteen Portfolios." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26343.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix G Final Fifteen Portfolios." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26343.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix G Final Fifteen Portfolios." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26343.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix G Final Fifteen Portfolios." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26343.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix G Final Fifteen Portfolios." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26343.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix G Final Fifteen Portfolios." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26343.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix G Final Fifteen Portfolios." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26343.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix G Final Fifteen Portfolios." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26343.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix G Final Fifteen Portfolios." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26343.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix G Final Fifteen Portfolios." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26343.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix G Final Fifteen Portfolios." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26343.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix G Final Fifteen Portfolios." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26343.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix G Final Fifteen Portfolios." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26343.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix G Final Fifteen Portfolios." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26343.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix G Final Fifteen Portfolios." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26343.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix G Final Fifteen Portfolios." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26343.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix G Final Fifteen Portfolios." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26343.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix G Final Fifteen Portfolios." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26343.
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Below is the uncorrected machine-read text of this chapter, intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text of each book. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap G-1 A P P E N D I X G Final Fifteen Portfolios

Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap G-2 Final Fifteen Portfolios 1. Active Transportation 2. Aviation 3. Cross-Cutting Funding, Planning & Policy 4. Driver Education & Licensing 5. Economic Development & Tourism 6. Intersection of Health and Transportation 7. Law Enforcement, Crime and Drugs 8. Roadway Infrastructure and Balancing Capacity with Demand 9. Rural Public & School Transportation 10. Rural Transportation Safety 11. Transportation Access and Mobility 12. Technology Including Connected and Automated Vehicles 13. Transporting Rural Products to Market 14. Weather, Climate, Resilience and Environment 15. Workforce Development Notes: When expanding each of these research needs into either Research Needs Statement (RNS) or Problem Statements (PS), a few things should be remembered including: • Community types – while some of the research needs are specific to a particular community type, the majority of research needs are written as “overarching.” To remove repetitiveness, the Project Team did not add the titles of all six community types in every research need. Instead, in the future, when authors expand to an RNS or PS, their write-up should ensure to include ALL of the identified rural community types. For example, case studies should be identified from as many of the community types as possible and when identifying or analyzing based on locations, locations from ALL community types should be examined. • Titles – in most cases the research need itself should not be used as the title of the RNS or PS. When creating a title, the author should consider the audience it will be submitted to and their priorities. The title should reflect the research need but be written in a manner to allow the audience to “pick a book by its cover.”

Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap G-3 Culture ID # RESEARCH NEED STATUS AT-C-01* Document the behaviors, attitudes, and opportunities for rural and small urban residents to support active transportation policy and compare with urban areas. Identify factors affecting public acceptance of investments in active transportation facilities and develop case examples of successful and not-so-successful project-level public outreach for proposed facilities. AT-C-02 Analyze the economic impacts of active transportation in rural communities. AT-C-03 Evaluate the difference in bicycle culture and non-bicycle culture. AT-C-04 Analyze rural bicycle culture and safety differences between U.S. and European countries such as Denmark and the Netherlands. * Project Description is available Data ID # RESEARCH NEED STATUS AT-D-01* Develop and document techniques for obtaining reliable pedestrian and bicyclists counts in rural areas (including recreational use). AT-D-02 Identify surrogate risk measures of pedestrian and bicycle traffic volumes when data from direct observations is unavailable. AT-D-03 Identify impacts of not having reliable pedestrian and bicycle counts outside of metro areas. AT-D-04 Develop the effect of lack of bicycle volume data on crash rate calculation. * Project Description is available

Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap G-4 Electric Scooters ID # RESEARCH NEED STATUS AT-ES-01 Analyze economics of electric scooter rental industry and determine whether scooter-sharing is financially viable in small towns. AT-ES-02 Identify appropriate design criteria for accommodating electric scooters safely on rural roads and small-town streets, for example when scooters should be separated from pedestrian and/or motorized traffic. AT-ES-03 Evaluate potential synergies between electric scooters and rural public transportation, along with methods for safely storing scooters during the transit portion of the trip. AT-ES-04 Identify health and safety benefits and disbenefits (e.g., medical attended injuries) of electric scooter use in rural areas. AT-ES-05 Analyze rural and small-town electric scooter crashes and determine whether the use of helmets or other personal protective equipment should be mandatory in these areas. Infrastructure ID # RESEARCH NEED STATUS AT-I-01* Develop geometric design guidance for Advisory Bike Lanes. AT-I-02* Develop an expanded guidebook for accommodating bicycles on rural roads with low-cost share the road techniques. AT-I-03 Review the extent to which the recommendations of the 2011 draft Public Right-of-Way Access Guide (PROWAG) have been implemented in rural communities and the social, economic, and health effects of delayed release of definitive ADA standards. AT-I-04 Develop rural bicycle infrastructure design strategies for longer distance commuting. AT-I-05 Develop a Synthesis of Practice on policies and equipment for transporting bicycles on rural transit vehicles and providing bike parking at transit stops. AT-I-06 Evaluate the assumption that signing for bike routes tells drivers that bicyclists are there. AT-I-07 Evaluate road user comprehension of Advisory Bike Lanes. AT-I-08 Identify best practices for providing bicycle access and parking at rural tourism/recreational sites. AT-I-09 Evaluate space available for adding or widening paths/trails on established roadways and provide potential solutions. * Project Description is available

Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap G-5 Marketing ID # RESEARCH NEED STATUS AT-M-01* Document successful methods for creating public and government support for active transportation. AT-M-02* Identify innovative methods to promote active transportation in rural communities. AT-M-03 Evaluate effectiveness of marketing and promoting the use of signature bicycle facilities or bicycling network in rural communities as a method of increasing tourism or economic benefits of such facilities. Many rural communities want to provide for cyclists as a means to improve their economies, but without a promotion/tourism outreach component to the development of new infrastructure, they may not reap the full rewards. More should be done to study how to promote and market emerging bicycling economies to determine what is effective in increasing visitors and/or bicycling in general in an area or on a facility. AT-M-04 Develop marketing tools for parental acceptance of walking to school. * Project Description is available Planning ID # RESEARCH NEED STATUS AT-PL-01* Analyze variations in rural and small-town biking and walking rates in relation to climate, terrain, traffic volume, road design, development density, and land use; identify policy implications. AT-PL-02* Identify best practices for cross-jurisdictional coordination of pedestrian and bicycle facilities development. AT-PL-03* Analyze demographics of rural active infrastructure users. AT-PL-04* Evaluate feasibility of bicycle share programs in small towns. AT-PL-05 Identifying travel sheds for rural pedestrian facilities. AT-PL-06 Determine the nature and extent of concerns (i.e. parents, school system, country roads department, law enforcement) about children walking/biking to school and identify appropriate physical and policy countermeasures. AT-PL-07 Identifying traditional and non-traditional stakeholder groups for rural pedestrian facilities. * Project Description is available

Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap G-6 Policy ID # RESEARCH NEED STATUS AT-PO-01* Evaluate the impacts and enforcement of safe passing laws for active transportation. AT-PO-02* Document rural noteworthy practices or strategies for effective non-infrastructure tools to improve the safety and wellbeing of children traveling to/from school. Combined with AT- PO-05, AT-PO-06, and AT-S-03 for a policy PS AT-PO-03 Develop an estimate of the percentages of small-town streets that are not equipped with sidewalks and not compliant with ADA requirements. AT-PO-04 Identify public policy benefits and disbenefits of shifting more revenue into investments in active transportation. AT-PO-05 Conduct periodic (e.g., biennial) surveys of local elected officials to track trends in acceptance and funding for ADA compliance and pedestrian safety investments in small towns. Combined with AT- PO-02, AT-PO-06 and AT-S-03 for a policy PS AT-PO-06 Identify and document methods for funding sidewalk installation/upgrades and maintenance obligations that do not require property tax special assessments. Combined with AT- PO-02, AT-PO-05 and AT-S-03 for a policy PS * Project Description is available Safety ID # RESEARCH NEED STATUS AT-S-01* Document and evaluate low cost and innovative safety improvements for rural bicyclists and pedestrians. AT-S-02* Assess rural and small-town pedestrian and/or bicyclist safety needs. AT-S-03* Evaluate and document safe access for bicyclists and pedestrian users in rural America (e.g., where does it exist, gaps, connectivity). Combined with AT- PO-02, AT-PO-05, and AT-PO-06 for a policy PS AT-S-04* Evaluate crash data to identify rural roadway factors that may be hazardous to bicyclists and pedestrians, outdated infrastructure, and effective roadway treatments. AT-S-05* Identify best practices for accommodating people with disabilities in active transportation facilities. AT-S-06* Develop a guidebook for evaluating the safety of rural active transportation infrastructure and selecting appropriate fixes including key performance measures for comparison. AT-S-07* Evaluate and document safe routes to schools in rural areas (e.g., lighting, signing, visibility, connectivity). AT-S-08 Assess the impact of rumble strips on bicyclists' safety, particularly along known long-distance bicycle routes. * Project Description is available

Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap G-7 Safety (cont.) ID # RESEARCH NEED STATUS AT-S-09 Assess distracted driving risks to active transportation users; evaluate whether road design and terrain influences distracted driving behavior (e.g., straight and wide roads vs narrow and curvy roads); and identify successful and unsuccessful (e.g., behavior change) strategies for distracted driving media campaigns. AT-S-10 Analyze non-motorized road user conflicts with All-Terrain Vehicles and possible countermeasures. AT-S-11 Identify best practices for the design of roadway crossings for horseback riders. AT-S-12 Analyze nature and extent of equestrian (horseback-rider) crashes on rural highways. AT-S-13 Identify consequences of discontinuing funding eligibility for non-infrastructure Safe Routes to Schools projects. AT-S-14 Develop a generalized rural non-motorized road user safety model that supports systemic risk analysis and project prioritization. AT-S-15 Identify best practices for Safe Routes to Schools programs. AT-S-16 Evaluate the effectiveness of high intensity Fresnel lamps to improve the conspicuity of bicycles and assess the costs and benefits of mandating their use when riding on high-speed rural highways. AT-S-17 Develop a unified national technical standard for portable mobile telephony applications and DSRC devices that would give motorists advance notice as they approach rural non-motorized road users, e.g. in areas with limited visibility. AT-S-18 Identify best practices for assuring the safety of children who walk or bike to school along high-speed two-lane rural highways. Tribal ID # RESEARCH NEED STATUS AT-T-01 Evaluate land use and roadway features on tribal reservations to identify obstacles to pedestrian and bicyclist safety. AT-T-02 Develop a guidebook to assist tribal planners with identification of non-motorized road user hazards and prioritization of countermeasures including roadway design, speed management, road user behavior, and vehicle safety inspection.

Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap G-8 Available Project Descriptions AT-C-01 Description: Active modes of transportation are needed in rural and small urban areas; however, there are unique barriers and differences to active modes in rural areas. Typically there is a lack of active transportation infrastructure, different topography, longer distances to amenities (e.g., school, stores, work, etc.), preconceived attitudes or “culture” (e.g., feel it is out of place in rural areas, hard to imagine as no previous experience with active transportation networks, or do not see the value), and lack of investment. With rural transportation budgets strapped, any potential investment in rural areas is met with both public acceptance and criticisms. The objective of this project is to identify the existing behaviors, attitudes, acceptance factors (e.g., cost to residents, economic benefits, improvement to safety, number of users, etc.), and opportunities, of rural and small urban residents (both users and non-users) with respect to active transportation barriers, policies, investment, infrastructure, and connectivity. These behaviors and attitudes should then be compared with those from urban areas. Case studies of successful and not-so-successful public outreach should be documented as part of this project. Notes: Two related research needs were combined to create this item. This should precede AT-S-03. AT-D-01 Description: Collecting reliable pedestrian and bicycle counts is a difficult task. Several guidebooks have been created to assist agencies in conducting these counts; however, none address the unique characteristics in rural areas. These rural factors affecting reliability can include expense of the technology, incompatibility of technology with the rural landscape (e.g., geography, weather, communication infrastructure), and longer distances to track (e.g., between towns). In many cases, due to the lack of counts existing for rural areas, there is a belief that rural bicyclists do not exist. This project will develop and document techniques for obtaining reliable pedestrian and bicyclist counts in rural areas. The project, at a minimum, should focus on how to collect the data, but if possible, a technique for separating out bicycle user types would be beneficial (e.g. commuters vs recreation vs multi-day travel). The techniques should also consider how to deal with potential vandalism and if there is a way to remotely detect when a system is not counting properly. The techniques should be pilot tested, documented in a report, and case study examples should be provided. AT-I-01 Description: Advisory bike lanes (ABLs) are a roadway configuration which allow 2-way traffic and active transportation to co-locate based on striping. It consists of a 2-way center lane for vehicles and edge or advisory lanes on either side for active transportation use. The new FHWA Small Town and Rural Multimodal Networks Guide provides some design guidance on ABLs, but with this being a newer concept in the U.S. (but not internationally), there is a lack of research on its use. The current need is to evaluate U.S. road users’ understanding of the ABL markings to ensure they are correctly understood. This research would be useful in getting ABLs approved in the next MUTCD. AT-I-02 Description: This guidebook would address low-cost share the road techniques specifically for rural roads. It would build off the new document “Designating Scenic Bikeways: A Framework for Rural Road Owners” and incorporate all share the road techniques applicable to rural including, but not limited to: signage, policies, enforcement, safety campaigns, striping (e.g., Advisory Bike Lanes, etc.). The guidebook should include rural case studies for these techniques and seek to find innovative ideas. A webinar should also be conducted.

Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap G-9 AT-M-01 Description: Active transportation facilities provide opportunities for the public to fit physical activity into their daily routines (walking/biking to work, school, stores, etc.). This human-powered transportation provides significant health benefits to communities. In addition, these facilities are extremely important in low income, minority, and immigrant communities where the residents tend to be car-less. Public and government support is needed to make active transportation and the related facilities a priority in communities. This support leads to better active transportation funding and policies. This project will explore and document successful methods for creating this support (including social marketing) in a guidebook or toolkit, document relevant case studies, and produce a webinar to share the results. The guidebook should provide step by step actions to replicate the methods, as well as, examples of media used. AT-M-02 Description: Active modes of transportation are needed in rural and small urban communities; however, the unique barriers and attitudes toward active modes in rural areas may lead to lack of use for this mode. This project will examine, and document innovative methods that rural and small urban communities are using to promote active transportation in their communities. Promotion should be looked at holistically (e.g., through policies, infrastructure improvements, educational campaigns, etc.). This project should also examine the effects of mass media marketing on active transportation use. AT-Pl-01 Description: Anecdotally, it is known that the unique characteristics of rural areas impact biking and walking rates, but to what extent? In this proposed project, researchers would do a quantitative analysis to define the impact certain rural characteristics (e.g., climate, terrain, traffic volume, road design, development density, and land use) having on biking and walking. Once the quantitative impacts are defined, the researchers will compare these to walking and biking policies for rural and small-town areas to determine what changes could be made. AT-Pl-02 Description: Historically, the development of pedestrian and bicycle facilities has typically been accomplished at the local level. Although cross-jurisdictional coordination occurs with some regularity for the conversion of abandoned rail corridors into bike facilities, the coordination of pedestrian facilities development is often limited. This lack of coordination can limit the usefulness of the resulting facilities and the user typically does not see or know of jurisdictional boundaries. The proposed research will review current practices for cross-jurisdictional coordination of pedestrian and bike facilities development, identify the roles of groups such as regional planning commissions, and document best practices. Additionally, the research will identify and document cost-sharing practices for multijurisdictional ped/bike facilities, including those that cross urban- rural boundaries. AT-Pl-03 Description: To efficiently and effectively plan for active transportation infrastructure and policies, communities must first understand who the active transportation users are in a rural area and what needs to be done to make it more attractive. This project would seek to define the demographics of rural users including age, gender, access to a bicycle or car, comfort level with bike riding, type of active transportation infrastructure available, etc. AT-Pl-04 Description: Many times, active transportation facilities are not the only barrier to active transportation. Access to a bicycle can also be a barrier. Bike share systems (whether docked or dockless) have been created to assist with overcoming this barrier. While these systems have become extremely popular and effective in urban areas, there is also a great need for better access and mobility in rural areas that could be provided by these types of systems. However, there is still a question on how feasible bike share systems can be in a small towns and tourist destinations such as public lands, even with the invention of bicycle libraries (an

Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap G-10 approach to rural bike share). This project would seek to evaluate the feasibility of bike share programs in small towns and public lands and document case studies of successful deployments. AT-Po-01 Description: The safe passing law requires a vehicle to pass another vehicle and/or active transportation users at a “safe distance.” The definition of “safe” is varied and not defined by many of the states, but in cases where it is defined it is generally 3 feet (and may be more for large trucks and buses). For a law to be effective, it also requires education and enforcement. This project would seek to evaluate the impacts and enforcement of safe passing laws in rural areas (including the related issue of whether laws that require drivers to move away from cyclists increase the risk of small-offset frontal collisions between motor vehicles). This may include comparing active transportation crash data before and after the passage of safe passing laws; surveying local active transportation groups to qualitatively evaluate if they feel motorists are abiding by the law and if they feel safer; and surveying local law enforcement to determine that amount of enforcement done on the safe passing law, the number of citations given, and their feelings on the effectiveness. Rural areas showing effective results or enforcement techniques should be documented in case studies. AT-Po-02 Description: The Safe Routes to Schools (SRTS) program sets forth to make communities safer for children to walk and bike to school and to encourage students to do so in safe environments. SRTS supports both infrastructure and non-infrastructure techniques for improving active transportation safety. This project would create a noteworthy practice document for the rural, tribal, and small urban non- infrastructure tools being used to improve the safety and wellbeing of children traveling to/from school. This would include programs such as the walking school bus, safety campaigns, trainings, and events. In addition to documenting existing noteworthy practices, this project would provide recommendations for new and innovative techniques that could be used specifically in rural, tribal, and small urban areas. A pilot of at least one new idea should be included. AT-S-01 Description: With the fatality rate for pedestrians and bicyclists continuing to increase, the unique needs of rural areas, and a lack of existing research on bicycle safety treatments/interventions in rural areas; there is a need to research, document, and evaluate low cost and innovative safety improvements for rural bicyclists and pedestrians. This project would include fundamental research on design features and other interventions that would help or hinder rural bicycle and pedestrian safety. This may include in-field performance evaluations, identification of innovative safety improvements, and implementation of an urban countermeasure that is applicable to rural areas but has not yet been deployed in one. (Please note that 4-foot shoulders should be considered as a potential solution.) The project should include case study documentation. Notes: AT-S-04 should precede this project to assist in identifying the factors leading to rural bicycle/pedestrian crashes AT-S-02 Description: Rural areas and small towns have unique characteristics requiring unique pedestrian and bicyclist infrastructure, policies, enforcement, and safety countermeasures. In this project, the research team will assess user perceptions of safety needs. This could be accomplished through a survey to determine whether rural pedestrians and bicyclists need or want different safety treatments than their urban counterparts. Notes: This should precede AT-S-06 AT-S-03 Description: The majority of rural America does not have dedicated pedestrian/bicycle facilities, including sidewalks. This underinvestment in rural facilities and its underlying causes may have an impact on “safe access.”

Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap G-11 This project will look at the definition of “safe access” in rural terms. This could include, but is not limited to, access from a bike/pedestrian facility to amenities (e.g. a crosswalk in a local community across a state owned road), access for on-road biking (e.g., wide shoulders, no rumble strips, etc.), multi-modal access (e.g., bike racks on transit, facilities leading to bus, closure of Amtrak stations impacting multi-modal travel), and long distances between communities (how to access larger rural communities for shopping, employment, etc.). This project will also document and evaluate the many unique access challenges in a rural area and provide countermeasures and case studies for addressing these. Notes: AT-C-01 should precede this project AT-S-04 Description: In some cases, crashes involving bicyclists and pedestrians are due to roadway factors or infrastructure deficiencies versus human behavior. With rural areas having unique characteristics and roadway factors from their urban counterparts, a study identifying the rural specific components would be beneficial. A project on this topic would also assist agencies in identifying these factors in their own areas and applying systemic countermeasures. This project would seek to evaluate rural bicycle and pedestrian crash data (starting with the new PBIC database http://www.pedbikedata.org/) to identify the potential roadway factor and outdated infrastructure that may have factored into a crash. To ensure the list is robust (due to crash data often lacking details), the researchers will also review rural bicycle/pedestrian safety audits/assessments and rural bicycle/pedestrian safety plans to identify additional roadway factors and outdated infrastructure. The outcome would be a guidebook or toolkit detailing these factors and recommending rural-specific countermeasures. Notes: This should precede AT-S-01 AT-S-05 Description: There is a need to ensure that active transportation facilities can accommodate all users including those with disabilities (e.g., limited mobility, wheelchair use, vision loss, cognitive disabilities, hearing loss, etc.). While several documents address design for specific disabilities or specific infrastructure types, there is no comprehensive guide that addresses best practices for all disabilities and all active transportation facilities. There is also a need for fundamental research into the needs and wants of specific users with disabilities for various types of facilities (e.g., do wheelchair users just want to get from their front door to the paratransit van, or would they get on a quad bike and ride five miles?). This project would research and document the needs and wants of users with disabilities, and best practices for accommodating their needs and wants in the multiple different active transportation facility types. It would also provide case study examples. AT-S-06 Description: Bike-pedestrian safety audits, pedestrian systemic safety analysis, and bicycle-pedestrian safety action plans assist with diagnosing the specific active transportation safety issues in a community. These techniques are typically used once a community knows there is a safety issue to define (audit or systemic analysis) or to address (action plan). And result in site-specific countermeasures and safety tools. However, most of these tools and countermeasures are geared toward urban or small urban communities. This project will examine the methods and procedures for a retrospective analysis and site-specific countermeasures for rural areas. It should include documenting the similarities and differences in rural/small- town pedestrian and bicyclist safety needs and countermeasures from their urban counterparts; case study examples; and a process to assist communities in determining when one of these techniques is needed for evaluating each of their active transportation types for safety. Individual performance metrics (including acceptable ranges) for the different aspects of safety could be created, resulting in an overall safety rating. The result of the project could be a rural guidebook including a checklist for conducting the evaluation, a description of the safety audit process, potential solutions to fix safety issues by infrastructure type, guidance on how to select the most appropriate solution, and resources for creating a bicycle-pedestrian action plan. Lastly, the

Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap G-12 guidebook should provide recommendations for how often a community should conduct this evaluation. Notes: Should follow AT-S-02 AT-S-07 Description: The Safe Routes to Schools (SRTS) program sets forth to make communities safer for children to walk and bike to school and to encourage students to do so in safe environments. While the Safe Routes to Schools program has conducted national evaluations in the past and recommends each community conduct their own evaluation via a 6-step evaluation process; none of these evaluations have focused on rural areas. This project would focus on evaluating and documenting the effectiveness of the rural SRTS programs, evaluating the various countermeasures implemented in rural areas, and document successful rural SRTS case studies. The 2019 Safe Routes Partnership Program census should be used as a starting point.

Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap G-13 Essential Air Service ID # RESEARCH NEED STATUS AV-EA-01* Develop a mode-neutral methodology for assessing the most effective means of connecting rural communities to hub airports. Combined with AV- EA-02, AV-EA-03, and AV-EA-04 for a Policy PS AV-EA-02* Conduct an economic and financial analysis of the Essential Air Service (EAS) subsidy program, including utilization trends, the geographic and socioeconomic distribution of EAS program benefits (AV020). Also model the broader economic impacts of the Essential Air Service (EAS) program, such as the extent to which it supports overall community economic development. Combined with AV- EA-01, AV-EA-03, and AV-EA-04 for a Policy PS AV-EA-03* Develop recommend Essential Air Service (EAS) policy updates. Combined with AV- EA-01, AV-EA-02, and AV-EA-04 for a Policy PS AV-EA-04* Evaluate route consolidation and ground transportation alternatives for the Essential Air Service (EAS) program and the associated benefits and limitations (AV020). Combined with AV- EA-01, AV-EA-02, and AV-EA-03 for a Policy PS * Project Description is available Frontier and Remote Communities ID # RESEARCH NEED STATUS AV-FR-01 Develop methods for comparing general aviation (GA) investments with maritime investments for passenger and freight services to landlocked coastal communities in Alaska, American Samoa, Hawaii, and the Northern Mariana Islands. AV-FR-02 Evaluate the extent and sustainability of general aviation (GA) services available in remote and frontier communities in the continental U.S., Alaska, American Samoa, Guam, Hawaii, the Northern Mariana Islands, and Puerto Rico.

Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap G-14 General Aviation ID # RESEARCH NEED STATUS AV-GA-01* Conduct an updated evaluation of the economic value of general aviation (GA) in relationship to other public investments in the transportation system. AV-GA-02 Develop a guidebook for objective evaluation of general aviation (GA) investments, including case examples of successful and non- so-successful GA projects aimed at stimulating tourism and industrial development. AV-GA-03 Identify objective methods for allocating the costs of operating and maintaining local general aviation (GA) airports between taxpayers, commercial users, and recreational users. AV-GA-04 Develop case examples of communities that have developed or lost general aviation (GA) airports and the resulting effects on business and industry at both the local and state/national scales. Do general aviation investments promote growth, or simply redistribute it? * Project Description is available Ground Transportation ID # RESEARCH NEED STATUS AV-GT-01* Identify strategies for using the connections from rural areas to the air network for other trips (e.g., long-distance medical, intercity, Amtrak Thruway). AV-GT-02 Analyze the airport ground transportation industry in rural areas (e.g., size, typology, service types, fares, coverage). * Project Description is available Rural Aviation Planning & Operations ID # RESEARCH NEED STATUS AV-OP-01 Develop a method for using GIS for local government management of airspace obstructions and airport land use compatibility (AV020). AV-OP-02 Evaluate the labor market for rural aviation employees such as aircraft maintenance technicians and pilots and identify potential interventions to balance labor supply and demand. AV-OP-03 Evaluate the effects of wind turbines’ wake turbulence on general aviation (GA) aircraft and airports (AV020).

Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap G-15 Available Project Descriptions Av-EA-01 Suggested Project Title: EAS Analysis I: Connecting Rural Communities to Hub Airports: Mode- Neutral Evaluation Methods for Air and Ground Feeder Services Description: The FAA Essential Air Service (EAS) program was created in 1978 to address concerns about loss of scheduled air service to smaller communities after airline deregulation. In many areas EAS-funded routes are the primary means of providing passenger connections from rural areas and small cities to airline hubs, but these subsidized services are frequently threatened with budget cuts, often operate in competition with unsubsidized airport shuttles or other ground transportation providers, and sometimes overlap with services available through other hubs. To support a rational allocation of public resources, this project will develop a mode-neutral methodology for assessing the most effective means of connecting rural communities with hub airports. The methodology would likely need to take into consideration the distance to hub airports and other EAS airports, the catchment areas for rural service points, travel times to the hub via various modes (air, shuttle bus, rail, ferry, etc.), expected passenger volumes, and similar factors. Given the geographical distribution of EAS routes, the methodology should address the “lower 48” states, Alaska, Hawaii, and Puerto Rico. Av-EA-02 Suggested Project Title: EAS Analysis II: Economic and Social Effects of the Essential Air Service (EAS) Subsidy Program Description: When the airline industry was deregulated in 1978, the EAS program was created to address concerns about loss of air service to small communities, especially those distant from major airports. The subsidies have been controversial since the program’s inception 40 years ago. According to Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) data, from 1979 to 1997 the number of EAS service points declined from 383 to 95 as the annual program appropriation declined from $69 million to $26 million. This trend reversed from 1997-2017, with the number of service points nearly doubling to 174 and the appropriation increasing ten-fold to $263 million/yr. In FY 2106 the average subsidy was $642 per passenger, with the highest subsidies generally attributable to communities located more than 210 miles from a major airline hub. This project will conduct an economic and financial analysis of the EAS program, including utilization trends and the geographic and socioeconomic distribution of EAS program benefits. The project will also review the program’s broader economic impacts, such as the extent to which it supports overall community economic development. Thus, the research will look at the program’s direct benefits and costs to passengers, airports, airlines, and taxpayers, and also consider whether the presence of scheduled air service in small communities has ripple effects on other businesses and industries. For instance, the project will consider whether economic development is fostered by the EAS program, and if so whether the program tends to increase national economic activity, or mainly tends to shift economic activity from one place to another. Notes: Two related research needs were combined into this topic. Av-EA-03 Suggested Title: EAS Analysis IV: Essential Air Service (EAS) Policy Recommendations Description: The Essential Air Service (EAS) subsidy program was created in 1978 to help prevent smaller communities from losing scheduled air service following airline deregulation. The program has been controversial since its inception. Program costs and the number of cities served declined steadily from 1979- 1997, but this trend reversed it 1998 and program costs have grown rapidly in recent years. In FY 2016 the average subsidy was $642 per passenger. Building on the results of the EAS Analysis I, II, and III projects, this project will develop a recommended policy framework aimed at providing convenient, cost-effective connections between smaller communities and regional/national air, rail, bus, and maritime networks through a rational combination of aviation, maritime, and ground passenger services.

Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap G-16 Av-EA-04 Suggested Title: EAS Analysis III: Route Consolidation and Surface Transportation Alternatives to Essential Air Service Description: When the airline industry was deregulated in 1978, the Essential Air Service (EAS) program was created to address concerns about loss of scheduled passenger service to small communities. This project will examine each of the approximately 160 communities that receives air services subsidies from EAS and related programs. The analysis will consider the extent to which each city is served by other existing aviation, ground, or maritime passenger transportation services, evaluate the quality and frequency of connections to national and regional networks through all modes (air, rail, bus, shuttle, and maritime); compare the travel time, cost, and ridership for aviation services with other modal alternatives; and identify opportunities to consolidate routes and services to improve efficiency, connectivity, and customer service. Notes: Two related research needs were combined into this topic. Av-GA-01 Suggested Title: Comparing the Value of General Aviation with other Public Investments in Transportation Infrastructure & Services Description: General Aviation (GA) is the operation of civilian aircraft for purposes other than commercial passenger or freight transport, including personal, business and instructional flying. General aviation airports are often owned by county and municipal governments. The airports typically serve a wide range of smaller aircraft making non-scheduled trips for corporate flights, air taxis, aviation hobbyists, flight instruction, emergency medical transportation, crop dusting, aerial surveys, and similar purposes. Local governments often face uncertainties about how much to invest in GA airports, in part because traffic levels can fluctuate considerably from year to year and are sensitive to economic cycles. This project will examine the return-on-investment generated by typical GA upgrade projects and compare it with the benefits from similarly sized investments in other modes such as highways, pedestrian and bicycle infrastructure, and public transportation. Av-GT-01 Suggested Title: Small-City Airports as Ground Transportation Hubs: Potential and Practice Description: A number of large airports serve as hubs for local and regional ground transportation services. For example, O’Hare International Airport has a subway connection to downtown Chicago, a suburban commuter rail stop, and a Bus & Shuttle Center that serves as a hub for ground services that fan out across the Chicago metro area, northern Indiana, northern and central Illinois, and southern Wisconsin. This project will explore the potential for smaller airports to serve a similar role in facilitating intermodal connections. Specifically, the project will develop case examples of connecting services linked to smaller airports and the factors that led to the use of the airport for these services. The project will also explore the costs and benefits of airport-based ground connections; consider the effect of proximity to freeways, rail lines, and other major surface transportation routes; and discuss the differing interests of stakeholders such as airlines, ground transportation companies, travelers, airport facility owners, and airport concessionaires.

Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap G-17 Economic Impact/Performance Metrics ID # RESEARCH NEED STATUS FP-EI-01 Evaluate the economic benefits of maintaining existing transportation infrastructure and relationships between the quality of maintenance and community wellbeing. FP-EI-02 Develop trade-off analysis guidance to support computation of return-on-investment for all modes, facilitate prioritization of transportation investments within and across modes, quantify the broader economic benefits of transportation investments, and help assure that transportation expenditures support overall economic and social wellbeing. RNS4 and PS FP-EI-03 Evaluate the cumulative effects of rural transportation investment. RNS6 FP-EI-04 Review existing methods used to select transportation capital improvement projects. Identify methods for making selection processes more objective to minimize urban/rural and highway/non-highway biases and support multimodal, intermodal, and cross-modal project evaluations. FP-EI-05 Identify performance measures and performance management tools tailored to evaluation of rural transportation. FP-EI-06 Identify strategies for actions to take if a return on investment evaluation yields an answer that indicates a negative ROI. FP-EI-07 Identify the impact of MAP-21 performance measurement rulemaking and recent growth in return-on-investment-driven decision making on funding distribution and investment outcomes between urban and rural areas. FP-EI-08 Quantify current economic and social risks to rural communities in the event of a prolonged rise in petroleum prices, in relation to levels of dependence on personal motor vehicles and truck freight. Frontier and Remote Areas ID # RESEARCH NEED STATUS FP-FRA-01 Document the unique transportation needs and challenges of Alaska Native villages. FP-FRA-02 Document the unique transportation needs and challenges of the U.S. Pacific Ocean territories (American Samoa, Guam, and the Northern Mariana Islands). FP-FRA-03 Develop a forum for collaboration on ground transportation issues relevant to the arctic region.

Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap G-18 General Funding ID # RESEARCH NEED STATUS FP-GF-01 Conduct a cross-cutting evaluation of the impact of transportation infrastructure and services on community income, performance, and social inclusion. FP-GF-02 Develop techniques for balancing investments to maximize overall community benefits. FP-GF-03 Explore relationships between the revenue available to transportation agencies in various jurisdictions and the quality of the rural transportation services and infrastructure they are able to provide: Is there an expenditure level that provides optimal outcomes in terms of economic prosperity, health, social wellbeing, etc.? FP-GF-04 Identify rural transportation funding strategies including non-tax methods for funding infrastructure and programs; analyze the sustainability and equity of these approaches. FP-GF-05 Document flexible funding programs for rural investment and identify innovative value capture opportunities, that allow communities to do things that bring in money where “cash” doesn’t exist. FP-GF-06 Develop case examples documenting strategies for addressing resistance to expanded use of local revenue sources (such as local option taxes) to support rural transportation. FP-GF-07 Compare growth/decline in rural transportation funding levels with corresponding changes in rural transportation needs. FP-GF-08 Identify the long-term effects of rural highway jurisdictional transfers from state to local agencies (also called "turnbacks") on the local agencies' ability to maintain and operate the rest of their transportation system. FP-GF-09 Assess the impact of Census Bureau sampling techniques on data used for rural transportation funding allocations and decision- making. FP-GF-10 Develop transition guidance for communities that are being reclassified from “rural” to “urban” as a result of census boundary changes. RNS14

Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap G-19 General Policy ID # RESEARCH NEED STATUS FP-GP-01 Analyze the interaction of federal, state, and local transportation policies and develop recommendations for aligning funding and other resources to assure the health, safety, and overall wellbeing of the rural population. FP-GP-02 Evaluate culturally how to approach transportation funding in the future based on changing trends. FP-GP-03 Identify the appropriate roles of transportation agencies in broader community development efforts, such as road-building as an element of overall community-building. Develop case examples of projects that link transportation investments with investments in other sectors to support the economic and social wellbeing of rural communities. Identify supporting strategies, such as expanded use of context-sensitive design and community visioning to replace deficit-based methods of selecting transportation projects. FP-GP-04 Evaluate the concept of merging small communities in areas that are losing population to reduce the cost of maintaining transportation infrastructure and other local services. FP-GP-05 Compare the institutional structures for rural transportation in various states and regions. Identify opportunities to deliver rural transportation infrastructure and services more efficiently/effectively by reducing unnecessary redundancies. FP-GP-06 Identify minimum threshold of planning efforts needed to adequately assess and address unmet transportation needs in rural areas. FP-GP-07 Develop methods for analyzing and optimizing the extent and quality of modal interconnectivity for rural passenger and freight systems. FP-GP-08 Identify strategies to empower rural transportation decision- makers by improving vertical communication between the technical and executive levels of transportation agencies, strengthening peer-to-peer communication within agencies, and enhancing communication between neighboring agencies and levels of government.

Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap G-20 Planning ID # RESEARCH NEED STATUS FP-PL-01 Document advantages and disadvantages of consolidated, multi- jurisdictional maintenance departments and other shared service- delivery models. FP-PL-02 Document best practices for engaging underrepresented groups and fostering authentic inclusion in rural planning processes. FP-PL-03* Evaluate the effectiveness of non-traditional public outreach techniques for sparsely-populated areas. FP-PL-04 Conduct an overall assessment of the state of rural transportation planning in the U.S. (including transit planning): shortfalls, best practices, opportunities, benefits observed in areas with greater planning capacity and organization. FP-PL-05 Evaluate the effectiveness of virtual public meetings for transportation planning, budgeting, and project outreach. FP-PL-06 Evaluate why individuals do or do not support transportation investments and strategies for messages to help change their mind either way. FP-PL-07 Apply a rural community typology and document the unique transportation needs and challenges for each grouping. FP-PL-08 Develop educational materials that inform rural residents and local elected officials about how transportation projects and services are funded, including the interactions between federal, state, county, and local government. FP-PL-09 Develop case examples of transportation investments that resulted in more meaningful social interactions between urban and rural communities, or helped overcome barriers to social integration. FP-PL-10 Identify factors of success for rural planning organizations, such as their working relationships with one another and with metropolitan planning organizations and state transportation agencies. FP-PL-11 Review the effectiveness of local government and tribal government participation in state and federal rulemaking affecting local transportation systems. FP-PL-12 Develop an enhanced urban/rural classification system that can be used in conjunction with U.S. Census geography. FP-PL-13 Identify best practices for determining population characteristics in rural areas for the purposes of community impact assessments and improving public involvement processes. FP-PL-14 Review state rail bank programs and identify the extent to which they are successful in preserving abandoned corridors to support non-motorized transportation, local rail transit, passenger rail, and freight rail, including effects on current and future community redevelopment. * Project Description is available

Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap G-21 Available Project Description FP-Pl-03 Description: In sparsely-populated areas, it can be difficult for citizens to travel to public outreach meetings sponsored by transportation agencies. Often only a few citizens attend the meetings, making it difficult to assure that the viewpoints expressed are representative of the community as a whole. The objective of this project is to review techniques that have been used in attempts to broaden public participation in sparsely-populated areas, such as meeting format changes, satellite meeting locations, telecommunications- based approaches, and alternative methods for gathering public opinion feedback. The research will assess effects on participation rates and citizen satisfaction, and will identify obstacles to acceptance by citizens, meeting organizers, and decision makers, including legal obstacles where relevant.

Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap G-22 Youth – Education & Licensing ID # RESEARCH NEED STATUS DE-YEL-01* Identity how driver education programs vary by state. DE-YEL-02* Develop transportation educational programs for K-8 students that can be incorporated into STEM curriculums. DE-YEL-03 Evidence based practices for tribes (sovereign nations) for youth licensing. DE-YEL-04 Compare driver education programs for tribal residents and identify best practices for addressing the road safety issues that are prevalent in tribal communities. DE-YEL-05 Compare the driving tasks, situations, near-crash events, and crashes encountered by urban-based and rural-based residents and determine whether the skills emphasized in driver education programs should differ for the two groups. DE-YEL-06 Review current state practices for education, licensing, and regulation of drivers of agricultural trucks that do not require a Commercial Driver’s License (CDL). DE-YEL-07 Effects in rural areas of generational changes in obtaining driver’s licenses. RNS 19 * Project Description is available Elderly – Education & Licensing ID # RESEARCH NEED STATUS DE-EEL-01* Compare the age when rural elders stop driving due to deteriorating vision/health with their urban counterparts. Develop measures of willingness to stop driving and make comparisons based on land use, proximity to shopping and essential services, transit availability, and quality of transit service. DE-EEL-02* Overcoming smartphone-related barriers to ridesourcing and public transportation for elderly. RNS18 DE-EEL-03* Compare state practices for licensing elderly drivers and assisting rural elders who are no longer able to drive safely with finding alternative transportation and alternatives to transportation. DE-EEL-04 Identify effective senior driver education programs in rural communities. * Project Description is available

Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap G-23 Available Project Descriptions DE-YEL-01 Description: A study on how driver education programs vary by state was completed in 2012. A need exists to replicate this study to see what changes have occurred in almost 10 years, especially with the inception of graduated licensing programs. Notes: Several research studies have been completed on GDL programs. DE-YEL-02 Description: Many schools are incorporating STEM projects into their K-8 curriculums. This is an opportunity to provide additional transportation education. In this project, several transportation lesson plans would be created that could be incorporated into the classroom. All necessary information should be provided in the curriculum (e.g., ITS PCB curriculums for college). Notes: There is a similar project currently active (https://rip.trb.org/Results?txtKeywords=k- 12%20educational%20programs&txtTitle=&txtSerial=&ddlSubject=&txtReportNum=&recordStatus=&ddlTris file=&txtIndex=&states=&specificTerms=&txtAgency=&txtAuthor=&ddlResultType=&chkFulltextOnly=&su bjectLogic=or&dateStart=&dateEnd=&rangeType=emptyrange&sortBy=publisheddate&sortOrder=DESC&rpp =25#/View/1329711); however, this project could focus solely on rural topics. DE-EEL-01 Description: As people age; the visual, cognitive, and physical changes that occur may affect driving abilities and increase the risk of being injured or killed in a crash. Due to this, many aging adults self- regulate their driving (i.e., only drive in conditions they feel are safe) or by stopping driving altogether. Driving is a way to stay mobile and independent especially in a rural area where there is a lack of alternative transportation modes. While several studies have been conducted on factors for self-regulating, there is a lack of research on rural drivers decision making to stop driving. This project will assess the age when rural elders stop driving due to deteriorating vision/health and compare it with their urban counterparts. The project will also develop measures of willingness to stop driving and make comparisons based on land use, proximity to shopping and essential services, transit availability, and quality of transit service. DE-EEL-02 Description: Some barriers to use of ridesourcing and transit for the elderly is related to technology use (e.g., how to order a vehicle, how to look up schedules, and how to pay for rides). This project would document those barriers, identify solutions and noteworthy practices for overcoming these barriers, and develop educational materials to assist the elderly. Notes: In some towns, local students host “technology classes” at senior centers for the elderly. DE-EEL-03 Description: This project would compare state practices for licensing of elderly drivers. For example, driver license renewal laws and use of on road driver tests. It would also examine the state practices for then assisting rural elders with finding alternative transportation (e.g., ridesourcing, volunteer drivers, transit, etc.) and alternatives to transportation (e.g., meals on wheels, in home medical care, etc.) The project would document noteworthy practices and provide recommendations.

Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap G-24 Community and Economic Development ID # RESEARCH NEED STATUS EDT-CED-01* Expand rural tourism economic impact studies to compare and contrast the impact of transportation on rural tourism areas. Combined with RI- Ge-02 and EDT- CED-03 for a policy PS EDT-CED-02* Identify the impact of multimodal personal transportation facilities on economic development for rural communities. EDT-CED-03* Inventory the state of the practice and compile best practices to link economic and community investments (e.g., workforce development, education, downtown revitalization, etc.) with transportation investments and policy priorities to maximize impact. Combined with RI- Ge-02 and EDT- CED-01 for a policy PS EDT-CED-04* Develop case examples of rural communities that have modified the location of transportation facilities to support community development, for example moving a transit hub closer to the central business district or changing zoning to allow major employers to locate within walking distance of residential areas. EDT-CED-05* Analyze the effect of non-availability of telework and telecommunications technologies on attracting new industries and/or residents to rural areas and/or reducing rural travel demand. EDT-CED-06* Effects of state rail bank programs on motorized and non- motorized transportation and economic development. EDT-CED-07 Identify potential transportation agency roles in supporting the expansion of rural broadband telecommunications, such as preinstallation of empty fiber optic cable ducts when rural roads are reconstructed. EDT-CED-08 Identify successful linkages between tourism industry development and rural culture and traditions (popcorn festivals, apple pressing, etc.) to support community economic and social vitality. * Project Description is available

Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap G-25 Community and Economic Development (cont.) ID # RESEARCH NEED STATUS EDT-CED-09 Review the Economic Impact of Scenic Byways Programs. Description: Federal, state, and regional transportation agencies along with private organizations have implemented a wide range of scenic byways programs. These range from simply installing route marker signs to deeper ties with tourism marking programs. Several previous studies have evaluated the economic impacts of scenic byways, but many of these studies are now quite dated. The goal of this project is to identify factors that contribute to public awareness of scenic byway designations, assess the extent to which scenic route designations affect consumer decisions about recreational destinations and discretionary spending, examine the demographics of travelers attracted by scenic byways, and help identify factors that make scenic byways programs effective. EDT-CED-10* Estimate the impacts of future changes in economic productivity on rural travel demand. EDT-CED-11 Engaging the private sector to fill in transportation gaps. EDT-CED-12 Develop guidance on integrating long-range transportation planning, land use planning, and NEPA (PEL) to support economic development in rural areas, i.e., making a high-quality natural environment an economic asset. EDT-CED-13 Evaluate the extent to which small urban areas that have big city transportation offerings are able to maintain vibrancy and community investment, and retain/attract young adults. EDT-CED-14 Identify best practices for incorporating big city transportation offerings into small urban areas. EDT-CED-15 Inventory and assess transit willingness-to-pay in tourist areas, national parks, and public lands. EDT-CED-16 Identify a new economic development approach to transportation for the future based on changing trends. EDT-CED-17 Review programs aimed at repopulating and attracting highly skilled people to rural areas, such as Canada's Rural & Northern Immigration Program and Australia's Regional Sponsored Migration Scheme. Identify whether these strategies are transferrable to U.S. rural communities and their potential effects on demand for transportation infrastructure and services. * Project Description is available

Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap G-26 Data ID # RESEARCH NEED STATUS EDT-DA-01* Develop and describe low-cost applications of crowdsourced data for transportation planning and management in public lands and other tourist/recreational areas. EDT-DA-02 Evaluate the effects of the National Highway Freight Program (NHFP) and “Critical Rural Freight Corridor” designations on state transportation agency expenditures and priorities. EDT-DA-03 Develop transportation performance measures that are relevant to rural tourism areas. * Project Description is available Design ID # RESEARCH NEED STATUS EDT-DE-01 Develop a guidebook on green infrastructure applications for rural tourism communities. EDT-DE-02 Analyze the cumulative safety effects of relaxing road design standards for public lands. Economic Impact/Performance Metrics ID # RESEARCH NEED STATUS EDT-EI-01* Identify rational approaches for determining when the supply of rural transportation is adequate and when the provision of additional infrastructure and services can foster economic development. EDT-EI-02* Identify sustainable rural economic development models that reduce dependency on long-distance travel for employment, goods and services while supporting quality-of-life in rural communities. EDT-EI-03* All-modes analysis of the economic impacts of rural transportation infrastructure investments EDT-EI-04* Influence of transportation infrastructure on rural industrial location decisions. EDT-EI-05 Develop case examples and guidance to assist agencies in evaluating the resilience and sustainability of transportation investments intended to address economic development objectives. EDT-EI-06 Identify accessibility barriers for businesses to start, expand, and succeed in rural areas and best practices to overcome those barriers. EDT-EI-07 Analyze impact of rural economic development on rural transportation funding. EDT-EI-08 Identify methods for making rural transportation systems more of an economic engine. * Project Description is available

Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap G-27 Economic Impact/Performance Metrics (cont.) ID # RESEARCH NEED STATUS EDT-EI-09 Identify transportation impacts of changing economic and social conditions in rural communities and innovative methods for responding to these changes. EDT-EI-10 Assess the relationship between access to global markets in rural areas and socioeconomic outcomes. Forecasting Rural Travel Demand ID # RESEARCH NEED STATUS EDT-FR-01* Assessing America’s great outdoors: develop a deeper understanding of recreational travel patterns, demand, forecasting, and future investment needs for federal and state transportation systems. RNS21 and PS - Selected for NCHRP funding in FY 2020 as NCHRP 08-132 EDT-FR-02* Investigate the potential impacts that the lack of technology in rural areas will have on recreational travel demand. EDT-FR-03* Identify methods for predicting trends in rural tourism and their effects on transportation infrastructure and services, including changes in visitor demographics and related transportation needs for various types of tourism/recreational areas. EDT-FR-04 Identify and describe proprietary data sources to supplement trip types and volumes in non-urbanized areas. EDT-FR-05 Identify and predict trends in travel demand related to resource extraction. * Project Description is available Partnerships ID # RESEARCH NEED STATUS EDT-PA-01* Analyze the economic impact of public lands transportation systems on gateway communities and identify transportation planning partnerships to enhance national parks, gateway communities, and other public lands. * Project Description is available Technology ID # RESEARCH NEED STATUS EDT-TE-01 Evaluate the impacts of connected and automated vehicles (CAV) on tourism and natural environment areas. EDT-TE-02 Analyze the differences and similarities between these public lands, urban/suburban, and rural deployments for connected and automated vehicles (CAV).

Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap G-28 Tribal Communities ID # RESEARCH NEED STATUS EDT-TC-01* Evaluate the role of transportation in sustainable tourism development for Native American, Alaska Native, and Pacific Islander communities. EDT-TC-02* Best practices for consistent consultation and outreach with Native American and Alaska Native communities across all transportation modes. EDT-TC-03 Identify relationships between economic development and transportation specific to Tribal communities, including value capture approaches, non-tourism economic development, and the effects of variations in terrain, resources, and openness to external cultural influences. * Project Description is available Visitor Transportation ID # RESEARCH NEED STATUS EDT-VT-01* Analyze generational preferences for alternative transportation systems and investigate transportation’s impact on visitor experience for tourist areas and public lands. EDT-VT-02* Detail best practices, lessons learned, and case studies for traffic management, congestion management, and parking management in rural tourism areas. EDT-VT-03* Analyze generational differences in reliance on technology any related impacts on transportation in tourist areas. EDT-VT-04 Identify emerging technologies such as bike share and their potential applications on public lands. EDT-VT-05 Document best practices for accommodating pedestrians with disabilities or limited mobility in tourist areas. EDT-VT-06 Identify strategies for reducing the cost of transit operations and maintenance in public lands and other tourism areas. * Project Description is available Available Project Descriptions EDT-CED-01 Description: Rural tourism encompasses a wide range of locations and activities, from beachside resorts to scenic bicycle tours, wine country driving tours, mountain ski resorts, and wilderness adventures. The many types of rural tourism place highly divergent demands on local transportation systems: some are aviation-intensive, some depend on good highway access, some are based on non-motorized transportation, some require specialized infrastructure such as snowmobile or ATV trails, and few rural tourism sites are bolstered by their accessibility via intercity bus or passenger rail. Currently, practitioners hoping to stimulate rural economic development face difficulty determining when and how much to invest in tourism- oriented rural transportation. Previous (mainly European) studies have explored relationships between distances to population centers and the sustainability of rural tourism from an energy/emissions perspective. Building on prior work, this project will review the variables that affect the transportation needs for various types of rural tourism. The research will also evaluate previous U.S. rural transportation investments intended to stimulate

Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap G-29 tourism, explore whether they were successful in generating tourism activity, and whether the economic value created was proportionate to the costs of required transportation infrastructure. The project will also consider the potential for transportation projects such as bypasses to relocate or even reduce visitors, with neutral or negative effects on tourism employment. Thus, the ultimate goal of the project is to develop insights/guidance that will help state and local officials determine which types of rural transportation investments are cost- effective generators of living-wage rural tourism employment, and which should be avoided. EDT-CED-02 Description: Intercity passenger rail, commuter rail, intercity buses, commuter buses, bicycling, and walking/hiking contribute to economic activity in numerous rural communities. For example, commuter rail connections to downtown Chicago boost the vitality of several rural communities in McHenry County, Illinois, and a considerable number of visitors use Amtrak to travel to Glacier National Park. Official tourism publications from the state of Minnesota heavily promote the state’s 1000+ miles of bike routes, and the 2180 mile Appalachian Trail helps attract visitors to small towns in 14 states. Bicycle, pedestrian and multi-use paths are also seen as amenities that can help rural communities attract and retain visitors, residents, and investors. This project will review the roles of non-highway/non-aviation modes in supporting community economic development in the United States. If possible, the project will also develop case examples of successful and not- so-successful efforts to link investments in alternative modes with rural community and economic development. EDT-CED-03 Description: Transportation investments are often part of a package of projects and policies designed to stimulate economic growth and support the vitality of rural communities. While a number of studies have looked at the roles of individual project/policy elements in supporting economic development goals, it is much more challenging to understand the interactions (and purported synergies) between the elements of a multi-part package. This project will review successful and not-so-successful examples of rural economic development investment packages implemented in a variety of rural communities in the United States, and if possible search for comparisons between jurisdictions where a policy package was implemented and similar areas where no government action was taken. Thus, the project will help practitioners better understand how much transportation contributes to economic vitalization when it is part of a larger policy and investment package that also includes activities such as workforce development, education, downtown revitalization, etc. EDT-CED-04 Description: Rural communities often find it challenging to assure that development patterns remain compact, walkable, and efficient in terms of transportation and other public services. New developments at the edges of rural communities often lead to physical expansion while older properties closer to the central business district become underutilized. This project will look for case examples of communities that have modified the location of transportation facilities to minimize the need for motorized travel, such as moving a transit hub closer to the central business district or changing zoning to allow major employers to locate within walking distance of residential areas. The project will also document methods rural communities have used to encourage redevelopment of brownfield sites in support of compact, walkable neighborhoods. Underlying factors such as the extent of coordination with neighboring jurisdictions will be explored. EDT-CED-05 Description: The relationships between telecommunications, rural development, and travel demand are not clearly understood. The availability of telework and teleconferencing can make it possible for people with specialized skills to reside in rural areas while maintaining connections with urban clients, but the prevalence of this work style and its ability to support rural community development are not well documented. Many companies established call centers in rural areas in the 1990s, but there is limited information about how well these jobs were sustained over subsequent decades given the technical developments in customer service automation and competition from urban and overseas call centers. E-commerce has made it easier for rural businesses to sell their products in national and international markets, while also making it easier for distant

Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap G-30 companies to sell goods and services to rural consumers. In recent years, some state and local governments have heavily incentivized the construction of data centers (server farms) in exurban areas, but some of these projects have been criticized for providing relatively few jobs. This project will attempt to reconcile these seemingly mixed effects to provide transportation practitioners with guidance for predicting the net effects of telecommunications technologies on rural employment patterns and the resulting changes in travel demand. EDT-CED-06 Description: Deregulation of the railroad industry in the 1980s immediately led to abandonment of numerous rail lines that formerly served rural areas and small communities. In response, many states collaborated with the Surface Transportation Board to establish rail bank programs that purchased abandoned rail lines for possible re-use. Subsequently, a large amount of railbanked infrastructure was converted into bike/pedestrian trails, some was put back in service for freight rail or public transportation; considerable mileages are still “mothballed” for future use. This project will review state rail bank programs and identify the extent to which they have been successful in preserving abandoned corridors and supporting non-motorized transportation, local rail transit, passenger rail, freight rail, and public utility infrastructure. The project will also analyze the programs’ effects on community economic redevelopment. Based on this analysis, the project will evaluate the need for policy updates. EDT-CED-10 Description: Vehicle miles travelled (VMT) has historically been highly correlated with total economic output, but recent research suggests this relationship is weakening. Recent European research has explored methods to decouple economic growth from travel demand growth as a means of reducing greenhouse gas emissions, and it is asserted that decoupling transport demand from economic development is the only way to deliver true long-term sustainability. A related line of research has attempted to determine whether highway projects that increase productivity have an impact on economic growth and VMT, but a 2012 study by Rand Corporation for FHWA found that the relationship was inconclusive. This project will revisit the relationships between productivity and rural VMT in light of ongoing structural changes in the economy. EDT-Da-01 Description: This project will develop a practitioner oriented toolkit that describes methods for using crowdsourced data and “big data” to help manage transportation for public lands and rural tourism/recreational communities. Examples include using Bluetooth detectors or commercial GPS data to monitor and predict traffic conditions in tourism/recreational communities, using Bluetooth device re- identification to determine trip patterns, and using Bluetooth detection as a surrogate measure of pedestrian volumes. EDT-EI-01 Description: Mainstream economists have traditionally regarded transportation as a “derived demand” in the sense that economic activities such as manufacturing and agricultural production generate the need to transport workers, raw materials, and finished products. Conversely, many policy makers have taken a “build it and they will come” approach to rural economic development, arguing that transportation infrastructure investments that reduce travel time will stimulate rural tourism and make items produced in the rural U.S. more competitive in national and international markets. The latter view was particularly prevalent in the Midwest in the late 1990s and early 2000s, but more recently has been offset by concerns that reducing freight costs can make local products less price-competitive with foreign imports. This project will review the objective evidence about relationships between travel time/cost and economic activity for various industry sectors. The project will then develop practical guidance to help practitioners understand which industries are the most sensitive to transportation costs, analyze the positive and negative effects of faster/cheaper transportation on existing businesses/industries, determine when transportation infrastructure deficiencies inhibit economic growth, and identify situations where the cost of infrastructure investments exceeds their net benefit to state and local economies.

Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap G-31 EDT-EI-02 Description: Many rural communities are heavily dependent on their connections to larger places, resulting in high consumption of fuel and transportation services. For example, many rural residents commute long distances to urban/suburban jobs, and rural businesses are often highly dependent on customers from distant cities. These dependencies can make communities vulnerable to transportation system disruptions and spikes in energy prices. Nevertheless, a few communities have been successful in limiting dependencies. Building on previous research on decoupling economic growth from growth in travel demand, this project will explore the characteristics of relatively self-sufficient rural communities—places where residents are employed close to home and products are consumed near the point of production. These situations will be analyzed to identify factors that contribute to sustainable, low-travel rural communities while supporting high quality of life. EDT-EI-03 Description: This project will develop a practitioner-oriented meta-analysis of the documented economic benefits and disbenefits of infrastructure improvements across multiple modes: which types of transportation investments have the greatest impact on economic growth, and which adversely impact rural economies by making it cheaper to bring in products made elsewhere? EDT-EI-04 Description: This project will develop an overview of the economic literature to help transportation practitioners understand the role of transportation in industrial location decisions and the transportation assets that are of interest to specific industries. EDT-FR-01 Description: This study has three primary objectives: 1) to document and describe recreational and tourism travel demand and the related data gap within key states of interest; 2) to identify and begin to explore which factors (economic, demographic, geographical, etc.) drive recreational travel volumes and patterns (both within and between public lands); and 3) to develop a model to project recreational travel demand on state and country roads to allow those jurisdictions to make better informed decisions about investments in economic development, transportation and other issues that may affect quality of life for residents and experience for visitors. Notes: Selected for NCHRP funding in FY 2020 as NCHRP 08-132 EDT-FR-02 Description: It is likely that complex relationships exist between recreational travel demand and the telecommunications infrastructure and other technology available in rural areas. While some visitors clearly welcome opportunities to unplug from the hubbub of modern life, others find it necessary to remain accessible to colleagues and family members. Additionally, visitors in very remote areas often find it reassuring to have telecommunications available in case of a mishap. It is also possible that visitors posting details of their trips on social media help promote rural recreational destinations. Thus, it is possible that some types of rural tourism benefit strongly from access to technology, while others do not. This project will conduct market research to better understand the relationships between access to telecommunications technology and consumer willingness to engage in various types of rural tourism activities. EDT-FR-03 Description: There are many methods for forecasting tourism-related travel, yet these are often unfamiliar to rural transportation practitioners and can be quite problematic in terms of accuracy. Tourist/recreational travel demand is often volatile due to fluctuations in household income, fuel prices, and exchange rates, along with competition from other activities and destinations. This project will review the available tourism forecasting methods and identify those that are best suited for application at the local, county, and state levels in the rural United States. In addition, the project will develop guidance on methods for determining the impacts of growth or decline in tourism travel on rural transportation infrastructure needs, including methods for dealing with uncertainty in forecasted outcomes. Notes: This project combines two related themes.

Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap G-32 EDT-Pa-01 Description: This project will examine the operational and economic relationships between public lands (including major state and national parks) and adjoining “gateway” communities. The project will review economic interdependencies between public lands and gateway communities, including the influence of various types of visitor transportation systems. The project will conduct surveys and/or focus groups to assess gateway community satisfaction with visitor transportation plans as perceived by citizens, business owners, and public officials. These metrics will then be compared with the transportation strategies and community planning/outreach methods used by the corresponding public land management group. Based on this information, the project will develop guidance on methods for strengthening collaboration between gateway communities and public lands managers, including best practices for reconciling conflicts between visitor transportation and other community goals. Notes: This item combines two related research needs. EDT-TC-01 Description: Transportation is an important factor in the tourism-related economic development opportunities available to Native American, Alaska Native, and Pacific Islander communities. Several Native American tribes with convenient transportation to urban areas have developed tourism enterprises such as casinos, though such projects have often been accompanied by concerns about potential loss of traditional cultural identity. At the other extreme, indigenous communities in frontier and remote areas may find it very difficult to attract visitors due to distance, limited infrastructure, and transportation costs. For example, portions of American Samoa and the Northern Mariana Islands are accessible only by air or water charters, and even where scheduled air service to the U.S. mainland is available (as in Guam), transportation costs can deter visitors. Difficult access is compounded by seasonal limitations for many Alaska Native communities. The proposed research will review the role of transportation in successful and not-so-successful tourism projects for Native American, Alaska Native, and Pacific Islander communities in the greater United States, with the objective of identifying situations where transportation investments contributed to sustainable development. EDT-TC-02 Description: This project will evaluate and compare the techniques and extent of consultation and outreach with Native American and Alaska Native communities for various transportation modes (aviation, highway, transit, rail, non-motorized, etc.). Based on this information, the project will identify best-practices that could be adopted to assure consistent approaches across modes. EDT-VT-01 Description: Visitors to tourist areas often appear to be willing to use travel modes that are not part of their daily routine. One notable example is Mackinac Island, Michigan, a resort where motor vehicles have been prohibited since 1898, and the dominant travel modes are bicycles and horse-drawn carriages. At Glacier National Park and Denali National Park, motor vehicles have been restricted to reduce congestion, with shuttle bus systems providing access to points of interest. Pedestrianized zones are common in tourism areas, such as the Landing Zone development in Branson, Missouri. Some rural tourism communities host unusual transportation modes such as steam trains, funiculars (diagonal outdoor elevators), overhead cableways, or zip lines. This project will research modal preferences for various types of rural tourism sites and investigate the extent to which these preferences vary based on age or other demographic factors. In addition, the project will evaluate the extent to which the presence or absence of specific modes affects customer choices about which tourism areas/public lands are visited, willingness to visit again, and the frequency and duration of visits. Notes: This project combines two related research themes. EDT-VT-02 Description: Many tourism areas have limited street/roadway capacity, and often the topographical features or cultural resources that make the area attractive to visitors also inhibit roadway expansion. As a result, a number of tourist areas have developed special strategies for managing traffic and parking, such as park-and-ride systems that combine outlying parking lots with shuttles to attractions. This

Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap G-33 project will review and compare the congestion management systems used in various types of tourism areas and develop guidance and best practices for planning and implementing such systems. EDT-VT-03 Description: This project will explore possible relationships between visitor age and the technology used to plan, book, and manage travel in and around tourist/recreational areas. The project will help local officials and public lands managers better understand the transportation needs of visitors and the extent to which travel-related information needs to be provided through multiple media channels. The project will also determine which types of assistive devices are frequently used by elderly customers with vision or hearing loss and the associated technical requirements for electronic, print, and on-site media disseminating tourism-related transportation information.

Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap G-34 EMS ID # RESEARCH NEED STATUS HT-EMS-01 Identify and document innovative administrative, operational, and design techniques for reducing rural emergency services response times. HT-EMS-02 Document best practices in coordinating emergency services to healthcare hubs. HT-EMS-03 Develop a planning toolkit for mapping rural EMS response times, develop strategies to reduce service gaps by coordinating services among public and private EMS providers, and identify opportunities to co-locate EMS with outlying public facilities. HT-EMS-04 Identify strategies and best practices to coordinate EMS agencies and 911 public safety access points and support areawide cross- jurisdictional coordination and facilities sharing. HT-EMS-05 Develop guidance for standardizing EMS data reporting practices. HT-EMS-06 Evaluate the feasibility of training drivers of non-emergency medical transportation vehicles to support mass-evacuation of nursing home patients and other vulnerable populations in the event of a natural disaster or similar emergency. HT-EMS-07 Identify methods for incorporating EMS into future transportation research efforts. HT-EMS-08 Develop reliable statistical information on the prevalence of trips where an ambulance was used for a trip that could have been made using paratransit or other non-emergency medical transportation services. HT-EMS-09 Develop guidance on the use of gate-controlled responder-only access from secondary roads to freeways to reduce response times. Planning ID # RESEARCH NEED STATUS HT-PL-01 Identify techniques for integrating health into rural transportation planning efforts. HT-PL-02 Evaluate barriers that prevent public health officials from becoming involved in transportation planning. Inventory the state of the practice and compile best practices for engaging the public health community in transportation discussions. HT-PL-03 Assess the link between transportation accessibility and public health outcomes.

Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap G-35 Planning (cont.) ID # RESEARCH NEED STATUS HT-PL-04 Develop recommended access-to-healthcare metrics for use in federally mandated Community Health Impact Assessments (CHIPS). HT-PL-05 Identify best practices for incorporating transportation issues into Health Impact Assessments. Develop guidance on when the health impacts of a plan or policy should be evaluated and methods for conducting these evaluations. HT-PL-06 Compare the costs of medical treatment for crash victims with systematic safety upgrades on rural highways and identify potential policies for using healthcare cost savings to pay for infrastructure. HT-PL-07 Quantify the health benefits of ped/bike facilities and compare the costs of this infrastructure with avoided medical costs. HT-PL-08 Document best practices for collaborations between transportation, public health, and healthcare organizations to support implementation and utilization of active transportation. Social Issues ID # RESEARCH NEED STATUS HT-SI-01 Evaluate how social issues impact the health and economic development of rural communities and their intersection with transportation. HT-SI-02 Identify and address social indicators of health benefits for transportation. Technology ID # RESEARCH NEED STATUS HT-T-01 Identify innovative ways for technology to overcome transportation barriers to healthcare access, work, and education. HT-T-02 Identify barriers to the implementation and expansion of telemedicine services to rural areas. HT-T-03 Analyze the effects of telehealth and increased data access on rural transportation. HT-T-04 Develop a process for regularly updating rural telecommunications coverage maps to document gaps that impact transportation agency operations or hamper utilization of alternatives to travel HT-T-05 Evaluate the feasibility of using unmanned aerial vehicles (drones) to deliver medications, medical supplies, and medical devices in emergency and non-emergency situations. HT-T-06 Develop a toolkit for planning and coordination of rural communication technology implementations. HT-T-07 Evaluate the effects of using pilotless vertical take-off-and-landing (VTOL) aircraft for medical transportation on patient safety, air traffic control, and medical transportation costs.

Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap G-36 Transportation for Healthcare ID # RESEARCH NEED STATUS HT-TH-01 Identify best practices/innovative methods to connect transportation disadvantaged populations to healthcare facilities in rural areas. HT-TH-02 Document best practices in healthcare transportation initiatives. HT-TH-03 Analyze the impact of closing/consolidating rural hospitals on transportation. HT-TH-04 Document strategies to coordinate scheduling of medical care with transportation. HT-TH-05 Evaluate transit demand to major medical facilities (AP025(2)). HT-TH-06 Review the rural “transportation broker” concept and evaluate its impacts on health outcomes and cost of providing rural transportation services. HT-TH-07 Identify methods for helping rural residents make sensible choices for medical transportation: when to use ambulances, medical shuttles, paratransit, ride hailing services, etc. HT-TH-08 Identify the potential for regularly scheduled bus services connecting rural communities to major medical centers in distant urban areas. HT-TH-09 Quantify the impact of increased in-home dialysis on rural transportation needs. What training and support is needed for this model? HT-TH-10 Identify training and other interventions rural transit systems can utilize to assure that passenger medical needs are appropriately addressed in service planning and day-to-day operations.

Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap G-37 Human Trafficking ID # RESEARCH NEED STATUS LE-HT-01 Evaluate the extent to which public transit and intercity bus operators have received training on what to look for when it comes to human trafficking, feedback on these existing training programs, and additional agency employee anti-trafficking training needs. LE-HT-02 Identify human trafficking interventions that are successful in reducing trafficking-related activities at rest areas and other transportation facilities. LE-HT-03 Assess the locations, characteristics, and demographics of human trafficking (i.e., sex and labor trafficking) involving rural transportation facilities. LE-HT-04 Evaluate human trafficking training needs of front-line enforcement agencies in rural areas. LE-HT-05 Research on practices and tools addressing human trafficking for general aviation and other private aircraft operators that may enable (or observe) exploitation. This should include a detailed review of reporting processes, e.g. the distinct objectives of reporting law enforcement and victim protection/services, the varying forms of reporting (e.g. supervisor, hotlines), and best practices for addressing either remote, isolated areas. LE-HT-06 Human trafficking intervention guide for rural and tribal transportation agencies. RNS15 LE-HT-07 Identify the roles and responsibilities of state and local transportation agencies on human trafficking. LE-HT-08 Assess the effectiveness of electronic surveillance on rural sex trafficking sites. LE-HT-09 Identify inter-agency data sharing needs related to the identification of trafficking activities and the interdiction of traffickers. LE-HT-10 Conduct measurement and monitoring of the effectiveness of anti- trafficking efforts in rural areas LE-HT-11 Assess the effectiveness of anti-trafficking public awareness campaigns involving transportation agencies LE-HT-12 Develop methods to mitigate the risk of revenge attacks on transportation agency employees and transportation researchers involved in anti-trafficking initiatives. LE-HT-13 Develop methods for detecting the use of trafficked labor on rural road construction projects.

Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap G-38 Human Trafficking (cont.) ID # RESEARCH NEED STATUS LE-HT-14 Identify the transportation patterns involved in human trafficking to establish a basis for appropriate interventions. LE-HT-15 Identify best practices for transporting trafficking victims to places of refuge, including transportation fare waivers/vouchers. Illicit Drugs ID # RESEARCH NEED STATUS LE-ID-01 Identify strategies for detection and prevention of employee and contractor substance abuse. LE-ID-02 Identify practical methods for assessing transportation agency employee fitness-for-duty that do not require chemical testing and are independent of the substances consumed. LE-ID-03 Identify methods and best practices for public transportation driver and system coordination with law enforcement for substance abuse interventions. LE-ID-04 Prevalence of opioid related addition/use, and MV crashes. LE-ID-05 Develop case examples of rural transportation employers with successful approaches to the prevention and treatment of employee substance abuse disorders LE-ID-06 Identify the transportation needs of rural residents seeking treatment for substance abuse disorders. LE-ID-07 Assess factors influencing effectiveness of employer on-the-job substance use prevention programs in the rural context. LE-ID-08 Identify rural transportation agency roles in supporting effective treatment of substance abuse disorders. LE-ID-09 Evaluate how opioids affect safe driving in rural areas and how to get opioid treatment to rural areas. LE-ID-10 Identify barriers to sharing of drug violation information involving drivers and vehicles operating on tribal lands LE-ID-11 Identify age-related differences in driving under the influence of opioids in rural communities with high rates of opioid abuse. LE-ID-12 Identify the appropriate transportation agency roles/responsibilities in responding to illicit drug epidemics. LE-ID-13 Identify prevention and detection strategies for misappropriation of public resources related to employee substance abuse. LE-ID-14 Identify strategies for detection and prevention of illicit drug sales on transportation agency premises. LE-ID-15 Document rural transit agency procedures for transporting customers with opioid use disorder.

Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap G-39 Marijuana Legalization ID # RESEARCH NEED STATUS LE-ML-01 Identify methods of assessing marijuana impairment that are suitable for use in remote areas. LE-ML-02 Evaluate if driving ability is impacted by habitual marijuana use, even if the driver/employee is not acutely intoxicated. LE-ML-03 Evaluate the effectiveness of zero-tolerance drug/alcohol policies. RNS2 and PS LE-ML-04 Identify urban/rural differences in driving while under the influence of marijuana. LE-ML-05 Evaluate if rural transportation employees can perform their jobs safely while under the influence of cannabidiol (CBD). LE-ML-06 Assess employee, front-line supervisor, and management attitudes toward marijuana and cannabidiol (CBD) use during working and non-working hours at rural transportation agencies. LE-ML-07 Develop training materials to assist transportation agency managers in understanding the difference between tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD) and their effects on employee/passenger behavior when consumed alone and in combination with and other substances (such as alcohol). LE-ML-08 Develop training materials for transit drivers to debunk myths about the effects of marijuana on driving performance. LE-ML-09 Compare urban and rural rates of driving after consuming cannabidiol (CBD) and possible urban/rural differences in CBD dosage for various age/generational groups. LE-ML-10 Evaluate if current employee cannabis screening policies used by rural transit and highway agencies are sustainable in an era of increasing public support for marijuana. LE-ML-11 Analyze differences between urban and rural marijuana use, and subsequent driving under the influence, including differences based on age/generation. LE-ML-12 Evaluate if there are differences between rural and urban driving environments that should be considered when establishing the legal definition of marijuana impairment. LE-ML-13 Identify methods for detection of rural employee use of marijuana and cannabis derivatives. LE-ML-14 Identify the risks that rural transportation agencies face if their policies for employee/contractor marijuana use are made more lenient. LE-ML-15 Identify alternatives to zero-tolerance policies for rural areas.

Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap G-40 Traffic Enforcement in Rural Areas ID # RESEARCH NEED STATUS LE-TE-01 Document innovative rural law enforcement practices. LE-TE-02 Evaluate the benefits of peer exchange programs for rural law enforcement officers and supervisory personnel. LE-TE-03 Identify interventions relevant to rural road safety, that might reduce other types of injury or violence, making them more cost- effective. LE-TE-04 Identify methods for increasing proportion of rural officer time spent on-road. LE-TE-05 Identify non-punitive strategies to increase compliance with rural traffic laws. LE-TE-06 Force multiplier toolkit for rural traffic safety enforcement. RNS3 and PS LE-TE-07 Evaluate the feasibility and effectiveness of rural automated enforcement. LE-TE-08 Document strategies for citizen involvement in rural traffic enforcement. LE-TE-09 Identify engineering measures to support rural traffic law compliance. LE-TE-10 Identify institutional barriers to interagency cooperation in rural areas. LE-TE-11 Identify best practices for the enforcement of school speed limits in rural areas and small towns. LE-TE-12 Assess rural transportation theft and vandalism risk factors LE-TE-13 Evaluate the extent and characteristics of rural transportation theft and vandalism. LE-TE-14 Evaluate effectiveness of transportation theft and vandalism prevention strategies in rural areas. LE-TE-15 Identify best practices for the enforcement of truck size and weight laws on tribal lands. LE-TE-16 Identify potential traffic hazards caused by aggressive driving of manually controlled vehicles that is meant to exploit weaknesses of automated vehicles in rural environments. LE-TE-17 Evaluate the impact that sharing a sheriff between counties makes in addressing driver behaviors contributing to crashes. LE-TE-18 Identify the correlation between issues faces by both EMS services and law enforcement in rural areas and capture possible solutions. Traffic Incident Management ID # RESEARCH NEED STATUS LE-TIM-01 Compile performance measures for rural traffic incident management and compare performance access jurisdictions. LE-TIM-02 Document funding and strategies for rural traffic incident management

Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap G-41 Asset Management ID # RESEARCH NEED STATUS RI-AM-01* Identify best practices for the implementation of asset management systems that are scaled to local agency needs RI-AM-02* Develop informational materials to help county and local decision- makers evaluate budgetary trade-offs between roadway drainage upgrades and pavement improvements. * Project Description is available Bridges ID # RESEARCH NEED STATUS RI-BR-01 Review previous state and local efforts to standardize the design of short-span bridges and identify best practices for reducing the cost and complexity of short-span structures. RI-BR-02 Assess the impact of natural disasters on infrastructure’s useful life and how to build resiliency, especially for bridges. RI-BR-03 Develop case examples of rural applications of innovative stormwater management techniques such as permeable pavement, bioswales, and underground stormwater storage systems, including applications intended to protect bridges and culverts from excessive stormwater flows. RI-BR-04 Expand the tool created by NE DOT to utilize rainfall data overlaid with bridge locations to determine which bridges to inspect first. RI-BR-05 Assess and document the failure of WPA spread footing bridges and scour critical bridge closures. RI-BR-06 Document the current state of practice for automated bridge scour monitoring.

Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap G-42 Design ID # RESEARCH NEED STATUS RI-DE-01* Identify practices for expediting environmental review and coordination for smaller rural roadway projects. RI-DE-02 Identify best practices for the use of passing lanes on two-lane rural highways. RI-DE-03 Develop 21st century design volume criteria for rural roadways (alternatives to K30 / 30th highest hourly volume). RI-DE-04 Identify the feasibly of using reversible lanes to manage high seasonal or event-related traffic demands in rural locations. RI-DE-05 Review the field performance of at-grade and grade-separated crossings for large and small animals (including domesticated, wild, and endangered species). Review relevant collision reduction, population stabilization, and habitat defragmentation results and develop best-practice recommendations. RI-DE-06 Identify design loads and other design requirements to accommodate truck platooning on rural highways. * Project Description is available Finance ID # RESEARCH NEED STATUS RI-F-01 Compare per-capita and per-lane-mile revenue and expenditures for transportation infrastructure in urban and rural areas. RI-F-02 Identify innovative infrastructure financing strategies that can succeed in rural areas. ( RI-F-03 Analyze the impacts of infrastructure investment programs. RI-F-04 Document objective methods for sharing costs of infrastructure projects that overlap jurisdictions, including roads serving state parks and other public lands. RI-F-05 Document strategies that states and localities have used to address matching funds requirements for roadway projects. RI-F-06 Analyze changes in traditional travel patterns and their effect on funding and infrastructure. RI-F-07 Document noteworthy state practices in administering federally funded local road projects. RI-F-08 Assess the effects of focusing transportation infrastructure investments mainly on the National Highway System.

Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap G-43 General ID # RESEARCH NEED STATUS RI-GE-01* Identify low cost infrastructure improvements on local rural roads. RI-GE-02* Collect and analyze data evaluating relationships between economic development and the required transportation infrastructure. Combined with EDT-CED-01 and EDT-CED-03 for a policy PS RI-GE-03* Identify traffic demand management methods that are suitable for rural conditions. RI-GE-04* Develop a handbook for the planning, design, construction, maintenance, and safety management of very low volume paved and unpaved roads. The handbook should expand on existing guidance and where possible utilize an evidence-based approach for balancing safety with costs. RI-GE-05* Identify best practices in alternative energy sources for lighting in rural areas for multiple modes. RI-GE-06 Assess how transportation infrastructure responds to changing economies and demographics in rural areas. RI-GE-07 Identify potential methods for reconfiguration of rural transportation networks to maintain essential access and mobility while reducing overall infrastructure costs in areas with declining travel demand (long-term interagency focus). RI-GE-08* Assess the true cost and economic impact of removing and/or closing a bridge due to lack of reliability. RI-GE-09* Review current county and local processes for long-term planning of road, bridge, and stormwater management investments. Identify methods for providing localities with the technical support, training, and knowledge required to implement systems that support strategic planning and work program development. RI-GE-10 Evaluate the positive and negative effects of roadway expansion on rural employment, economic output, safety, health, mode share, and energy consumption. RI-GE-11 Identify methods for disseminating information about rural pavement, bridge, and roadway safety conditions to help travelers select the safest and most comfortable routes. RI-GE-12 Develop guidance to assist communities that have experienced population losses with rationalizing their transportation infrastructure and managing infrastructure maintenance costs (short-term single-agency focus). RI-GE-13 Develop recommended practices for the use of unmanned aerial systems (UAS or "drones") in the design, construction, and maintenance of transportation infrastructure. RI-GE-14 Identify methods for assuring that the cost of low-volume rural road structural upgrades is distributed fairly. For example, if strengthening a bridge to accommodate heavier trucks benefits only one farm, should that farm pay the entire cost? * Project Description is available

Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap G-44 Geometric Design ID # RESEARCH NEED STATUS RI-GD-01* Develop design guidance for accommodating animal-drawn vehicles such as Amish buggies on high-speed rural roads. RI-GD-02* Develop design guidance for accommodating pedestrians, bicycles, and motorized scooters on high-speed rural roads. RI-GD-03* Evaluate and document when to use mini roundabouts. RI-GD-04* Develop guidance for the design and construction of low-cost or very-low-cost rural roundabouts. RI-GD-05 Identify strategies to address technical needs of narrow pavements at network and project level. RI-GD-06 Review the relationships between design standards for low-volume rural roads and their safety performance and develop evidence- based minimum design criteria for various terrain types. RI-GD-07 Identify the effect of curbed vs. shoulder sections on rural roundabout entry and circulating speeds at high speed approaches and develop recommendations about when to use each type. RI-GD-08 Evaluate the impact of J turns with downstream U-turns versus J turns with an offset side street for narrow right of ways. RI-GD-09 Develop design guidance for accommodating large trucks and farm equipment at J turns. RI-GD-10 Identify best practices for keeping speed limit transition zone locations updated as development occurs. RI-GD-11 Identify the Crash Modification Factors (CMFs) for compact/mini roundabout conversion to modern roundabout. RI-GD-12 Analyze the effectiveness of road diets in rural areas. * Project Description is available Maintenance ID # RESEARCH NEED STATUS RI-MA-01* Document advantages and disadvantages of consolidated, multi- jurisdictional maintenance departments and other shared service- delivery models. RI-MA-02* Evaluate the economic benefits of maintaining existing transportation infrastructure, the relationships between the quality of maintenance and community wellbeing and quantify the safety impacts of insufficient road maintenance (including but not limited to roads on tribal lands). RI-MA-03* Identify best practice for maintenance to extend the useful life of asphalt pavements and thin surface treatments (chip seal/otta seal) on rural two-lane highways. RI-MA-04* Identify strategies for funding a backlog of maintenance projects. RI-MA-05 Identify best practice for maintenance to extend the useful life of concrete pavements on rural two-lane highways. * Project Description is available

Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap G-45 Maintenance (cont.) ID # RESEARCH NEED STATUS RI-MA-06 Evaluate the feasibility of automation-assisted winter maintenance for rural highways. RI-MA-07 Evaluate the non-safety benefits of the Safety Edge, a method for tapering the transition from the pavement to a gravel shoulder. Anticipated benefits include reduction in shoulder maintenance costs. RI-MA-08 Identify best practices for maintaining rural roadway infrastructure located near waterways and water bodies to manage the environmental effects of maintenance operations while assuring efficient utilization of human and other resources. RI-MA-09 Identify best practice for maintenance to extend the useful life of soil-cement and soil-polymer treatments on rural two-lane highways. RI-MA-10 Assess the safety effects of increasing or decreasing warm weather maintenance. Unpaved Roads ID # RESEARCH NEED STATUS RI-UR-01* Create guidance for engineers and transportation professionals on how to talk to politicians and policy makers about unpaved road issues. RI-UR-02 Evaluate the relationships between surface condition and safe operating speeds for unpaved roads. RI-UR-03 Assess the economics and safety effects of paving and depaving rural roads RI-UR-04 Develop speed limit guidelines for unpaved roads based on geometrics, surface composition, and operating conditions. RI-UR-05 Identify methods for reducing the cost of dust control on unpaved roads. RI-UR-06 Identify potential modifications to the Model Inventory of Roadway Elements (MIRE) to support safety analysis on unpaved roads (ANB10(7)). RNS22 and PS created. Not funded when submitted to NCHRP in FY20 RI-UR-07 Compare the cost and durability of the various commercially available thin surfacing systems and pavement stabilization systems for rural highways. Develop guidance to assist practitioners in selecting appropriate treatments based on climate, traffic, and soil conditions. RI-UR-08 Assess the impact of unpaved roads lacking drainage systems. * Project Description is available

Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap G-46 Unpaved Roads (cont.) ID # RESEARCH NEED STATUS RI-UR-09 Assess the effects of pavement stabilization and dust control agents on the freeze-thaw stability of unpaved roads: Do summer maintenance chemicals improve winter performance? Do deicing agent residues affect summer performance? RI-UR-10 Evaluate alternatives to existing materials to stabilize gravel and unpaved roads. RI-UR-11 Develop unpaved road performance models to determine the cost- effectiveness of using chemical treatments to reduce gravel loss and maintenance. RI-UR-12 Evaluate the relationships between gravel hardness/friability and long-term roadway maintenance requirements. Develop a template for analyzing the cost-effectiveness of hauling in harder gravel if the local stone is soft. RI-UR-13 Assess the effects of road dust on human health and crop yields. RI-UR-14 Assess whether replacing unsurfaced roads with thin surface treatments (chip seal, otta seal, etc.) affects crash rates and/or crash severity. RI-UR-15 Evaluate the need for centerline and edge line delineation to support automated vehicle operations or enhance safety on unpaved roads. Identify methods for designating lane locations on unpaved surfaces. Available Project Description RI-AM-01 Suggested Title: Best Practices for Local Agency Transportation Asset Management Systems Description: Transportation agency asset management systems require a significant commitment of skilled resources to map existing infrastructure and keep information about its characteristics and condition up to date. Although asset management systems can help county and municipal agencies make more efficient use of their capital budgets, smaller agencies often struggle to find and retain the human and budgetary resources required for computer-assisted asset management. This project will identify best practices, both administrative and technical, for developing and maintaining asset management systems in smaller transportation agencies. It will address, for example, the level of detail and frequency of updates necessary to provide meaningful results at the local level. The project will also consider the cost and value added or subtracted by tying the transportation asset management systems to broader GIS systems. RI-AM-02 Suggested Title: A Decision Guidance Tool for Comparing Pavement Upgrades and Roadway Drainage System Improvements Description: Transportation officials working at the county and local levels frequently need to allocate their capital improvement budget across different classes of transportation assets, such as drainage improvements and pavement upgrades. This project will develop a tool that applies the principles of probabilistic risk analysis to help guide such analyses. The tool will be designed for ease of use, so that users do not need detailed knowledge of statistics or risk analysis theory to obtain reasonable results.

Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap G-47 RI-De-01 Suggested Title: Best Practices for Expediting Environmental Review of Smaller Rural Roadway Projects Description: This project will review state and local practices intended to expedite state and federal environmental review and interagency coordination for small rural roadway projects, develop case studies discussing the strengths and weaknesses of these processes, and recommend best practices. RI-Ge-01 Proposed Title: Best practices for low-cost rural transportation infrastructure improvements. Description: Rural transportation agencies at the state, county, and local levels are frequently under pressure to reduce the cost of building streets, highways, and bridges without compromising rural safety and mobility. This project will review the previous research on low-cost methods for improving transportation infrastructure and compare these with the current state of practice to identify best practices and emerging low-cost infrastructure improvement techniques that have potential for more widespread implementation. RI-Ge-02 Suggested Title: A Decision-Maker’s Guide to Transportation Infrastructure Supporting Rural Economic Development Description: Companies seeking to build, expand, or continue operating industrial and warehousing businesses in rural areas often argue that transportation infrastructure improvements are necessary to support job creation. In many cases state and local agencies have responded by making major investments in roads, freight rail infrastructure, ports, and airports. Sometimes these investments serve a broader public purpose, and sometimes they benefit only a single business. At other times, the public investments are mismatched with the transportation requirements of the employer or fail to deliver long-run economic benefits. For example, a $3 billion package of transportation improvements and tax incentives for a proposed electronics factory in rural Wisconsin was harshly criticized by conservative, moderate, and liberal media when the manufacturer abruptly scaled back plans from a 13,000-worker facility to one expected to employ less than 1,000. This research will review recent experience with rural transportation economic development in various sectors of the U.S. economy. It will develop principles that can help state and local officials objectively assess the need for transportation improvements proposed in conjunction with economic development projects. The guidance should be designed to help decision makers understand role of transportation in the industrial value chain, how transportation needs vary from one industry to another, and how to align investments that support industrial development with broader community objectives. The overarching goal of the research is to help practitioners assure that their transportation investments are likely to be effective engines of job creation and retention. RI-Ge-03 Suggested Title: Rural Transportation Demand Management Handbook Description: Most of the transportation demand management techniques discussed in the professional literature were developed for urban areas. Transportation demand management in rural areas presents a somewhat different set of challenges: when backups and delays occur in rural areas, they are often linked to special events, adverse weather, or other unusual circumstances. All too often, the resulting speed differentials are unexpected, leading to back-of-queue crashes. This project will develop a handbook for managing traffic demand in rural areas through collaboration between roadway agencies, law enforcement, and special event planners. RI-Ge-04 Suggested Title: Design, Operation, and Management of Low-Volume Rural Roads: A Practitioner Handbook Description: This project will develop a handbook for the planning, design, construction, maintenance, and safety management of very low volume paved and unpaved roads. The handbook should expand on existing guidance and where possible utilize an evidence-based approach for balancing safety with costs.

Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap G-48 RI-Ge-05 Suggested Title: Solar-Powered Lighting for Rural Highways and Small-Town Streets Description: Recent scientific advances have improved the quality and slashed the cost of photovoltaic cells, light-emitting diodes (LEDs), and rechargeable batteries. This trio of technologies has sparked a revolution in outdoor lighting, leading to rapid advances in solar-powered streetlights. This project will review the current state of the solar lighting market and develop guidance on the selection and implementation of solar-powered lighting for isolated rural intersections, rural roadway corridors, small-town streets, multi-use trails, and rural work zones. The guidebook will include methods for comparing the life-cycle cost of solar-powered lighting with conventional street lighting, along with advice about simplified approaches for lighting design including luminaire selection and placement. Maintenance of solar lighting systems will also be addressed. RI-Ge-08 Suggested Title: Rationalizing Rural Road Networks in the Face of Falling Demand: Balancing Economic Efficiency with Social Impacts Description: In recent years many rural areas have experienced declining populations, a reduced need for rural labor, or the permanent closure of rural industries. These circumstances result in long-term reductions in travel demand. Consequently, many existing rural roads and roadway networks are now overbuilt for the traffic they handle. These circumstances are often accompanied by declines in the revenue generated by property, income, and fuel taxes. As a result, many rural agencies now struggle to operate and maintain their transportation infrastructure. Agencies that lack a plan for reconciling their infrastructure with their financial resources can face an ongoing series of random pavement and bridge failures, potentially resulting in permanent closures at critical locations. In a number of cases the cost of continuing to provide rural transportation infrastructure exceeds its economic value, and there are situations where it would be cheaper for a public agency to buy out an isolated home or business than to continue providing access to it. Nevertheless, rationalizing rural transportation infrastructure can be extraordinarily difficult due to the desire for universal access to residences, farms, businesses, and other properties and natural resources. Community leaders often have concerns about the broader social implications of closing or downgrading roadways; residents and advocates often wish to retain facilities for sentimental reasons. Using a long-term interagency focus, this project will identify potential methods for reconfiguration, rationalization, and adaptive re-use of rural transportation networks to maintain essential access and mobility while reducing overall infrastructure costs in areas with declining travel demand. This includes, for example, identifying methods for reducing facility duplication with due consideration of factors such as traffic volumes, repair/replacement costs, positive and negative impacts on economic development and job retention, and costs borne by road users such as additional travel necessitated by permanent detours. This project should draw on experiences from the rail sector, such as the 1963 report The Reshaping of British Railways (also known as the Beeching report) and its subsequent critiques. The report should also consider experiences from the 1980s-era U.S. railbank program, which “mothballed” routes that could potentially be reopened in the event of recovery in rural transportation demand. Notes: Three related research needs were combined into this item. RI-Ge-09 Suggested Title: Identifying Practitioner Needs for County and Local Roadway Capital Program Development Description: Most of the technical training available to county and local transportation practitioners focuses on the details of project design and construction oversight. This project will conduct a state-of-practice review of the methods county and municipal agencies currently use to identify, prioritize, and select rural transportation capital improvement projects (including road, bridge, and stormwater management investments). The project will then identify knowledge and skill gaps. This will be followed by identifying

Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap G-49 suitable methods for providing localities with the technical support, training, and knowledge required to support rational project selection and capital program development. The project will include developing a recommended curriculum aimed at disseminating the practical knowledge and skills necessary to make best use of capital improvement funding. RI-GD-01 Title: Design Guide for Rural Highways with Shared Use by Pedestrians, Animal-Drawn Vehicles, and Motorized Traffic Description: The use of horse-drawn vehicles in the United States is closely associated with members of two religious groups: the Amish and the Old Order Mennonites. These groups have settlements in approximately 31 U.S. states, with particularly high concentrations in Pennsylvania, New York, and the Midwestern states. The use of animal-drawn vehicles appears to be increasing due to steady growth of the Amish population, which doubles approximately every 20 years. Crashes between animal-drawn vehicles and motorized traffic are often severe due to large speed differentials, yet very little guidance is available to assist roadway designers seeking to reduce collision risks and operational conflicts. Similarly, there are no documented solutions for preventing crashes involving left-turning animal-drawn vehicles. Identifying appropriate design solutions is complex due to the need for culturally sensitive solutions that address issues such as the behavior of draft animals, limited road space, and the concurrent need to accommodate pedestrians. This project will conduct an analysis of the relationships between animal-drawn vehicles and the physical characteristics of roadways and develop a design guide for rural highways that experience shared use by pedestrians, animal-drawn vehicles, and motor vehicles. RI-GD-02 Suggested Title: Expanded Design Guidance for Pedestrian, Bicycle, eBike, and eScooter Accommodations on Rural High-Speed Roadways Description: The existing design guidance for non- motorized modes focuses mainly on bicycle facilities in urban and suburban environments. The purpose of this project is to expand on existing guidance by considering additional options for accommodating pedestrians and riders of human-powered bicycles, electric bicycles, and electric scooters on rural context. Notes: The timing of this project should be considered in relation to updates to the AASHTO Guide for the Development of Bicycle Facilities that are expected to be approved in 2020. RI-GD-03 Suggested Title: Mini-Roundabouts for Small Towns Description: Mini-roundabouts are widely used in Europe for traffic control at three- and four-leg intersections on roadways with speed limits of 30 mph or less. They consist of a slightly raised dome in the middle of an intersection combined with special paint markings which indicate that traffic should circulate in a single lane around the dome (long trucks can drive over the dome). Mini roundabouts are used mainly as a traffic calming and crash mitigation measure, especially in residential areas. Reportedly, a mini-roundabout can improve the operation of an intersection by reducing the dominance of one traffic flow, improving the handling of left-turning traffic, and improving capacity. This project will develop guidance on the appropriate use of mini roundabouts in the context of small rural communities. The guidance will include recommendations for geometric design, pavement markings, and signage, along with strategies for informing rural road users about the benefits of mini-roundabouts and assuring that drivers are confident using them. Notes: This project should be coordinated with forthcoming FHWA general guidance on mini roundabouts. RI-GD-04 Proposed Title: Low-Cost Rural Roundabouts: Standardization, Tessellation, Prefabrication, and other Cost Reduction Strategies Description: Roundabouts are a proven strategy for reducing crash severity. Although operational costs for roundabouts are much lower than the cost of running a comparable signalized intersection, the up-front costs of building a traditional roundabout can be substantial. This project will explore opportunities for reducing the cost of building roundabouts at intersections on rural secondary highways. Examples of possible cost reduction strategies include:

Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap G-50 • Standardization, such as the development of a “pattern book” that provides generic designs covering common rural roundabout applications. • Prefabrication, such as the use of precast masonry units for curbs on splitter islands and circulatory roadways (a common practice in Europe). • Tessellation, replacing complex curvilinear shapes with polygons to simplify roundabout layout and enhance constructability. The project will also explore the feasibility of using low-cost materials for traffic surfaces and central islands, as well as methods for minimizing real estate acquisition. RI-Ma-01 Proposed Title: Cooperative Intergovernmental Models for Roadway Maintenance Service Delivery Description: The structure of local government in the United States is highly fragmented, comprising nearly 40,000 jurisdictional entities (in comparison, Canada has less than 4,000 local governments and Australia less than 600). In most states the transportation functions of counties overlap with those of towns, townships, villages, and small cities. Additionally, many state DOTs have regional maintenance garages with service delivery areas that overlap those of county and local governments. In most cases the geographical extent and duties of these jurisdictional entities were initially established in the 18th and 19th centuries under conditions very different from those that exist today. This project will explore the potential for improving the quality and efficiency of street and highway maintenance through consolidated transportation service delivery models, with emphasis on voluntary cooperation between jurisdictional entities. Since roadway maintenance needs are likely to intensify with continued changes in temperature and weather patterns, emerging maintenance needs such as those related to more-frequent heavy snowfall and increased stormwater flows should be taken into consideration in this project. RI-Ma-02 Suggested Title: Safety and Economic Effects of Deferred Rural Roadway Maintenance: Does A Stitch in Time Save Nine? Description: Officials in rural and tribal communities are often under pressure to balance annual budgets and minimize public expenditures (including expenditure on roadway maintenance), but inadequate maintenance of transportation infrastructure has been shown to increase long-term costs. The relationships between maintenance cycles and the longevity of pavements and bridges are well established in the technical literature, but there is limited awareness of these relationships beyond a relatively small circle of life-cycle cost experts. Insufficient road maintenance can also result in what economists call externalities: hidden costs borne by residents and businesses. For example, maintenance shortcomings can increase the number and severity of crashes, resulting in a “reverse lottery” of increased medical costs borne by crash victims and their insurers. Similarly, road closures and delays related to inadequate winter maintenance can result in business closings and travel cancellations that reduce personal income and result in lost sales or diminish productivity for businesses. The purpose of this project is to quantify the costs of underinvestment in rural roadway maintenance and explain these effects in a manner that can be easily understood by decision makers and the public. RI-Ma-03 Suggested Title: Pavement Preservation Handbook for Low and Medium-Volume Rural Roads: Thin Surface Treatments and Related Techniques to Maximize Pavement Surface Life Description: This project will update previous guidance on best practices for preventative maintenance of stabilized surfaces and asphalt pavements on two-lane rural highways. Building on existing products such as NCHRP Synthesis 35-02 and TRL Road Note 39 (7th Edition), this project will review and summarize previous research on the application and reapplication of thin surface treatments such as slurry seal, chip seal, and otta seal for rural two- lane highways. The project will then develop best-practice guidance and decision support tools to assist

Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap G-51 practitioners in determining how to select and schedule treatments aimed at maximizing pavement life. The project will also address related issues such as crack sealing and drainage management. RI-Ma-04 Suggested Title: Resolving Rural Highway Maintenance Backlogs Description: Many rural communities struggle with underfunding of rural highway maintenance and the resulting backlogs of unmet needs. This project will develop case studies of communities that have successfully resolved such backlogs. The objective is to understand the circumstances that led to the resolution, such as revenue increases or more effective use of existing revenue. Examples could include a transportation crisis that prompted voters to accept higher taxation, implementation of new funding mechanisms or organizational structures (e.g., intergovernmental cooperation or jurisdictional mergers), fiscal windfalls (e.g., new development), changes in public attitudes, or the discontinuation of inefficient approaches to financial management. The project will explore the roles of citizens, businesses, nonprofit organizations, transportation officials, and elected leaders in these transformations. The project will also review the strategies and software tools communities used to prioritize reinvestment in rural transportation systems, and the amount of time required resolve the backlog. If possible, the project will also compare expenditure levels before the backlog occurred, during the period the backlog was building up, and after the backlog began to be resolved. RI-UR-01 Suggested Title: Technical Communication Strategies for Unpaved Rural Road Professionals Description: There are approximately 1.4 million miles of unpaved rural roads in the United States, touching thousands of jurisdictions. As a result, a vast number of agencies are faced with a repetitive set of operational questions from policy makers and the public. This project will develop technical communication guidance for engineers and other transportation professionals who are tasked with responding to the issues that typically affect unpaved rural roads. Examples of these issues include the cost and safety trade-offs between paved, stabilized, and unpaved surfaces; drainage and stormwater management; vegetation management; removal of encroachments and obstacles such as non-crashworthy mailboxes; dust abatement; and the on-highway use of ATVs and other off-road vehicles. Frequently encountered problems and themes will be identified and prioritized through stakeholder outreach. For each of the selected topics, a set of talking points will be developed based on a review of relevant technical literature and a synthesis of recommendations from technical experts.

Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap G-52 Funding ID # RESEARCH NEED STATUS PT-F-01 Evaluate innovative revenue sources for rural transit systems. RNS12 PT-F-02 Identify the impact of decline in overall non-urbanized population on transit funding. PT-F-03 Analyze the funding impacts resulting from rural areas shifting into urbanized areas after the 2010 Census and the potential effects of the 2020 Census. PT-F-04 Review the relationship of FTA Urbanized/Non-Urbanized designations to various rural community types. PT-F-05 Identify how to correctly interpret sponsored trip regulations for operational funding. PT-F-06 Document the basic data needed for rural areas to apply for funding. Human Resources (School Transportation) ID # RESEARCH NEED STATUS PT-HR-01 Identify methods for addressing shortages of school bus drivers. PT-HR-02 Develop case examples of rural transit and school bus systems that have found innovative methods for utilizing human resources and equipment efficiently during off-peak periods. PT-HR-03 Identify gaps in the availability of training rural transit and paratransit vehicle operators and potential solutions. PT-HR-04 Identify strategies to train and motivate first responders to gather appropriate data for bus-involved traffic incidents.

Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap G-53 Intercity Bus ID # RESEARCH NEED STATUS PT-IB-01* Development and implementation of a national intercity bus atlas. RNS23 and PS Selected for NCHRP funding in FY 2020 as NCHRP 08- 133 PT-IB-02* Identify methods to coordinate state intercity bus subsidy programs across jurisdictional boundaries. Transit PS (combined with PT-IB- 04) PT-IB-03* Update TCRP 147 demand model at the route level with additional data points from expanded use of in-kind and add a network model. PT-IB-04* Analyze effects of transit and intercity bus services on rural economic development. Transit PS (combined with PT-IB- 02) PT-IB-05* Develop a guidebook to assist tribal communities, local governments, and private intercity bus providers with implementing and improving connectivity between local, tribal, regional, and long-distance bus services. PT-IB-06* Identify the effects of rural intercity bus service frequency, stop density, and amenities on ridership. PT-IB-07 Develop an Intercity Bus industry overview that includes an updated analysis of how well rural communities are being served by intercity operators. PT-IB-08 Innovative business models for rural intercity passenger transportation. RNS24 PT-IB-09 Identify ideas for making intercity bus services more attractive. What services/attributes, marketing, and priority infrastructure would assist with this. PT-IB-10 Develop software to link the Intercity Bus Atlas to the BTS National Transit Map. PT-IB-11 Analyze existing intercity bus subsidy programs and their relationships with unsubsidized commercial services provided by traditional, ethnic, and express carriers. Compare the characteristics of routes requiring long-term subsidy and those which are financially self-sustaining. PT-IB-12 Update TCRP 79 and NCHRP RRD 356 to document what states are doing with FTA section 5311 funding. * Project Description is available

Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap G-54 Marketing ID # RESEARCH NEED STATUS PT-M-01* Evaluate current rural transit service marketing programs. PT-M-02 Identify the effects of using electronic payment systems (including multi-agency debit cards) on rural transit ridership. PT-M-03 Evaluate the effectiveness of current rural transit service marketing programs and the specific marketing techniques that are effective. PT-M-04 Develop tools that assist public transportation customers with visualizing network connections and linkages. PT-M-05 Assess the impact of marketing techniques: travel training, personal bottom-up approach vs. top-down wide audience. PT-M-06 Update TCRP Report 150, "Communication with Vulnerable Populations: A Transportation Planning & Emergency Management Toolkit." Consider adding more information about tribal communities and the roles of rural social service agencies. PT-M-07 Evaluate the merits of a stored-value card that would allow cognitively independent subsidized riders to make their own decisions about mode choice and carrier. PT-M-08 Identify strategies to ensure that riders and potential riders know and understand their eligibility status, so no one gets left behind. PT-M-09 Identify best practices for preparing riders (specifically elderly and veterans) to use the public transit systems via social media. PT-M-10 Update TRCP Report 150, "Communication with Vulnerable Populations." Identify social resilience in rural communities; assess social networks (person to person and online) to support emerging communications and emerging transportation. PT-M-11 Identify relationships between transit/paratransit equipment specifications and customer acceptance or service marketability metrics. * Project Description is available

Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap G-55 Modeling and Forecasting ID # RESEARCH NEED STATUS PT-MF-01* Evaluate the characteristics, benefits and drawbacks, and design considerations for deviated fixed route systems that have been implemented in rural areas. Transit PS and Partially funded by TCRP as Project number B-49. PT-MF-02* Assessing Rural Passenger Transportation Market Trends PT-MF-03 Develop recommended practices for accounting for intermodal linked trips in rural travel demand forecasting models. PT-MF-04 Characterize and quantify markets for rural public transportation; identify socioeconomic and technological trends which may shape these markets going forward. PT-MF-05 Identify best practices for matching rural transit service intensity with passenger demand. PT-MF-06 Identify methods for comparing rural transit system ridership with demand for alternative services such as ride sourcing and carpooling. PT-MF-07 Evaluate the importance of providing access to medical facilities and testing laboratories on rural transit routes. PT-MF-08 Comprehensively study vehicle availability trends in rural areas. PT-MF-09 Review the effect of national immigration policies on rural transit ridership. * Project Description is available NEMT ID # RESEARCH NEED STATUS PT-NEMT-01* Evaluate transportation policies across multiple Federal agencies (CMS, FTA, VA, etc.) to identify opportunities to improve service coordination and increase productivity. Transit PS PT-NEMT-02 Develop case examples that quantify the impacts to rural transportation agencies when non-emergency medical transportation providers cease operations. PT-NEMT-03 Integrate transit subsidy programs with overall medical treatment programs for people with cognitive disabilities. PT-NEMT-04 Conduct a comprehensive review of state and federal policies for funding medical transportation. PT-NEMT-05 Identify best practices and strategies for transit contracts with rural healthcare facilities. PT-NEMT-06 Update the 2005 cost benefit analysis for non-emergency medical transportation (NEMT) and include case studies. PT-NEMT-07 Analyze cost for accessing medical care. PT-NEMT-08 Update the state-by-state Medicaid/Medicare reimbursement study. * Project Description is available

Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap G-56 Passenger Facilities ID # RESEARCH NEED STATUS PT-PF-01 Measure the impact of rural bus stop infrastructure conditions and bus stop ADA compliance on ridership; identify potential solutions for improving the safety, comfort, and accessibility of rural bus stops. PT-PF-02 Identify relationships between roadway surface conditions, passenger comfort, and vehicle maintenance costs for rural public transit and paratransit systems. PT-PF-03 Evaluate the feasibility of using low-cost surfacing materials for rural bus stops and platforms, such as gravel stabilized with acrylic polymer. Passenger Rail ID # RESEARCH NEED STATUS PT-PR-01* Exploring the value of passenger rail service in rural network access: Analyze available data about rural Amtrak ridership, trip patterns, trip purposes, and passenger demographics to identify service gaps and opportunities to strengthen Amtrak and its connections to other modes. RNS20 PT-PR-02 Evaluate the value of accommodating bicycles on long-distance passenger trains and/or providing bicycle rental at rural stations. * Project Description is available Performance Measures ID # RESEARCH NEED STATUS PT-PM-01 Develop key public transit performance metrics and target levels for discretionary travel (ADA40). PT-PM-02 Create and analyze separate, rural-specific benchmarks/performance metrics for intercity bus and public transit. PT-PM-03 Adjust the transit investment value and cost benefit analysis framework for rural outcomes. PT-PM-04 Apply the return on investment methodology (previously utilized for active transportation analysis) to infrastructure, partnerships, and Medicaid population access.

Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap G-57 Planning ID # RESEARCH NEED STATUS PT-PL-01* Expand the use of the Oregon DOT methodology for identifying "Key Transit Hubs" (transfer points) to include the entire United States and document best practices for coordinating the funding of passenger transportation services that cross jurisdictional boundaries. PT-PL-02* Re-evaluate the Federal Transit Administration's National Transit Database (NTD) to simplify reporting requirements but cover more FTA programs. PT-PL-03* Identify new/innovative transit operations models for the future. PT-PL-04 Evaluate methods to improve transit access through improving transit data. PT-PL-05 Inventory all rural transit providers and create a comprehensive rural transit coverage map. PT-PL-06 Develop synthesis of practice on the integration of rural transit planning with overall rural transportation planning. PT-PL-07 Identify best practices for transit-oriented development in small towns (ADA30). PT-PL-08 Analyze changes in demand for public transportation as the rural (and tribal) populations age. PT-PL-9 Document best practices for cross-jurisdictional coordination of passenger transportation using travel shed concepts. PT-PL-10 Develop recommended practices for funding passenger transportation services in travel sheds that cross jurisdictional boundaries. PT-PL-11 Identify strategies for encouraging rural transit service coordination and/or mergers to improve services that cross jurisdictional boundaries. PT-PL-12 Identify strategies for rural transportation and college-oriented services to interact and benefit each other. PT-PL-13 Identify unmet mobility needs or offer methodology for practitioners to measure unmet needs in their state/community – where are there high rates of vehicle unavailability without corresponding alternate mode choices? PT-PL-14 Identify strategies for assuring that affordable housing developed in rural areas has a residential density sufficient to serve efficiently with transit. PT-PL-15 Identify the service quality expectations of rural transit riders on underfunded and low-density systems. PT-PL-16 Identify best practices for human service transportation in underserved rural areas. PT-PL-17 Review the effects of service area characteristics on transit system productivity, financial performance, and subsidy requirements. * Project Description is available

Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap G-58 Planning (cont.) ID # RESEARCH NEED STATUS PT-PL-18 Evaluate overlaps between rural transit and paratransit services and identify opportunities to improve efficiency and customer service. PT-PL-19 Identify security measures for rural transit systems and cost- effective deployment options. PT-PL-20 Identify the transit operational issues, best practices, and lessons learned for “necks” of peninsulas. PT-PL-21 Evaluate cost effective options for "on-demand" transit services in rural areas. PT-PL-22 Identify barriers to the expansion of on-demand paratransit services in rural areas. PT-PL-23 Prepare a meta-analysis of rural transit system feasibility studies to identify the characteristics of route expansions and new systems which advanced to the implementation stage. PT-PL-24 Create tool for converting transit system costs into costs per passenger-mile for rural mobility services. PT-PL-25 Evaluate potential effects of the Safe Routes to School program on the transportation preferences of the post-Millennial generation. Policy ID # RESEARCH NEED STATUS PT-PO-01* Document the effects of public transportation service levels (or lack of service) on income inequality and poverty perpetuation in the rural United States. Assess the link between rural accessibility barriers and socioeconomic outcomes, such as the implications of limited access to education, jobs, and medical services for non- drivers. PT-PO-02* Evaluate the efficiency/effectiveness of the Federal Transit Administration 5310/5311 program and the impacts of the 5310 program mandated changes. PT-PO-03 Identify strategies to ameliorate rural transit funding inequities. PT-PO-04 Evaluate the extent of rural transit system utilization of the General Transit Feed Specification (GFTS) to disseminate route and schedule information through commercial mapping services such as Google Maps. Identify barriers to further GFTS implementation and methods to encourage GFTS use by rural operators. PT-PO-05 Develop case examples of the impacts to citizens and businesses when a local government fails to secure matching funds. PT-PO-06 Analyze the economic impact of having rural transit versus not having transit. * Project Description is available

Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap G-59 Policy (cont.) ID # RESEARCH NEED STATUS PT-PO-07 Evaluate the impact of changing funding allocations on rural transportation. PT-PO-08 Explore the cost-efficiency and cost-effectiveness for rural transit service provision. PT-PO-09 Conduct a comprehensive policy review for Federal funding of rural public transportation (transit and paratransit). PT-PO-10 Compare transit and no-transit small urban communities. PT-PO-11 Identify the implications of converting existing FTA operating and capital funding programs to a block grant approach for rural systems. PT-PO-12 Evaluate the impact of private vehicle use in rural communities that have invested a significant amount of money in creating a multi-modal transportation system offering. PT-PO-13 Identify tools to train and incentivize transit agencies to implement best practices including compliance requirements. PT-PO-14 Analyze Federal Transit Administration matching funds requirements for rural transit systems, document utilization of in- kind services and other “soft match” and analyze social and economic effects of current cost-share policies. PT-PO-15 Identify techniques for a higher level of financial accountability and reporting compliance for rural public transportation systems. PT-PO-16 Identify methods to provide transportation (including long- distance transportation) for low-income people who wish to testify at legal proceedings as witnesses, subject matter experts, etc. PT-PO-17 Assess the feasibility and impacts of a reduction or suspension of local matching funds requirements for Federal Transit Administration projects in economically distressed rural communities. School Transportation ID # RESEARCH NEED STATUS PT-ST-01 Evaluate methods to improve the safety of school transportation, including reduction of illegal passbys. PT-ST-02 Identify methods for making school bus routes more efficient and making best-possible use of drivers and equipment. PT-ST-03 Identify effects of school bus route length on student academic performance. PT-ST-04 Identify methods for encouraging students to utilize on-bus time to improve their academic performance. PT-ST-05 Identify relationships and synergies between school transportation and general public transportation.

Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap G-60 School Transportation (cont.) ID # RESEARCH NEED STATUS PT-ST-06 Research the changing trends in communities where parents drive their kids to school – what is driving it, and should schools be designed differently to accommodate this trend? PT-ST-07 Research relationships between school bus use and state/local policies that allow students to attend a district other than the one where they reside. Tribal ID # RESEARCH NEED STATUS PT-TR-01* Analyze multi-jurisdictional issues in tribal funding. PT-TR-02 Analyze and document tribal funding formulas. PT-TR-03 Identify the effects of urbanization on rural tribal funding when not self-sufficient. * Project Description is available Vehicle Technology ID # RESEARCH NEED STATUS PT-VT-01 Evaluate the feasibility of implementing rural autonomous public transportation systems. PT-VT-02 Identify best practices to build out infrastructure to accommodate electric vehicles/buses. PT-VT-03 Assess the impacts of driverless vehicles on rural transit. PT-VT-04 Assess the effectiveness of alternative fuels sources for rural applications. Available Project Descriptions PT-IB-01 Description: The purpose of this research project is to develop a national atlas of intercity bus services that utilizes General Transit Feed Specification (GTFS) data, is publicly available, can be maintained to a high level of currency, and is complementary to the National Transit Map. Although the network of intercity bus services represents the most comprehensive national coverage provided by any of the intercity modes, there has not been any comprehensive, complete, and up-to-date inventory of these services until recently. Such an inventory has been needed by policy-makers, planners, operators of complementary services, and the industry itself to understand and depict the current state of the intercity bus network, its role, its connections with local transit, and its role with regard to Amtrak and commercial air service. PT-IB-02 Description: By their nature, intercity bus trips often involve long-distance travel that crosses state lines, but the Federal Transit Administration's rural intercity bus subsidy programs are administered by individual states. Differences in the selection criteria and timing for state subsidy decisions can deter carriers from proposing routes or route extensions that extend beyond a single state. To address this issue, the proposed research would review current state subsidy programs, identify data needs related to coordinating intercity bus route planning, and develop case examples of successful collaborations for routes that include two or more states.

Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap G-61 PT-IB-03 Description: TRCP Report 147 (2011) developed a sketch-planning level tool for estimating rural intercity bus service demand. Since that time there have been major changes in the intercity bus industry, including the introduction of new subsidized and unsubsidized services. The proposed research would develop an updated ridership forecasting methodology that is based on a larger sample and provides more refined route- level passenger forecasts. Such a tool could assist intercity carriers, regional planners, and state transportation agencies in identifying unserved and underserved rural communities and making optimal use of existing funding programs. PT-IB-04 Description: Over the years, several studies have looked at the effects of transit on rural economic development, however, most of these studies are either 10-20 years old or focus on small regions (e.g., a few towns in Georgia or Tennessee). One recent study done by APTA and CTAA, “Public Transportation’s Impact on Rural and Small Towns” looked at the impact overall, but only had a brief summary on the impact to economic development. The purpose of this study is to build on that recent study and do a more comprehensive look at the effects across the nation. It should also focus on both intercity bus and transit and should be broken down by transit rider type (e.g., elderly, work trips, school trips, etc.) PT-IB-05 Description: Develop a guidebook to assist tribal communities, local governments, and private intercity bus providers with implementing and improving connectivity between local, tribal, regional, and long- distance bus services. PT-IB-06 Description: TRCP Report 147 (2011) developed a sketch-planning level model for estimating rural intercity bus service demand. Since that time there have been major changes in the intercity bus industry, including the introduction of new subsidized and unsubsidized services. The proposed research would develop an updated model that is based on a larger sample and provides more refined route-level passenger forecasts. Such a model could assist intercity carriers, regional planners, and state transportation agencies in identifying unserved and underserved rural communities and making optimal use of existing funding programs. PT-IB-07 Description: TCRP Report 79 (2002) and NCHRP Research Results Digest 356 (2011) analyzed state practices for the use of FTA Section 5311(f) rural intercity bus funding and provided advice on the potential ways in which states could implement rural intercity bus programs. Since the release of those publications, there have been major changes in the intercity bus industry. In 2005 Greyhound completed a major restructuring that resulted in the loss of service to many rural areas and small towns, increasing the scale of the problem and causing many more states to consider the options for replacing lost intercity service. In 2010 the Federal Transit Administration issued guidance for a pilot project allowing the use of the value of connecting unsubsidized intercity bus service as the required match for Section 5311(f). This was later included in statute and is now a part of the program. This change has allowed many more states to implement rural intercity bus programs, and has changed the options for program design, as it requires a high degree of connectivity with the unsubsidized network. In addition, the industry itself has continued to undergo changes, with new carriers that have emerged that offer low-cost express (nonstop or limited-stop) services between major cities. Ethnic carriers, notably those focusing on the Hispanic market, have introduced new services that sometimes include stops in small cities. Traditional intercity bus carriers such as Greyhound have revised their routes and schedules and introduced new express services. At the state level, many more states have developed programs to use Section 5311(f) funding combined with in-kind match, and added innovations in branding, information technology and connectivity. As a result of these rapid changes, there is a need for up-to-date research that examines how well the needs of rural intercity bus passengers are being served, identifies best practices in state implementation of the 5311(f)

Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap G-62 program, and provides recommendations for the development of state programs in response to changing market conditions. PT-M-01 Description: The purpose of this project is to assess current rural transit service marketing techniques (e.g., travel training, personal bottom-up approach vs. top-down wide audience, etc.) to determine their impact and effectiveness (e.g., does the public know service exists including the connections between services). The project will also consider which types of media are effective in reaching potential new riders (direct mail, targeted internet advertising, local radio, etc.) Best practices and lessons learned should be identified and documented. The project should also assess the impact of re-branding rural transit services to switch from a focus on human service to one emphasizing that the system is open to the general public. PT-MF-01 Description: Traditional rural bus systems operate either a pre-scheduled fixed route, or an on- demand (dial-a-ride) type service. Deviated fixed route systems are an intermediate option: the general route and schedule is pre-determined, but the route can be varied to some degree based on requests from riders. This option presents a number of policy and service planning issues, such as how much deviation from the standard route will be permitted and whether all riders are allowed to request deviations, or only those passengers meeting certain criteria (e.g., a certified disability). Additionally, there are important operational issues related to whether vehicles return to the normal route after making a deviation or proceed directly to the location of the next known passenger (which could bypass non-appointment passengers waiting at intermediate stops). In 2010, TCRP Report 140 developed general descriptions of several deviated fixed route systems (including their target productivity levels), but for the most part the schedule-adherence and productivity effects of various deviation policies have only been explored in theoretical papers. Additional field studies are necessary to evaluate the characteristics, benefits, drawbacks, and design considerations for rural deviated fixed route systems, including data that can help validate theoretical performance models. PT-MF-02 Description: Rural public transportation is often perceived as a service targeted primarily toward people with disabilities, the elderly, and low-income residents. While these riders are an important component of the rural transit customer base, attracting a broader range of riders can boost financial performance and contribute to broader community goals. Nevertheless, rural transit appears to be facing new competitive pressures from ride sourcing. As a result, it is important to develop an up-to-date understanding of how ridership is affected by the presence of ride sourcing, capital improvements such as enhanced passenger amenities and real-time bus location, optimization of service frequency and stop locations, pairings with other modes (such as bicycling), and alternative service delivery methods (e.g., fixed route vs demand-responsive). Thus, the purpose of this research is to identify emerging rural transportation user needs and desires, and to consider how these trends can be leveraged to stabilize and grow ridership. To accomplish this, rural transit market research will be conducted at the national level, and guidance will be developed to help system managers adjust the national data to local conditions based on Census data and existing system performance metrics. PT-NEMT-01 Description: Non-Emergency Medical Transportation (NEMT) is a substantial element of the demand for public transportation in many rural communities. NEMT is funded from several sources, and rural transportation operators face important challenges in coordinating services funded by various federal agencies (such as the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services, Federal Transit Administration, and Veterans Administration) and their state counterparts.

Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap G-63 The purpose of this research is twofold. The first phase will compile a state-of-practice review that documents all of the agencies and programs that play a role in NEMT, the methods currently used by rural transportation operators to coordinate these services, and any known inconsistencies in the interpretation of NEMT regulations. The second phase will convene a series of working sessions to allow state and federal funding agency officials to confer with front-line service delivery agencies on methods for optimizing the outcomes of NEMT programs. PT-PR-01 Description: The objective of this research is to review current utilization of intercity passenger rail service in rural areas, develop an understanding of rail's overall market share for long-distance trips that have an origin or destination in a rural community and assist transportation planners in understanding the extent to which travelers consider rail to be equal or superior to other modes (such as aviation or intercity bus). To achieve this objective, the proposed project will: • Analyze passenger rail data for rural areas (e.g., rider characteristics, purpose of trip, origins/destinations, etc.). • Compare the availability and utilization of rural passenger rail services in states that provide subsidy for Amtrak service with those that do not. • Document current practices for linking aviation, passenger rail, and intercity bus services. • Identify locations where existing commercial airports, intercity bus stops, and rural transit service stops coincide with passenger rail stations, but modal transfers are not currently feasible due to lack of facilities/services or incompatible schedules. PT-Pl-01 Description: Oregon DOT recently developed the "Key Transit Hub" concept, which uses GIS to facilitate identification of rural transit transfer points. The availability of this analysis method has increased awareness of the need for improving transfers between rural transit routes, between rural and urban systems, and between rural transit and other modes (including transfers that support trips across service area boundaries). The proposed research will develop guidance on methods for identifying existing and potential rural transfer points, improving service coordination, and sharing information about rural service connections with existing riders and the public. This guidance will cover both interline transfers (between routes operated by the same transit system) and interline transfers (between two or more systems). PT-Pl-02 Description: FTA’s National Transit Database (NTD) “records the financial, operating and asset condition of transit systems.” The data is required from both urbanized (5307) and rural (5311) FTA grant recipients, with more than 660 providers reporting. This project would re-evaluate the amount of detail required for demand-responsive services to identify whether a smaller set of basic data would be sufficient [e.g., cost for the ride segment (as many rides will be linked multimodal trips), the provider, time/date at each trip end, whether the ride provider accommodated a wheel chair or scooter, and geo-stamped location for the destination end of the trip]. It would also evaluate the feasibility of expanding the NTD to include all federally subsidized demand-responsive programs [i.e., services funded by Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) and the Veterans Affairs (VA) as well as FTA]. PT-Pl-03 Description: The emergence of ride sourcing services and other app-based mobility options has provoked reconsideration of the methods used to deliver rural transportation services. Traditional fixed-route services remain the norm in many areas, while other communities have successfully operated demand- responsive services for decades. The availability of ride sourcing apps and volunteer driver programs creates new opportunities for delivering mixed-mode services in some areas.

Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap G-64 These mixed-mode operations can potentially reduce travel time and allow service planners to improve service frequency or geographical coverage. At the same time, shifting customers to third-party services has the potential to drive down transit system performance measures. The proposed research will explore potential hybrid service delivery models and assess their potential effects on costs, travel time, quality of service, service area geography, and equity for people with disabilities and other underrepresented groups. PT-Po-01 Description: The proposed research will: • Document the effects of public transportation service levels (or lack of service) on income inequality and poverty perpetuation in the rural United States. • Assess the link between rural accessibility barriers and socioeconomic outcomes, such as the implications of limited access to education, jobs, and medical services for non-drivers. • Estimate the overall economic benefit of providing rural transit service, perhaps by comparing household income and gross economic output in pairs of similar communities with and without transit service. PT-Po-02 Description: Several Federal programs provide financial assistance for the operation of rural public transportation services. These include: • The Enhanced Mobility of Seniors & Individuals with Disabilities (Section 5310) program, recently revised under the FAST Act, which provides formula funding to states for the purpose of assisting private nonprofit groups in meeting transportation needs of the elderly and persons with disabilities. • The Formula Grants for Rural Areas (Section 5311) program, which provides capital, planning, and operating assistance to states to support public transportation in areas with populations under 50,000. • The Tribal Transit Formula Grants (Section 5311(c)(2)(B) program), which provides funding to federally recognized Indian tribes to provide public transportation services on and around Indian reservations or tribal land in rural areas. Eligibility for these programs qualifies agencies for additional funding sources. For example, Section 5311 recipients are eligible for assistance with the capital costs of purchasing buses and improving passenger facilities. Thus, the administrative rules for 5310 and 5311 funding (and the associated matching funds requirements) are quite complicated, with ripple effects on other programs. The purpose of this project is to identify and document the effects of existing law and administrative rules on rural transit customers. The project will also analyze any unintended effects of the program rules and the extent to which they positively and/or negatively affect the type and quality of transportation services available to rural residents. PT-Tr-01 Description: Many tribal transit systems operate in rural areas, and often not only provide public transportation services within an Indian Reservation, but also connect to larger communities outside of the Reservation. In addition to the Tribal Transit Formula Grants (Section 5311(c)(2)(B) program; Tribes are also often eligible to receive FTA Section 5310 and 5311 funding. Further, some tribal transit systems may also provide intercity bus services (FTA Section 5311(f)). This project will analyze all funding available to tribal governments for public transportation services and will highlight any unintended effects of program rules (including both Federal and State rules) and the extent to which they positively and/or negatively affect the type and quality (funding) of transportation services available to both tribal and rural residents.

Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap G-65 Distracted Driving ID # RESEARCH NEED STATUS S-DD-01 Identify the relationship between distracted driving and type of driving environment. S-DD-02 Identify trends and characteristics of distracted driving crashes on rural “non-occupants.” RNS16 S-DD-03 Develop a meta-analysis summarizing the results of studies that have evaluated the effect of restricting cell phone use while driving, such as hands-free only laws. Environment ID # RESEARCH NEED STATUS S-EN-01 Evaluate the potential for reducing vehicle-deer collisions by connecting forage and cover areas on the same side of the roadway. S-EN-02 Conduct a comprehensive review of the effectiveness and cost of traditional and advanced systems intended to warn drivers about the presence of large animals near the roadway. S-EN-03 Identify the environmental factors in a National Park or Public Land that are predisposed to vehicle-animal interactions. S-EN-04 Evaluate the effectiveness of wildlife crossings for the prevention of various types of rural vehicle-animal collisions. S-EN-05 Review the prevalence of livestock-involved crashes in rangeland and identify relevant countermeasures. Funding Rural Safety Improvements ID # RESEARCH NEED STATUS S-F-01 Develop a complimentary effort to systemic safety to make it easier for local officials to implement safety countermeasures on rural roads at a local level. S-F-02 Compare state safety project selection processes and identify the effects of project selection criteria and funding levels on safety outcomes. S-F-03 Identify approaches for funding the development and maintenance of transportation safety databases

Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap G-66 Geometric Design of Rural Roads – Motor Vehicle Traffic ID # RESEARCH NEED STATUS S-MV-01* Update guide for addressing unsignalized intersection collisions (Update of NCHRP 500 Vol 5). S-MV-02 Create an unpaved road crash prediction model. S-MV-03 Identify obstacles to wider utilization of the Highway Safety Manual by rural transportation agencies. S-MV-04 Analyze characteristics of injury and fatality run-off-road crashes on low volume roadways (AFB20) (update of NCHP 500 Volume 6). S-MV-05 Update guide for reducing collisions on horizontal curves (Update of NCHRP 500 Vol 7). S-MV-06 Analyze the effectiveness of four-lane to three-lane conversions (also called road diets) in small rural communities. S-MV-07 Update guide for reducing head-on collisions (Update NCHRP 500 Vol 4). S-MV-08 Identify best practices for Road Safety Audits on rural roads. S-MV-09 Develop a design guide for 2+1 roads, a cross-section with a total of three lanes (typically 2 lanes on one side of a cable barrier and 1 lane on the other side, with the single and dual-lane sections alternating periodically to provide passing opportunities). S-MV-10 Identify common stakeholder/property owner objections to 4-to-3 lane conversions, complete streets, access management, and similar safety treatments relevant to small towns. Prepare practitioner guidance for addressing frequently encountered misunderstandings about these treatments. S-MV-11 Identify the impacts of diverted traffic on crash rates for rural highways used as construction detours. * Project Description is available Geometric Design of Rural Roads - Motorized Vehicles Not Intended for Highway Use ID # RESEARCH NEED STATUS S-NIH-01 Analyze safety impacts of legal and illegal on-road use of All Terrain Vehicles (ATVs), Recreational Off-Road Vehicles (ROVs), and low speed vehicles/neighborhood electric vehicles (NEVs) in rural and small-town environments. S-NIH-02 Identify geometric designs for safe accommodation of agricultural equipment on rural highways. S-NIH-03 Evaluate the effect of paved shoulders (including narrow 4-foot shoulders) on crashes involving slow-moving vehicles such as tractors.

Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap G-67 Geometric Design of Rural Roads - Motorized Vehicles Not Intended for Highway Use (cont.) ID # RESEARCH NEED STATUS S-NIH-04 Investigate the extent to which rural children, teens, and young adults use non-highway vehicles such as ATVs, dirt bikes, and snowmobiles for transportation in lieu of cars, including mixed on- and off-road use of these vehicles. S-NIH-05 Analyze single vehicle ATV crashes on rural highways for characteristics and severity. S-NIH-06 Assess safety impacts of agricultural equipment on rural highways. S-NIH-07* Evaluate the safety of on-road operation of tractors and related equipment. S-NIH-08 Analyze the dynamic stability of ATVs and ROVs and identify geometric design options for safe accommodation of ATVs and ROVs on rural highway rights-of-way, perhaps unpaved paths parallel to the roadway. * Project Description is available Geometric Design of Rural Roads - Non-motorized Traffic ID # RESEARCH NEED STATUS S-NM-01 Develop a clearer understanding of the dynamics of crashes involving animal-drawn vehicles to help guide countermeasure selection. S-NM-02 Analyze the differences between Amish and Old Order Mennonite sects in terms of acceptance of safety technology. S-NM-03 Assess safety impacts of animal-drawn vehicles on rural highways. S-NM-04 Identify methods for improving the reporting of crashes involving animal-drawn vehicles to develop consistency amongst the 21 states with Amish and Mennonite populations. Impaired Driving ID # RESEARCH NEED STATUS S-ID-01 Develop techniques for changing the safety culture surrounding impaired driving on rural roads to decrease fatalities and serious injuries. S-ID-02 Evaluate the effect of ride sourcing/taxi availability on impaired driving crashes in rural areas.

Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap G-68 Multi-modal ID # RESEARCH NEED STATUS S-MM-01 Standardize the reporting of crashes involving all ground transportation modes to support development of a comprehensive safety management system for rural highways. S-MM-02 Identify noteworthy practices for accommodating all road users on high-speed rural roads. S-MM-03 Evaluate the safety effects of mixed use/shared space on rural roads. Roadway Environment ID # RESEARCH NEED STATUS S-RE-01 Evaluate the impacts of vegetation on rural highway safety and structural integrity. S-RE-02 Identify landscaping and roadside properties that increase rural roadside safety. S-RE-03 Identify the most-likely road safety impacts of the changing climate for various biomes of the United States. Safety Culture/Behavioral Safety ID # RESEARCH NEED STATUS S-SC-01* Identify and evaluate best practices to address risky driving behaviors that contribute to reduce rural crash risks. S-SC-02 Identify relationships between the scale/scope of behavioral road safety campaigns and their effectiveness in reducing fatalities and serious injuries. S-SC-03 Identify techniques for measuring the effectiveness of behavioral campaigns targeted toward rural road users. S-SC-04 Document public perceptions and attitudes of transportation safety in rural area. S-SC-05 Assess safety culture in rural areas compared to non-rural areas. S-SC-06 Identify strategies for keeping drivers alert when “zoning out” or fatigued. S-SC-07 Identify effects of early (age 14 or 14.5) driver licensing on crash rates, safety culture, and long-term driving performance (approximately 8 mainly agricultural states issue limited licenses to 14 or 14.5-year olds). S-SC-08 Evaluate culturally how rural areas are approaching cell phones and seat belts. S-SC-09 Identify shared individual and societal level risk and protective factors and evidence-informed strategies that will impact both motor vehicle outcomes and other areas of violence and injury. * Project Description available

Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap G-69 Safety Culture/Behavioral Safety (cont.) ID # RESEARCH NEED STATUS S-SC-10 Evaluate the impact of human factors in decision making when driving on rural roads and develop skill guidelines for driving on rural roads with unique characteristics. S-SC-11 Identify strategies for changing public attitudes toward rumble strips and gradually increasing acceptance. Safety Data & Safety Management ID # RESEARCH NEED STATUS S-SD-01 Identify strategies for interagency partnerships to develop safety data management systems and standardization of data collection. S-SD-02* Create guidance for how to be proactive when rural data is not available and identify strategies for acceptance of qualitative data in rural safety studies. S-SD-03 Evaluate systemic safety treatments: effectiveness of combining multiple improvements, relationships to facility type and existing geometrics. S-SD-04 Investigate how "linked data" can be used to improve aspects and characteristics of rural crashes and injuries. S-SD-05 Analyze how to resolve rural data errors in the NHTSA Fatal Accident Reporting System (FARS). S-SD-06 Develop a synthesis of practice describing methods for visualizing and integrating roadway, traffic, and crash data for motorized and non-motorized crashes. S-SD-07 Develop a synthesis of practice on the use of tools for identifying high-risk rural road segments, such as the United States Road Assessment Program (usRAP) and state-specific online crash mapping tools. S-SD-08 Identify methods for estimating unreported rural crashes based on hospital admissions data. S-SD-09 Develop nationwide rural highway speed profiles. S-SD-10 Develop rural-specific highway safety performance measures. S-SD-11 Identify strategies to use rural crash information reported to 911 but not resulting in a formal crash report. S-SD-12 Identify and evaluate differences in heavy truck crash outcomes in urban and rural areas. S-SD-13 Investigate the use of Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS or "drones") to collect photographs for crash investigation and reporting. S-SD-14 Identify the role of defective vehicle equipment (bad brakes, bald tires, etc.) in rural crashes and determine whether crashes are less prevalent in jurisdictions with strict vehicle safety inspection programs. * Project Description available

Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap G-70 Safety Data & Safety Management (Cont.) ID # RESEARCH NEED STATUS S-SD-15 Identify strategies to address socioeconomic factors that contribute to crashes, such as increased travel by high-risk drivers during periods of economic prosperity. S-SD-16 Summarize and compare methods that are being used to incentivize safety analysis and countermeasure development for rural roads under local jurisdiction. S-SD-17 Develop guidance on methods for converting high-level safety performance goals into programmatic criteria (e.g., safety funding levels) and project-level actions. Safety Education ID # RESEARCH NEED STATUS S-SE-01 Document the characteristics of successful rural road safety public information campaigns. S-SE-02 Conduct market research to identify safety education techniques that resonate with high-risk rural drivers and identify relevant media channels. S-SE-03 Create a road safety essentials guide for non-technical county officials. S-SE-04 Create a road safety essentials guide for non-technical small-town officials. Safety Planning ID # RESEARCH NEED STATUS S-SP-01 Document best practices for state transportation department collaborations with county/local traffic safety commissions and grassroots roadway safety organizations. S-SP-02 Identify methods for developing the technical capacity to conduct road safety audits as a routine element of roadway planning, design, and operations for tribal and non-tribal transportation agencies. S-SP-03 Identify what a safe systems approach looks like for a rural area to incorporate multiple sectors and better serve rural communities and keep them safe Seat Belts ID # RESEARCH NEED STATUS S-SB-01 Identify strategies to increase seatbelt use in rural populations with an emphasis on different vehicle types. S-SB-02 Evaluate the effects of specific policies on rural seat belt use (i.e., graduated licensing and primary vs. secondary laws). S-SB-03 Evaluate the most appropriate method for mounting a child passenger safety seat in an animal-drawn vehicle.

Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap G-71 Signaling, Signing & Marking ID # RESEARCH NEED STATUS S-SSM-01 Create a low-cost active warning system for rural railroad crossings. S-SSM-02 Evaluate the effectiveness and value of combining rumble strips with wider shoulders. S-SSM-03 Develop signing and marking guidance for isolated locations where drivers would not expect to encounter high pedestrian volumes on high-speed rural highways. S-SSM-04 Develop ready-to-use procurement specifications and application diagrams for frequently used traffic safety devices. S-SSM-05 Evaluate the effectiveness of extra-wide (5 to 8 inch) pavement markings for rural roadways. S-SSM-06 Evaluate systemic implementation of signing treatments for cost- effectiveness of various levels of retro-reflectivity and proportion of safety to retro-reflectivity. S-SSM-07 Evaluate simplified centerline marking (Canadian-style single solid yellow line) for low-volume two-lane paved rural highways. RNS7 S-SSM-08 Evaluate if sign sheeting is too bright in some cases S-SSM-09 Since automated vehicles cannot hear train horns, develop a system for reliable electronic transmission of train presence information to automated vehicles approaching rural railroad crossings. Speed ID # RESEARCH NEED STATUS S-S-01* Identify transition-zone speed management techniques to calm traffic approaching rural and small urban communities. S-S-02 Identify innovative speed management techniques for existing rural roads. S-S-03 Evaluate the effectiveness (if used more widely) of red, on- pavement speed markings for traffic calming treatment at entrance to small communities. * Project Description available

Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap G-72 Tribal ID # RESEARCH NEED STATUS S-TR-01 Evaluate the feasibility of developing a shared intertribal crash reporting system to address tribal member privacy concerns while providing non-personally identifiable crash records to state agencies. S-TR-02 Identify strategies for tribes to work on the “Road to Zero” concept, evaluate the continued disparity in high crash rates, and identify solutions. S-TR-03 Create a data integration system to assist tribes with integrating their transportation data with other state transportation and law enforcement data. S-TR-04 Create a template for tribal use which includes the traffic safety codes for tribal counts. S-TR-05 Identify best practices for the coordination of state, local, and tribal transportation agencies when Road Safety Audits are conducted on or near jurisdictional boundaries. Available Project Description S-MV-01 Description: An Unsignalized Intersection Improvement Guide (UIIG) was created by ITE and should be reviewed to see what overlaps with the NCHRP 500 Vol 5 study and what else needs to be updated. S-NIH-07 Description: Review data on all types of child injuries and deaths involving on-road operation of tractors and related equipment (including children struck by tractors). Compare state laws regulating on-road operation of farm equipment by young people and whether they are enforced. Determine whether tractor operator training for teens and pre-teens is adequate. Identify and disseminate best practices for preventing tractor-related injuries involving children. S-SC-01 Description: In this project, identify how agencies are spending their safety funds for behavioral safety, how states are selecting these countermeasures, if the selection process is justified, and what the benefit cost ratio is for particular countermeasures. S-SD-02 Description: Develop a guidebook to assist tribal communities, local governments, and private intercity bus providers with implementing and improving connectivity between local, tribal, regional, and long- distance bus services. S-S-01 Description: Transition-zone speed management techniques are needed for both entering and leaving rural communities, small urban areas, and other reduced-speed areas on rural highways. These techniques should be considered from a multi-modal aspect including how to treat high speed vehicles with pedestrians.

Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap G-73 Multi-Modal Concept ID # RESEARCH NEED STATUS TAM-MM-01 Evaluate the effects of implementing Mobility Management, which is defined as "organizing a network of diverse transportation services and providers to satisfy customer needs" and Mobility as a Service (MaaS) more generally including methods for collecting data to forecast demand for managed- mobility services and methods for allocating costs and revenues amongst potential partner (government, non-profit, and for-profit) organizations. TAM-MM-02 Develop visionary descriptions of the steps rural communities can take to move toward a well-coordinated multimodal transportation system. Include case examples of communities that have fully or partially implemented a multimodal concept and the characteristics of successful and not-so-successful modal interconnection projects. TAM-MM-03 Develop case examples of methods rural communities have used to improve mobility and access to services, including improving connections to urban activity centers and the national transportation network. TAM-MM-04 Development and implementation of multi-modal trip planning and booking, merging fixed-route to demand-response services. RNS25 and PS TAM-MM-05 Develop recommended practices for assuring that rural multimodal transportation options are accurately depicted in mobile apps such as Google Maps and databases such as OpenStreetMap. TAM-MM-06 Identify best practices for the dissemination of information about rural multimodal transportation options (such as destinations that are accessible by foot, biking, transit, etc.) and locally available alternatives to driving such as home delivery of groceries. TAM-MM-07 Identify methodologies for connecting with Greyhound and other intrastate carriers. TAM-MM-08 Identify methods to increase other transportation options besides public transportation within a rural county without subsidized funding.

Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap G-74 Multi-Modal Concept (cont.) ID # RESEARCH NEED STATUS TAM-MM-09* Evaluate the feasibility, as well as, the supportive legislative/regulatory actions of using rural transit vehicles or intercity bus operations to deliver small parcels, similar to the Postbus concept in Europe or the GuaGuas in the Dominican Republic. TAM-MM-10 Identify barriers to the coordination of healthcare-related and non-healthcare-related transportation, including unintended effects of state laws and federal regulations. Also, develop case examples of successful and not-so-successful collaborations between healthcare organizations and transportation agencies (AP060). TAM-MM-11 Identify effective transportation agency practices to support healthy food accessibility (ADD20). TAM-MM-12 Develop guidance on overcoming resistance to non-highway transportation investments in rural areas. * Project Description is available Ridesourcing and Volunteers ID # RESEARCH NEED STATUS TAM-RV-01 Best practices and lessons learned from deployment and/or barriers to deployment of shared mobility services and other emerging ridesourcing technologies in rural areas. TAM-RV-02 Modern approaches to ride hailing services for rural communities. RNS5 TAM-RV-03 Analyze the effect of rural telecommunications coverage gaps on the feasibility of rural ridesourcing. TAM-RV-04 Evaluate the potential for development of public-private partnerships for ridesourcing in rural and small urban areas, for example having existing rural public transit agencies providing some or all the drivers and vehicles utilized by ridesourcing companies. TAM-RV-05 Document the benefits and limitations of the use of volunteer programs for rural healthcare-related transportation. TAM-RV-06 Document methods for coordinating volunteer programs with transit and paratransit services. TAM-RV-07 Maximizing benefits and addressing challenges to volunteer driver transportation programs (APO60). TAM-RV-08 Evaluate how to address equity concerns if ridesourcing is used as public transit. TAM-RV-09 Identify strategies to developing and sustaining volunteer driver programs as an effective mode of low-cost accessible transportation (ABE60). TAM-RV-10 Analyze the effect of rural density on the cost of providing ridesourcing services, the market for such services, and the availability of drivers and vehicles.

Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap G-75 Ridesourcing and Volunteers (cont.) ID # RESEARCH NEED STATUS TAM-RV-11 Analyze the impact of real-time dispatch on demand for ridesourcing TAM-RV-12 Investigate opportunities to provide a partnership between driver’s education students driving for practice and the needs of non-driving elderly who are aging in place. TAM-RV-13 Assess if smaller vehicles (1 to 1) and volunteer transportation should become part of public transportation in rural areas and best practices for accomplishing this. TAM-RV-14 Investigate causes of the decline in rural carpooling since its peak in the mid-1970s. TAM-RV-15 Potential for providing ridesourcing, low cost transportation for adults who have stopped driving. Shared-Use ID # RESEARCH NEED STATUS TAM-SU-01 Evaluate how shared-use mobility services are being implemented in rural communities and their effectiveness. TAM-SU-02 Document existing shared-use mobility services that are meeting the needs of people with disabilities and identify additional methods to utilize shared-use mobility services for lowering costs and improving access compared to paratransit services. Specific User Types ID # RESEARCH NEED STATUS TAM-SUT-01 Document best practices for mobility within rural communities for non-drivers and as an alternative option for some who can drive. TAM-SUT-02 Identify basic levels of service for mobility. TAM-SUT-03 Identify the needs of the frail populations that use transit (5310) programs for services beyond basic service. TAM-SUT-04 Evaluate short-term support programs for access to work. TAM-SUT-05 Document options, strategies, and best practices for disability access TAM-SUT-06 Identify the mobility preferences of rural seniors. TAM-SUT-07 Mobility Inclusion for Un(der)served Population with the Emerging Technologies TCRP B-47 - Funded in FY 2019 TAM-SUT-08 Analyze relationships between transportation costs and rural mode choice to identify possible variations based on age, income, and employment stability. TAM-SUT-09 Analyze the impact of available mobility options in attracting or helping retain Millennials in rural communities. TAM-SUT-10 Identify effects of online shopping and home delivery on transportation needs for rural and tribal elders.

Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap G-76 Specific User Types (cont.) ID # RESEARCH NEED STATUS TAM-SUT-11 Collect rural generational mode choice preferences from various states/regions to develop a more granular view of relationships between community type, land use, etc. TAM-SUT-12 Evaluate the changing demographics of people living in rural areas and identify current and emerging trends and how those trends affect safety for those users. TAM-SUT-13 Analyze the mobility preferences of Millennials in rural communities. TAM-SUT-14 Identify emerging trends affecting differences in rural transportation demand and trip-making patterns for various age groups: are they changing based on generational expectations as well as the customarily expected differences related to on life cycle stage? TAM-SUT-15 Payment strategies to enable the unbanked and subsidized riders to access new mobility services as well as pay for transit passes. TAM-SUT-16 Identify innovative (non-infrastructure) transportation options for aging in place in rural areas and tribal communities. TAM-SUT-17 Analyze transportation for persistent poverty communities and evaluate the effect of household poverty level on transportation access. TAM-SUT-18 Develop guidance on the application of mobility metrics for rural areas and identify data and methods practitioners can use to measure accessibility in their state/community. Available Project Description TAM-MM-09 Description: The GuaGuas in the Dominican Republic are jitneys connecting rural settlements with urban transfer centers/markets. These are privately operated with a driver and a 'conductor' who collects the fares, parts traffic jams Moses-style, and does small package delivery. This concept could potentially function as a supplement to USPS delivery truck operations on routings with multiple small community pick up / drop off points.

Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap G-77 Applications ID # RESEARCH NEED STATUS CAV-AP-01 Identify and document the benefits of SAE Level 1 automation for rural transit and paratransit operations. CAV-AP-02 Identify and document the benefits of SAE Level 2 automation for rural transit and paratransit operations. CAV-AP-03 Identify and document the benefits of SAE Level 3 automation for rural transit and paratransit operations. CAV-AP-04 Identify and document the operation and maintenance costs and cost-effectiveness of electric vehicles utilized for rural transit/paratransit fleets. Data ID # RESEARCH NEED STATUS CAV-DA-01* Identify methods to capture the costs, return on investment, and metrics for rural technology demonstration projects. CAV-DA-02* Identify data sources and describe methods of accounting for variations in fleet turnover rates when computing the benefits and costs of rural safety improvements and connected and automated vehicle (CAV) deployments. CAV-DA-03* Evaluate the need for publicly subsidized high-definition digital mapping to support connected deployments in rural areas. CAV-DA-04 Document emerging data resources and how they can be collected and applied in rural areas. CAV-DA-05 Identify strategies to integrate data collection systems between regional partners to foster coordination and performance standards. * Project Description is available

Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap G-78 Demonstration/Pilot Projects ID # RESEARCH NEED STATUS CAV-DPP-01* Implement demonstration/pilot projects to test the functionality of connected and automated vehicles (CAVs) in rural terrains and assure that rural communities are not marginalized by CAV deployments. CAV-DPP-02* Identify and pilot technologies to decrease response time for rural emergency responders. CAV-DPP-03* Create a central location to document all rural connected and automated vehicle (CAV) demonstration projects. CAV-DPP-04* Identify innovative methods for ITS devices to enhance safety in the rural context. CAV-DPP-05 Identify automation experiences from the agricultural sector that are relevant to on-highway connected and automated vehicle (CAV) deployments. CAV-DPP-06 Identify equity issues affecting rural connected and automated vehicle (CAV) deployments. * Project Description is available Electric Vehicles ID # RESEARCH NEED STATUS CAV-EV-01* Evaluate the technical and business requirements for providing publicly accessible electric vehicle (EV) charging infrastructure in rural areas, including methods of cost recovery and the potential for integrating EV charging sites into rural tourism/economic development plans. CAV-EV-02 Identify best practices for transitioning public fleets from conventional vehicles to new technologies. CAV-EV-03 Identify typical distances driven for everyday rural trips and compare to the range characteristics of electric vehicles. * Project Description is available Infrastructure and Maintenance ID # RESEARCH NEED STATUS CAV-IM-01* Analyze the economics of building and maintaining connected vehicle infrastructure in rural areas. CAV-IM-02 Evaluate the economics of maintaining connected vehicles and automated vehicles in rural and remote communities. CAV-IM-03 Identify emerging automation technologies that can support road maintenance and post-disaster recovery. * Project Description is available

Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap G-79 Marketing and Public Outreach ID # RESEARCH NEED STATUS CAV-MP-01* Develop educational materials to help agency fleet managers determine which advanced vehicle technologies to specify when procuring vehicles. CAV-MP-02* Document the effectiveness of programs aimed at helping elderly drivers understand and use the technology in their vehicles. CAV-MP-03* Identify characteristics of successful programs for communicating benefits and limitations of connected and automated vehicle (CAV) technologies in rural areas and driving differences in rural and urban areas. CAV-MP-04 Identify characteristics of successful public outreach programs to help rural consumers determine which technologies to purchase when buying new vehicles. CAV-MP-05 Evaluate rural public attitudes toward connected and autonomous vehicles to identify possible barriers to CAV acceptance. * Project Description is available Planning ID # RESEARCH NEED STATUS CAV-PL-01* Develop a timeline of anticipated future technological advancements relevant to rural transportation. CAV-PL-02* Identify methods for identifying and predicting connected and automated vehicle (CAV) effects on rural travel patterns. CAV-PL-03* Identify vehicle-to-infrastructure technologies relevant to rural areas and small communities. Determine costs, benefits and legal liabilities associated with deployment or non-deployment. Develop guidance on deployment thresholds and funding of operation and maintenance. CAV-PL-04* Initiating the systems engineering process for rural connected vehicle corridors. Funded as NCHRP 08-120 CAV-PL-05 Create a rural connected vehicle sustainability plan pilot, template, and training. CAV-PL-06 Evaluate the impact that connected and automated vehicles (CAV) and other emerging technologies will have on tribal and Federal lands (including national parks), including barriers, benefits, costs, and planning recommendations. * Project Description is available

Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap G-80 Rural Barriers ID # RESEARCH NEED STATUS CAV-RB-01* Identify barriers to connected and automated vehicle (CAV) implementation in rural areas and solutions so rural areas are not marginalized by technological advances. CAV-RB-02* Develop a technical primer for rural transportation practitioners that describes what is currently known and unknown about the technical requirements for vehicle-to-infrastructure (V2I) devices, including an objective description of the implications of interim and unresolved technical standards (e.g., DSRC vs 5G wireless). Analyze relationships between rural broadband services and transportation applications of broadband. Evaluate regulatory, institutional, and commercial barriers to broadband expansion. CAV-RB-03* Create an implementation plan for selectively building up broadband across America to assist with traveler information and crisis communication in a disaster. CAV-RB-04* Assess potential impacts of in-vehicle technology on driving safety for rural elders. CAV-RB-05 Document methods to provide traveler information on low technology to benefit remote areas and emergency/natural disaster communications. Note: Similar to item WC-OR-04 in the Weather & Climate theme. CAV-RB-06 Develop a process for creating periodic snapshots of rural broadband connectivity. Analyze this data to predict areas that are unlikely to obtain broadband coverage in the absence of regulatory interventions or subsidies. CAV-RB-07 Develop case studies of agencies and projects that have deployed telecommunications infrastructure to rural/remote areas in parallel with highway improvements. * Project Description is available

Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap G-81 Technical Standards ID # RESEARCH NEED STATUS CAV-TS-01* Identify site selection criteria and design standards for emergency stopping areas that will be used when a vehicle is unable to proceed in automated mode and the driver fails to take manual control. CAV-TS-02 Evaluate the feasibility of using communications alternatives such as 4G or 5G wireless in lieu of DSRC for V2I, I2V and V2V data transfers, and backhaul infrastructure to support roadside equipment (especially in rural areas) (AHB15). CAV-TS-03 Develop design standards for platoon marshalling areas that will be used for assembly and dispersal of groups of automated trucks operated on rural highways. CAV-TS-04 Identify need for possible supplemental navigational aids supporting CAV operations in rural areas. CAV-TS-05 Since automated vehicles cannot hear train horns, develop a system for reliable electronic transmission of train presence information to automated vehicles approaching rural railroad crossings. * Project Description is available Available Project Descriptions CAV-Da-01 Suggested Title: Managing the Risks of Rural Transportation Technology Demonstration Projects Description: Most rural transportation technology demonstration projects involve significant costs and risks, often with payoffs that are difficult to quantify. In all sectors of the economy, some demonstration projects fail, and many have inconclusive outcomes or indicate a need for refinement of the technology. Private-sector R&D projects are often cloaked in secrecy, allowing failures to be downplayed and successes to be trumpeted. The public sector is subject to greater levels of disclosure, making it easier for critics to seize on even minor technical setbacks to castigate a public agency—which can result in disincentives for risk-taking. This project will review potential approaches to overcoming these challenges, including econometric analysis, risk-sharing, and communications strategies that support informed discussion of the risks and rewards for rural transportation technology demonstration projects. CAV-Da-02 Suggested Title: Sources and Methods for Estimating Rural Fleet Turnover Rates Description: The average age of automobiles and trucks in operation in the United States has been increasing steadily, reaching 11.6 years in 2016 according to a private market research firm (the 2017 National Household Travel Survey reports a slightly different figure, 10.3 years). Fleet turnover rates potentially differ in urban and rural areas. The proposed research would identify fleet turnover data sources and describe methods for estimating future fleet age and accounting for variations in fleet turnover rates when computing the benefits and costs of rural safety improvements and CAV deployments. Notes: Fleet age data can be obtained from the National Household Travel Survey, state motor vehicle registration databases, and private market research companies. CAV-Da-03 Suggested Title: Rural Transportation Agency Roles in High-Definition Digital Roadway Mapping for Autonomous Vehicles (AVs) Description: High-definition digital maps are a key enabling technology for autonomous vehicles, allowing vehicle control systems to anticipate the downstream roadway geometry and focus searches for collision hazards. These maps are expected to require high locational accuracy

Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap G-82 and very frequent updates to reflect changes in roadway features such as geometry, signage, and permitted/restricted movements. For example, if a new commercial driveway is added or an existing one is moved, this might need to be mapped within hours. To support rural CAV deployments, this project will explore the appropriate roles and responsibilities of various stakeholders in the map development process, including vehicle manufacturers, private navigation mapping companies, property owners, and public agencies at the state, county, and local levels. The project will also consider methods for sharing the cost of developing and maintaining high-definition maps for rural areas. CAV-DPP-01 Suggested Title: Developing a Rural Testing Program for Connected and Automated Vehicles (CAVs) Description: Rural driving environments such as two-lane undivided highways present unique technical challenges for connected and automated vehicles (CAVs). Many rural transportation practitioners are concerned that rural areas will be a low priority for auto-industry research and development, possibly exacerbating economic and social marginalization of rural areas. For example, as of 2019 most vehicle automation systems determine lane positioning using optical sensors, but many paved rural highways do not have lane lines, and optical sensing could be unreliable on dusty unpaved roads. This project will begin by conferring with rural transportation users to determine which advanced transportation technologies are seen as having the most value to rural residents and businesses. Based on this information, the project will identify methods for encouraging industry and the research community to address rural CAV obstacles. This could include establishing a sequence of increasingly difficult combinations of rural driving tasks and environments that might be addressed through CAV development contests or demonstration projects. CAV-DPP-02 Suggested Title: Developing a Pilot Program for Expediting Rural Emergency Response Description: Rural first responders (police, fire, emergency medical services, and towing) often need to cover large geographical areas with limited staff and equipment, resulting in response times that are often considerably longer than their urban counterparts. Traditional solutions to these issues include adding response units or sub-stations, optimizing deployment locations, allocating staff and vehicles as efficiently as possible, and pre-positioning personnel and equipment near high-risk locations. Previous studies have identified the potential for new technologies to reduce response times by optimizing first responder routing, automatically alerting drivers who are approaching an incident scene, providing additional communication infrastructure and roadway data, and applying connected vehicle technologies to stage responder resources efficiently at incident scenes. The feasibility of implementing both traditional and technology-based solutions is influenced by variables such as population density, terrain, communications infrastructure, staffing levels, the location of existing emergency management infrastructure such as fire stations, organizational culture, and organizational structures. Thus, there is interaction between technology and the way first responder groups are organized and managed. This project will confer with rural public officials and first responders to identify solutions aimed at reducing response times through demonstration technology deployments and combinations of technology and organizational charges. The project will identify a series of potential pilot projects that could test relevant technologies and supporting organizational methods in a series of increasingly demanding rural environments. CAV-DPP-03 Suggested Title: A Clearinghouse for Rural Connected and Automated Vehicle Demonstrations and Research Description: This project will develop and maintain a website with links to information about connected and automated vehicle (CAV) demonstration projects and research relevant to rural areas. CAV-DPP-04 Description: The 2018 Rural Intelligent Transportation System Toolkit includes 42 rural transportation critical need fact sheets, including 12 crash countermeasures and several techniques that have potential rural operational safety benefits. This project would identify rural ITS safety technologies that require additional testing and develop recommendations for application-driven field research.

Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap G-83 CAV-EV-01 Suggested Title: Public Fast-Charging Stations for Electric Vehicles in Rural and Tourism Areas Description: The availability of electric vehicle charging stations in rural communities could allow EV owners to extend the useful range of their vehicles. The proposed research will evaluate current market research regarding EV use for rural and recreational trips, summarize the technical requirements for EV charging stations, and identify potential strategies for charging station implementation by rural communities, including possible partnerships with local businesses and electric utilities. The research should also consider the potential integration of EV charging sites with rural economic development efforts, for example allowing longer-distance travelers to recharge while visiting local restaurants, attractions, etc. Sustainable cost recovery methods should be considered to assure that charging stations developed with public resources are not seen as competing unfairly with the private sector. The study should also consider if rural trips are high enough for rural stations to be warranted. Notes: US Department of Energy has developed some related technical materials: • https://afdc.energy.gov/pev-readiness.html • https://afdc.energy.gov/fuels/electricity_charging_public.html • https://afdc.energy.gov/files/pdfs/51227.pdf • https://www.transportationandclimate.org/sites/default/files/EVSE_Planning_and_Policy_Tool_Guide.p df • https://luskin.ucla.edu/sites/default/files/Non-Residential%20Charging%20Stations.pdf CAV-IM-01 Suggested Title: Cost-Effectiveness of Rural Connected Vehicle Infrastructure Description: This study will review the major connected vehicle use cases relevant to rural areas and identify the costs and cost- effectiveness of rural connected vehicle infrastructure deployments for the most prominent near-term use cases. CAV-MP-01 Suggested Title: Procuring Advanced Vehicles for Public Fleets in Rural Communities and Small Towns Description: A broad array of new motor vehicle technologies are poised to become available in the near future, including low-emissions, electric and alternative fuel vehicles; advanced vehicle safety systems; and varying levels of vehicle automation. The rapid pace of technical developments presents challenges for government fleet managers—especially in rural communities and small towns where vehicle procurement may be only a small part of an employee’s duties. This guide will identify sources for objective information about the performance of new vehicle technologies and principles for making rational decisions that balance high- level policy goals and end-user preferences with fleet operating costs and technical risks. CAV-MP-02 Suggested Title: Effectiveness of Vehicle Technology Education Programs for Rural Senior Drivers Description: It can be difficult for consumers to keep up with the rapid changes in motor vehicle technology, such as advanced vehicle safety systems. In addition, the marketing terms used to describe these systems often vary by manufacturer, and in some cases operating controls or user interfaces also differ. A few public outreach programs have been implemented to help seniors understand and use the features of their existing vehicles, or to help guide new vehicle purchasing decisions. This project will review the vehicle information needs of age 65+ drivers who live in rural areas, evaluate the effectiveness of existing outreach programs, and develop recommended practices for future activities aimed at helping elderly drivers understand and apply advanced vehicle technologies. CAV-MP-03 Suggested Title: Communicating Connected & Automated Vehicle (CAV) Benefits and Limitations to Rural Road Users Description: This project will identify best practices for public outreach campaigns aimed at explaining to rural road users the benefits and limitations of connected and autonomous vehicles (CAVs).

Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap G-84 CAV-Pl-01 Suggested Title: Understanding the Timing of Rural Transportation Technology Advancements Description: There are many uncertainties in the timelines for future technological advancements that affect rural transportation. This project will explore the current status of technologies that are likely to impact the supply, demand, and modal preferences of rural transportation system users, including but not limited to the effects of connected and automated vehicles. Major technical challenges will be identified. Best-case, most likely, and worst-case forecasts will be developed to anticipate the sequencing of technologies to overcome rural deployment obstacles. CAV-Pl-02 Suggested Title: Rural Travel Demand Scenarios for Connected and Autonomous Vehicles Description: The probable effects of connected and automated vehicles (CAVs) on rural travel demand are not well understood. Although automation could facilitate longer commutes that result in population growth for rural communities at the fringes of urban areas, there are also concerns that CAV usability limitations in rural areas could lead to economic and social marginalization. The latter concern is supported to a degree by automotive industry sources: although 2017 was a year of bold predictions about the future of CAVs, by early 2019 prominent industry leaders began publicly expressing doubt that fully autonomous operation is feasible in all driving environments. Mobility-as-a-service (MAAS) models are seen as a method for spreading the cost of CAVs amongst multiple users but might not be profitable in rural areas. Laws governing the use of CAVs could also influence on travel patterns: for example, commuting distances could differ depending on whether it is legal to watch movies while the vehicle is in autonomous driving mode. To assess possible CAV effects on rural travel patterns, this project will conduct consumer preference research with rural residents and develop a set of rural travel demand planning scenarios representing varying levels of CAV technical performance, regulation, cost, and market acceptance. CAV-Pl-03 Suggested Title: Implementation Guide for Near-Term Rural and Small-Town Vehicle-to- Infrastructure (V2I) Technologies Description: This project focuses on the sub-set of vehicle-to-infrastructure (V2I) technologies that are suitable for rural and small-town driving environments. It will provide guidance to practitioners on establishing priorities for basic infrastructure required to support rural V2I deployments and V2I deployments themselves. The guidance will discuss deployment thresholds, funding of operation and maintenance, and the costs, benefits and legal liabilities associated with deployment or non-deployment. CAV-Pl-04 Description: State and local transportation agencies are preparing their infrastructure for the integration of connected vehicle technologies. To date, most connected vehicle research has focused on applications in urban areas, but agencies also need long-term planning to assess resource needs required for deploying, operating, and maintaining connected vehicle technology infrastructure on rural corridors. The objectives of this research are to identify (1) connected vehicle applications that will be most relevant on rural corridors; (2) scalable ways connected vehicles may be integrated into transportation agencies’ traffic operations and management plans; (3) the requirements of connected vehicles and cyber-physical infrastructure within rural corridors; (4) the anticipated roles and responsibilities of agencies in authorizing, deploying, operating, and maintaining ITS and other transportation systems management and operations (TSMO) technologies within rural corridors; and (5) the related staffing and resource needs. CAV-RB-01 Suggested Title: Rural Connected and Automated Vehicle (CAV) Implementation Problems, Opportunities, Obstacles, and Solutions Description: Rapid advancements in connected and automated vehicle (CAV) technology have spurred extensive speculation about CAV impacts on local communities, but there is often a shortage of hard information about the problems and opportunities CAVs will present for rural communities. This project will conduct a scan of what is known and unknown about CAV effects on rural roadway systems. This information will be analyzed to identify potential benefits, opportunities, and adverse

Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap G-85 impacts; knowledge gaps that can be resolved through further research; and areas where the technology is not yet mature enough to identify likely outcomes. The project will also identify barriers to rural CAV implementation and suggest methods for minimizing downside risks concurrent while resolving barriers that impede beneficial outcomes. Notes: A closely related project was completed in 2017 by ITS America and the US DOT Joint Program Office (JPO). The groups interviewed several rural ITS practitioners and published a report titled, “Rural Connected Vehicle Gap Analysis: Factors Impeding Deployment and Recommendations for Moving Forward.” Examples of general barriers mentioned in the report include rural communications infrastructure limitations, slow fleet turnover, funding, questions about the cost-effectiveness of rural V2I deployments, public skepticism of new technology, and general distrust of government. According to the report, “Recommended action items to address the rural connected vehicle deployment challenges include: rural communities to develop connected vehicle sustainability plans, support of rural connected vehicle deployment trials (to demonstrate benefits in a number of identified high need rural areas, include freight demonstrations), innovative approaches to funding, and to enact a sustainable outreach and benefit education effort.” The report did not look at specific deployment scenarios. CAV-RB-02 Suggested Title: Technical, Regulatory, and Implementation Issues for Telecommunications Supporting Rural Connected Vehicle Deployments Description: Currently there are competing technical visions for connected and automated vehicles (CAVs), with some stakeholders favoring the use of Dedicated Short-Range Communications (DSRC) and others favoring the use of commercial wireless broadband networks. The latter approach is often linked with development of Fifth Generation [5G] wireless, a set of technologies that is itself currently in the early stages of development. Since many rural areas currently have spotty mobile broadband infrastructure, some rural transportation practitioners are concerned that broadband-only standards could inhibit the use of CAVs in rural areas. This project will review the status of CAV technology and standards, identify rural vehicle-to-infrastructure applications that require broadband, and determine the extent to which specific policy interventions may be necessary to assure that CAVs can operate safely in rural areas. Notes: Two related research suggestions were combined into this item. CAV-RB-03 Suggested Title: Rural Traveler Information and Crisis Communication and the National Broadband Plan Description: Rural telecommunications infrastructure in the United States is implemented through a complicated combination of private funding and subsidies from public programs such as the Universal Service Fund. In 2010, the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) published a National Broadband Plan (NBP) aimed at guiding broadband improvements nationwide. Although the plan sets out ambitious goals for improving rural telecommunication, it was never fully funded. Drawing from the NBP and other sources, the proposed project would identify a subset of projects that are high priorities in the context of rural traveler information and disaster/crisis communication. The project would also conduct outreach with telecom companies, the FCC, and other state and national decision makers to explore methods for implementing high-priority projects. CAV-RB-04 Suggested Title: Identify Potential In-Vehicle Technology Impacts on Driving Safety for Rural Elders Description: This project will conduct outreach with rural elders and law enforcement officers to identify actual and perceived concerns about the safety of in-vehicle equipment used by people age 65+. Based on this information, the project will identify safety research needs for consideration by vehicle manufacturers, the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA), and other organizations. CAV-TS-01 Suggested Title: Establishing Rural Emergency Stopping Sites for Automated Vehicles Description: A 2016 video produced by Volvo clearly identifies the need for locations where automated vehicles (AVs) can safely stop in the event of a technical fault. This need is amplified by recent crash reports

Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap G-86 indicating that human drivers sometimes fail to take manual control promptly when a vehicle is no longer able to proceed in automated mode. Since many rural roads lack full safety shoulders, this project will identify criteria for the selection and spacing of roadside safety stop locations, with relevant dimensioning and design information. The research will also determine whether AV safety stops should be designed to double as emergency parking for conventional vehicles. The Volvo video is online at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2q00jIBhkq4 ; safety stops are discussed in the segment from timestamps 1:48 to 2:10.

Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap G-87 Coordination ID # RESEARCH NEED STATUS RPM-CO-01* Develop an all-modes guide for local officials describing the structure of rural freight systems; factors affecting freight costs; the organizational objectives and roles of private freight carriers, shippers, shipper associations, local government, state government, and federal agencies; public investment strategies for freight; methods for incentivizing private investments in freight infrastructure; and methods for allocating the costs of freight infrastructure when it is partially or entirely subsidized by the public sector. RPM-CO-02* Identify practical methods to improve coordination across freight modes, holistically address bottlenecks, and optimize the effectiveness of the freight system as a whole. RPM-CO-03* Develop guidance for analyzing the resilience of the rural freight network (including privately-operated freight services) covering disruptions caused by natural disasters, adverse weather/climate events, and human events such as labor disputes. RPM-CO-04 Develop freight supply chain use cases and deployment strategies. RPM-CO-05 Evaluate the effectiveness of U.S. shipper associations which have been formed to improve access to freight services and identify freight cost reduction strategies aimed at making rural industries and agriculture more competitive in global markets. RPM-CO-06 Identify guidance for officials on public investment strategies for freight * Project Description is available

Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap G-88 Maritime Freight ID # RESEARCH NEED STATUS RPM-MF-01* Identify methods for enhancing the environmental, transportation and navigational benefits of the inland waterway systems. RPM-MF-02* Conduct a comprehensive evaluation of the economic and social impacts of the Jones Act, which prohibits foreign ships from carrying freight between U.S. ports, including effects on consumers and businesses in Alaska, American Samoa, Guam, Hawaii, the Northern Mariana Islands, and Puerto Rico. RPM-MF-03 Conduct research to determine whether revitalization of short-sea shipping between domestic U.S. ports would benefit rural freight shippers. Evaluate the technical and regulatory environments required to achieve costs competitive with trucking and rail for shorter movements along maritime corridors such as the Great Lakes, Mississippi River, Atlantic Coast, and Pacific Coast including Alaska. RPM-MF-04 Identify trends affecting the use of small maritime ports and analyze the potential for shifting freight shipments from trucking to maritime services based at small ports. RPM-MF-05 Evaluate the feasibility of public/private, state/federal collective funding and financing of lock and dam infrastructure on inland waterways. * Project Description is available Oversize/Overweight Loads on Highways ID # RESEARCH NEED STATUS RPM-OO-01* Develop guidance to assist rural roadway designers in forecasting the volume of heavy/wide agricultural loads, forest products, or other types of heavy products for the purposes of pavement and bridge design. RPM-OO-02* Create a low cost, automated online oversize/overweight (OSOW) permit system for use by local agencies in rural areas. RPM-OO-03 Evaluate the feasibility of developing a national unified oversize/overweight (OSOW) load permitting system that incorporates clearance and weight restrictions for rural highways under state, county, and local jurisdiction. * Project Description is available

Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap G-89 Rail and Intermodal Freight ID # RESEARCH NEED STATUS RPM-RIF-01* Evaluate the effectiveness of current rail policies in serving rural shippers. Analyze impacts of rail industry consolidation and declining coal traffic on freight costs and service quality in rural areas. RPM-RIF-02* Develop case examples of public investments in terminal facilities that support the efficient transfer of rural freight between rail, waterways, air, and highways. RPM-RIF-03* Develop a guidebook to assist state and local agencies in identifying gaps in the current freight rail network that potentially constrain economic development opportunities. Identify methods for evaluating strategic reinvestment in freight rail to support industrial development. RPM-RIF-04* Identify methods for increasing the availability of empty intermodal containers in locations distant from seaports, such as the use of locally produced one-trip containers. RPM-RIF-05* Evaluate the economic development potential of providing shared- use rail-highway transloading facilities to extend the reach of rail services beyond the rail line itself. Develop methods for identifying economically viable locations for truck-to-rail intermodal cargo transfer facilities and prepare a guide to help rural communities develop transloading facilities in partnership with local short line railroads or other organizations. RPM-RIF-06* Evaluate rail policy alternatives that can improve freight connectivity. Evaluate the impacts of subsidy programs for short line railroads. RPM-RIF-07 Explore public sector roles in assuring adequate freight car supply among short-line railroads (AR040). RPM-RIF-08 Identify barriers to the reinstatement of freight rail lines that have been placed in state "rail banks" or rail-to-trail programs. Identify successful and unsuccessful examples of rail line reinstatement projects and their characteristics. RPM-RIF-09 Develop methods for analyzing and optimizing the extent and quality of modal interconnectivity for rural passenger and freight systems. * Project Description is available Safety ID # RESEARCH NEED STATUS RPM-SA-01* Identify low-cost methods for signalizing rural railroad crossings. RPM-SA-02 Identify methods for improving the crashworthiness of railroad crossing signals. * Project Description is available

Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap G-90 Social Issues ID # RESEARCH NEED STATUS RPM-SI-01 Identify cost-effective strategies for improving local access to freight services while minimizing the quality-of-life impacts of freight operations. RPM-SI-02 Evaluate impacts of limited freight service availability in remote and frontier communities. RPM-SI-03 Assess the extent of suicides and trespasser/homeless deaths on rural freight rail corridors and identify methods for reducing crashes involving trains that strike people on or near the track in rural areas. (The scope of this project should be coordinated with TCRP A-44) RPM-SI-04 Conduct a self-assessment bias evaluation to determine the extent to which commercial truck drivers overestimate their driving safety and health (ANB70). Trends and Competitiveness ID # RESEARCH NEED STATUS RPM-TC-01* Analyze the trends affecting rural freight services to document the current status of the freight market and identify metrics and benchmarks to help future local, state and national officials assess freight market health and determine whether any policy adjustments are necessary. RPM-TC-02* Evaluate the impact of Federal agricultural policies on demand for long-distance transportation of agricultural products, and potential changes in commodity flows/travel demand if ag programs are restructured. RPM-TC-03* Analyze impacts of energy development (wind, natural gas, and petroleum extraction) on rural road safety, heavy vehicle use, workforce development, and traffic flow. RNS 9 RPM-TC-04* Identify the implications of climate change for rail and barge freight demand, services and networks (A0020T). RPM-TC-05* Develop a guidebook to inform state and local agencies on statistically valid methods for collecting data on rural freight movements (especially seasonal agricultural traffic) at the community and corridor levels. RPM-TC-06 Forecasting Rural Travel Demand RPM-TC-07 Evaluate the competitiveness of short line railroads, as compared to trucking, including the effects of long-term trends affecting the freight market. RPM-TC-08 Develop methods to estimate transportation demand related to agricultural production. * Project Description is available

Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap G-91 Trends and Competitiveness (cont.) ID # RESEARCH NEED STATUS RPM-TC-09 Develop recommended practices for gauging public opinion about investments in non-highway freight handling facilities such as barge terminals, rail lines, and pipelines. Identify methods for separating the opinions of citizens directly impacted by freight projects from those of the broader rural community. Truck Freight ID # RESEARCH NEED STATUS RPM-TF-01* Develop transportation agency guidance on determining the demand for heavy truck parking and methods for matching truck parking supply with demand. RPM-TF-02 Evaluate the effects of the National Highway Freight Program (NHFP) and “Critical Rural Freight Corridor” designations on state transportation agency expenditures and priorities. RPM-TF-03 Research low-cost methods for automated truck weight monitoring on rural roadways. RPM-TF-04 Evaluate the impacts of large/heavy agricultural equipment on rural traffic safety, traffic flow, pavements, and bridges. RPM-TF-05 Develop guidance on methods for computing seasonally adjusted traffic volumes that take into consideration localized traffic surges related to planting and harvest activities. RPM-TF-06 Evaluate the viability of developing of shared-use trucking terminals as a rural economic development asset. RPM-TF-07 Evaluate the feasibility of subsidizing privately constructed regional truck-to-truck transloading stations to reduce trucking costs in smaller communities. * Project Description is available Available Position Descriptions RPM-Co-01 Description: This project will develop an all-modes guide for local officials describing the structure of rural freight systems; factors affecting freight costs; the organizational objectives and roles of private freight carriers, shippers, shipper associations, local government, state government, and federal agencies; public investment strategies for freight; methods for incentivizing private investments in freight infrastructure; and methods for allocating the costs of freight infrastructure when it is partially or entirely subsidized by the public sector. Notes: Two related research needs were combined to create this item. RPM-Co-02 Description: Historically each of the freight modes (trucking, rail, coastal shipping, inland waterways, and air freight) developed separately, using different funding sources, with very limited coordination between modes. Deeper coordination of freight systems (both at the policy and implementation levels) is hampered by differing oversight agencies, policy objectives, and cost recovery mechanisms. Currently each freight mode has its own capital funding mechanisms, some administered by state and local government, some by federal agencies such as the Army Corps of Engineers and Federal Aviation Administration, and some by the private sector. Operationally, some modes require large up-front investments and are dominated by a handful of carriers, while others have thousands of carriers and few barriers to entering or leaving the market.

Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap G-92 The purpose of this project is to take a holistic view of the U.S. freight shipping system, particularly as it relates to freight originating in or destined for rural, frontier, and remote areas. Operational bottlenecks in major metropolitan areas such as Atlanta, Chicago, Dallas, New York, and Los Angles have ripple effects on rural shippers. How could freight investments be coordinated to reduce costs, reduce bottlenecks, and maximize overall value to shippers, consignees, and the environment? What level of redundancy is appropriate to balance infrastructure costs with resilience? It should also be considered that coordination of freight modes could impact interstate truck traffic. Another perspective is perhaps the Interstate study could take a broader view of freight traffic, not just trucking. Notes: There is a parallel NCHRP study 20-126 is looking at Interstate Highway System renewal. RPM-Co-03 Description: The U.S. rural freight system is operated mainly by private industry but relies on publicly owned facilities such as roads and waterways. Adverse events such as natural disasters, severe weather, and labor disputes can disrupt the freight network, making it difficult or costly for rural communities to obtain inbound merchandise, and difficult for rural industries to ship their goods to domestic and international customers. For example, due to flooding much of the Mississippi River was closed to commercial traffic in spring 2019, stranding hundreds of barges for weeks with resulting economic impacts for grain exporters and other rural shippers. This project will evaluate the robustness of the U.S. freight network, consider the feasibility of shifting traffic from one mode to another in response to major events, and map the main chokepoints. Additionally, the project will explore strategies that would make it easier to bypass chokepoints or redirect cargo to other modes. RPM-MF-01 Description: The inland waterways system includes more than 36,000 miles of rivers, waterways, channels, and canals, as well as 241 locks at 195 sites. The system infrastructure directly serves 41 states and is managed by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. It was developed primarily to transport bulk commodities such as grain, fuels, road salt, and cement while mitigating seasonal flooding. The system also serves recreational maritime traffic and provides habitat for numerous aquatic and wetland species. This project will explore opportunities for enhancing the environmental, transportation and navigational benefits of the inland waterways while balancing the needs of the system’s numerous stakeholders, including enhancements that could be implemented by states and localities in coordination with the Corps of Engineers. RPM-MF-02 Description: The economics of the domestic maritime industry are strongly influenced by the Merchant Marine Act of 1920 (also known as the Jones Act), which requires goods shipped between U.S. ports to be transported on ships that are built, owned, and operated by United States citizens or permanent residents. The law affects maritime shipments within the U.S. mainland, along with those between the mainland and outlying regions such as Alaska, American Samoa, Guam, Hawaii, the Northern Mariana Islands, and Puerto Rico. While intended to strengthen the domestic shipbuilding and maritime industries, the law is at odds with typical business practices in the maritime industry, which usually registers ships in countries such as Panama or Liberia to sidestep various regulations and wage laws. By discouraging short-sea shipping between U.S. ports, the Jones Act is believed to benefit the trucking and railroad industries and protect certain domestic maritime carriers, while increasing freight costs for shippers and consumers. The law also appears to have some unintended economic effects. For example, it reportedly makes it more difficult to sell products from the U.S. mainland in Puerto Rico and Hawaii because they can become more expensive than foreign goods arriving on foreign ships. This project will review the positive and negative effects of the Jones Act and consider whether it could be modified to preserve its main benefits while minimizing unintended consequences. RPM-OO-01 Description: In recent years the size and weight of agricultural equipment has been steadily increasing, sometimes exceeding the structural design parameters for rural roads and bridges. Through previous

Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap G-93 research, a system has been developed for estimating loads associated with ag equipment such as large grain carts, manure tank trains, high flotation spray applicators, and tracked tractors. This project will build on prior research by developing methods for estimating the frequency of these extraordinary loads for use in pavement and bridge design computations. RPM-OO-02 Description: Many state DOTs have electronic systems in place to manage permits for road freight shipments that exceed statutory height, width, length, or weight limits. These systems are often tied to GIS databases that contain detailed information about bridge clearances and other road characteristics. There is an ongoing need for similar automation that would allow commercial vehicle operators to check clearances and load limits for county and municipal roadways and apply for local OSOW permits. This would save time and money for local agencies by reducing the need for manual analysis of the route and could also reduce errors such as overlooking a load-limited bridge. To accomplish this objective, this project will develop open source software framework that could be customized by municipal and county agencies to automate OSOW permit requests and reviews (and by state DOTs that do not already have an automated system). Notes: Also see item RPM-OO-03. RPM-RIF-01 Description: Over the past several years there have been many changes in the freight rail industry. There were once dozens of long-distance railroads, but through corporate mergers only seven major railroad companies remain. Most rail freight routes are served by only one company, and each company can generally set prices as it sees fit. Many branch lines previously owned by major carriers were spun off, resulting about 560 small carriers (short-line and regional railroads) that operate local connections to rural communities. There are concerns that continued industry consolidation could reduce service levels and increase rates for rural shippers. Meanwhile, changes in the energy sources used for electricity generation have resulted in a long-term decline in coal traffic, raising concerns that small shippers will need to pay a larger share of the railroads’ fixed costs. This project will assess the effects of industry consolidation on short line railroads and rural shippers and develop a set of benchmarks for assessing the health and stability of local rail services in rural communities. The project will also consider local freight connections in the context of larger national/international objectives such as sustainable rural development and resilience to disruptions in the highway and maritime freight systems. Notes: Two related research needs were combined to create this item. RPM-RIF-02 Description: Freight terminals are a critical link in modern logistics systems, providing the opportunity to transfer freight between long distance carriers and local delivery services. Many rural communities are not large enough to support the operation of privately-owned terminals by all carriers, resulting in increased freight costs due to inefficient use of vehicles/equipment or the emergence of a single dominant carrier. This research will develop case examples of public investments in terminal facilities that support the efficient transfer of rural freight between rail, waterways, air, and highways, and explore the viability of shared use (multi-carrier or multi-shipper) terminals as an economic development tool for rural communities. Terminals allow small shipments to be consolidated into full loads and broken down into individual pallets (or individual parcels) at multiple points in the distribution chain. Short-term storage at a terminal can assist carriers in balancing inbound and outbound demand to avoid backhauling empty trucks or railcars. A second type of terminal is designed to handle bulk cargo (grain, coal, liquid fuels, road salt, etc.); for example, grain from local farms could be transferred to railcars for long-distance shipment. Some bulk cargo terminals include facilities for storing materials temporarily so that the inbound and outbound vehicles or vessels do not need to be present at the same time. Some freight terminals include co-located warehouses or distribution centers.

Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap G-94 RPM-RIF-03 Description: When the rail industry was deregulated in the 1980s, the process for abandoning rail corridors was simplified. Over the next several years, most railroads trimmed their networks to focus on the most profitable routes. As a result, many rural branch lines were shortened or completely abandoned. While this process had financial benefits for the rail industry and provided the opportunity to develop numerous ped/bike paths on former rail corridors, it left behind many gaps in the rail network. As a result, many rural communities that were once part of a continuous rail corridor are now beyond the remaining track. As the economy continues to evolve, these rail coverage gaps can limit community economic development opportunities. For example, the ethanol industry barely existed the 1980s, but today ethanol production is a growing industry that converts local grain into a finished product that is usually shipped to fuel blending plants by rail. (Shell, the world’s second- largest energy company, projects that 14% of the world’s energy will need to be supplied from biofuels by 2070 to meet the Paris Agreement requirements.) This project will develop a guidebook to assist state and local agencies in identifying gaps in the current freight rail network that potentially constrain economic development opportunities and identify methods for evaluating strategic reinvestment in freight rail to support industrial development. RPM-RIF-04 Description: Empty intermodal shipping containers are abundant near major seaports, but container availability declines rapidly with distance from a port. As a result, rural companies that sell their products internationally can face considerable costs to haul in empty containers. This project will explore options for balancing the supply and demand of freight containers in rural areas, such as the use of locally produced one-trip containers. RPM-RIF-05 Description: Historically, railroads often provided shared-use transloading facilities (traditionally called team tracks) in many rural communities. Such facilities allow shippers and consignees that are not directly connected to the rail system to transfer freight between railcars and trucks. Although this type of facility fell out of favor in the late 20th Century, in recent years some rural communities have reinvigorated the notion of shared use transloading points to support local agricultural and industrial development. In collaboration with operators such as short-line railroads, modern transloading facilities are said to provide opportunities to expand the reach of rural rail systems beyond the rail line itself. This research will examine the economics and governance of modern shared-use transloading facilities to identify the characteristics of successful and not-so-successful facilities serving rural communities. RPM-RIF-06 Description: The national and state freight rail policies in the United States have remained largely unchanged since the rail industry was deregulated in the 1980s, but the demand for freight services has been affected by globalization and other macroeconomic trends. This project will apply the benchmarks and state-of-the-industry analysis developed in the Rural Rail I project to assess the effectiveness of current state and national freight rail policies in the United States. Alternative policy options will be analyzed to determine whether alternative policies would better align with the needs of rural shippers, the short line railroads that serve rural communities, and the communities themselves. Notes: Two related research needs were combined to create this item. RPM-Sa-01 Description: The design of railroad crossing signals has changed very little since the 1930s, using an expensive but reliable electromechanical train detection system. Currently a typical crossing signal installation costs around $250,000. As a result of these high costs, installing warning signals universally has been financially infeasible: in spite of more than 80 years of Federal subsidies that cover up to 90% of installation costs, there are currently about 60,000 unsignalized railroad crossings in the United States. Many of these crossings are on high-speed rural roads. This project will build on prior research by evaluating the effectiveness and reliability of lower-cost technical options for rural active warning devices. The project will

Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap G-95 also compare the costs of various levels of warning reliability with the actuarial costs of crossing crashes and examine warning communication methods that correspond to the reliability of the detection system. RPM-TC-01 Description: The freight services offered in the rural United States include trucking, rail, maritime (inland waterways, Great Lakes, and coastal), air freight, and intermodal services. For nearly 100 years freight prices and service areas were tightly regulated by the Federal government. This was followed by deregulation in the 1980s based on the assumption that competition between modes and carriers would result in fair pricing. These policies predate corporate consolidation in the freight industry, as well as trends such as globalization, expanded domestic energy production, and efforts to reduce carbon emissions. This project will analyze the trends affecting rural freight services to document the current status of the freight market, freight costs, and service quality in rural areas. The project will document the current health of the rural freight market and identify metrics and benchmarks to help future local, state and national officials assess freight market health and determine whether any policy adjustments are necessary. RPM-TC-02 Description: The 2018-2019 trade tensions between the U.S. and China provide a unique opportunity to examine the effects of national policy on agricultural traffic and commodity flows. This project will conduct an in-depth analysis of commodity flow data before and after changes in tariffs on agricultural products. It will examine possible changes in the quantity, destination, and shipping mode for ag exports, and their secondary effects on ag imports and domestic consumption. Using this information, the project will develop a model that transportation agencies can use to estimate the effects of future agricultural policy changes (such as raising or lowering ag subsidies) on commodity flows. This commodity flow data could then be used in state freight analysis models to estimate changes in traffic on specific roadways, railways, and waterways. RPM-TC-03 Description: In recent years, many parts of the rural U.S. have been selected for intensive petroleum and natural gas extraction or the development of wind turbine arrays. Local officials report that in many cases these energy projects generate unprecedented traffic increases on rural roadways. The objective of this research is to identify and document the practices that agencies are currently using to mitigate traffic impacts resulting from energy development. To achieve this objective, the proposed project will survey state and local agencies to identify (and if possible quantify) the extent of traffic impacts resulting from energy development projects, compile and compare state and local policies that have been implemented to mitigate these traffic impacts, and document best practices and future research needs. RPM-TC-04 Description: Climate change research indicates that weather conditions and weather patterns could trigger shifts in land use, economic activity and trade, which would lead to substantial changes in transportation demand, services, and networks. Researchers have started exploring the implications of these changes; for example, studying the effects of sea-level rise on coastal communities, evaluating changes in precipitation and temperature on agricultural production, assessing the potential of more frequent and severe weather events on road and bridge design, and modeling the effectiveness of pricing and regulation to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. This work should be extended to better understand the implications for freight transportation demand, services, and networks, especially for rail and barge freight transportation which could be disproportionately impacted by climate and energy shifts. Environmental policies often encourage shift to rail and barge modes but, ironically, climate change may negatively affect the viability of these modes (e.g. substantial reduction of coal use could have major impact on rail revenue). RPM-TC-05 Description: Information about rural freight traffic demand is scarce. In most states, truck traffic counts are only available for a handful of sites (usually on major highways), and it is questionable whether truck percentages from these locations are applicable to other roadways. Freight data for non-highway modes is

Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap G-96 generally available only from private data brokers who base their estimates on information supplied by major common carriers (after scrubbing it to hide commercially sensitive information). Since the third-party data comes from major freight carriers, it potentially excludes freight handled by small common carriers, the in- house logistics operations of major retailers, and other not-for-hire operations. This project will prepare a guidebook to assist practitioners in understanding the limitations of existing freight data sources and provide practical advice about methods for collecting freight data in the field. This will include statistically valid methods for collecting data on rural freight movements (such as seasonal agricultural traffic) at the community and corridor levels. RPM-TF-01 Description: Overnight truck parking is a persistent problem for state DOTs and other transportation agencies. The truck parking lots at rest areas on rural freeways often reach capacity by early evening, privately-operated truck stops often have limited space, and parking along the shoulders of entrance and exit ramps is often prohibited as a safety precaution. Nevertheless, Federal regulations place strict limits on the number of hours a driver can work, so truckers need to find parking promptly when their workday draws to a close. This project will explore the truck parking problem and review the effectiveness of ITS devices intended to help truckers find parking. The project will also explore potential solutions to truck parking issues, such as developing overflow lots at industrial sites or disused commercial facilities, along with methods for recovering the cost of building and maintaining truck parking.

Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap G-97 Context Sensitive Design ID # RESEARCH NEED STATUS WC-CS-01 Identify best practices for managing erosion and sedimentation impacts on rural roads due to changes in climate and land use (AFB30). WC-CS-02 Identify strategies to improve roadside ecology in public lands WC-CS-03 Identify landscaping/vegetation species that can safely be planted in clear zones to add character to tourism routes and/or sequester carbon. WC-CS-04 Assess transportation agency and SHPO practices for tribal knowledge incorporation in identification, recordation and evaluation of stone features. WC-CS-05 Identify context sensitive design options for rural workhorse bridges in historic districts. Environmental Impact Management ID # RESEARCH NEED STATUS WC-EI-01* Develop guidance for improving natural hazards risk management and resiliency to climate change impacts for public lands and other tourism/recreational areas. WC-EI-02 Develop an online database of best practices for the management and mitigation of transportation impacts on endangered species. * Project Description is available Geotechnical ID # RESEARCH NEED STATUS WC-GE-01 Evaluate deterioration and unit costs for rural transportation geotechnical assets (AFP00). WC-GE-02 Create an implementation manual for geotechnical asset management for transportation agencies (AFP10). WC-GE-03 Develop design guide for low-cost stormwater overflow management structures suitable for rural riparian areas. WC-GE-04 Document strategies for geotechnical asset management, environmental sustainability and resilience (AFP00). WC-GE-05 Identify economic analysis tools for management of rural geotechnical assets (AFP00).

Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap G-98 Geotechnical (cont.) ID # RESEARCH NEED STATUS WC-GE-06 Identify structural and seismic risks to rural roads and bridges in petroleum and natural gas extraction areas. RNS10 Infrastructure Resilience ID # RESEARCH NEED STATUS WC-IR-01* Document best practices for the permanent relocation of rural communities threatened by climate-related problems. Evaluate infrastructure funding, social impacts, and the logistics of relocation. WC-IR-02* Identify the probability of large-scale population resettlements due to climate change and the resulting effects on rural transportation infrastructure and services. Examples could include resettlement of U.S. residents displaced by climate disasters, or future humanitarian programs to repopulate rural America with displaced people from regions experiencing chronic crop failure, desertification, flooding, etc. WC-IR-03* Create a bridge and culvert vulnerability assessment software suite, including a low-cost tool to measure hydraulic capacity of structures, estimate future stormwater flows, identify vulnerable structures, and model stormwater management scenarios at roughly a countywide scale. RNS1 WC-IR-04* Evaluate impacts of climate change on road system at county level including long-term. WC-IR-05* Identify recommended practices for integrating resilience upgrades into routine transportation and economic development projects. WC-IR-06 Investigate strategies for mitigating the effects of disruptions in petroleum supply on rural transportation infrastructure and services. WC-IR-07 Consider establishing an international (US, Canada, Greenland/Denmark) working group to identify emerging transportation needs as global warming makes sub-arctic areas more habitable. If current trends continue, refugees from low- lying coastal areas will need to be resettled somewhere. It is preferable to plan for this and have an orderly migration, rather than dealing with millions of displaced persons on a crisis-by- crisis basis. WC-IR-08 Identify the role of low volume roads to create network resilience/redundancy (AFB30). WC-IR-09 Document techniques for communicating benefits of resilient infrastructure investments to local officials. * Project Description is available

Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap G-99 Maintenance ID # RESEARCH NEED STATUS WC-MA-01* Identify rural roadway winter maintenance techniques for climate change resilience. WC-MA-02* Identify simplified analytical tools that incorporate weather and climate data to help rural decision makers optimize winter maintenance expenditure levels based on their safety and economic development goals. WC-MA-03 Identify winter roadway maintenance techniques suitable for regions that experience occasional heavy snow/ice, such as the southern U.S. WC-MA-04 Identify retrofit surface treatments to reduce asphalt pavement softening, prevent loss of skid resistance, and deter solar heat rutting. WC-MA-05 Identify methods for predicting rural highway segments that are at risk of pavement heave under hotter summer conditions. * Project Description is available Operations/Recovery ID # RESEARCH NEED STATUS WC-OR-01* Identify rapid reconstruction techniques for bridges affected by natural disasters. Identify methods for providing alternative access to communities cut off by bridge failures caused by flooding or similar disasters, such as the temporary use of low water crossings. Identify opportunities to expedite redesign and reconstruction of transportation facilities through flexible design standards and administrative processes. WC-OR-02* Analyze and document rural traffic management for particular populations for natural disasters. WC-OR-03* Analyze and document methods for natural or man-made disaster recovery in rural areas. Document methods for accelerating rural transportation recovery from climate disasters. WC-OR-04* Identify barriers to expanded use of the FM Radio Data System Traffic Message Channel (RDS-TMC) to disseminate rural traffic and emergency management information through text messages visible on nearly all existing automobile radios. WC-OR-05 Identify methods for reducing transportation costs and delays associated with disaster response/recovery in frontier and remote areas of the mainland United States and outlying areas such as Alaska, American Samoa, Guam, Hawaii, the Northern Mariana Islands, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands. WC-OR-06 Bouncing back from natural disasters in tourism-dependent rural communities. RNS17 WC-OR-07 Document best practices for the role of rural transit in disaster response/resilience. * Project Description is available

Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap G-100 Operations/Recovery (cont.) ID # RESEARCH NEED STATUS WC-OR-08 Document the use of drones for transportation infrastructure inspection and site reconnaissance following natural disasters. WC-OR-09 Document funding and strategies for past transportation environmental crisis management. Planning ID # RESEARCH NEED STATUS WC-PL-01* Identify the potential for planned abandonment/relocation of vulnerable rural highways (and adjacent land uses) in the event of a disaster, to build back better instead of replacing in-kind at disaster-prone sites. WC-PL-02* Develop tools and guidance to optimize responses to climate hazards by helping local decision-makers identify climate- related risks and optimize expenditure decisions at the system- wide and program-wide levels. WC-PL-03 Cross-jurisdictional stormwater and floodwater management strategies. WC-PL-04 Identify holistic methods for coordinating roadside development and stormwater management at the watershed level, irrespective of state, county, and local jurisdictional boundaries, to assure that communities at lower elevations are not adversely impacted by runoff from communities far upstream. WC-PL-05 Conduct an analysis of the environmental justice approach for transportation equity in rural areas. * Project Description is available Prediction ID # RESEARCH NEED STATUS WC-PR-01 Develop case studies for impacts of natural disasters and climate change on transportation, effects on local economies, and differences and similarities in practice from recent severe weather events in various rural community types. WC-PR-02 Evaluate climate change threats to transportation in rural areas, where to focus efforts, and examples of early-warning signs of climate change impacts on transportation systems WC-PR-03 Identify rural transportation adaptation strategies relevant to various regions. WC-PR-04 Create a predictive model for where transportation jobs will be needed due to climate change. WC-PR-05 Create a climate change overlay for rural community types to establish a convergence of observations. WC-PR-06 Modeling, Identification of Risk Assessment and Categorization Impact of Climate Change on Low Volume Road Systems

Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap G-101 Transportation Health and Safety ID # RESEARCH NEED STATUS WC-THS-01* Quantify public health and public safety risks associated with rural highway washouts and structural failures caused by flash floods. WC-THS-02* Quantify human health and safety impacts, livestock health, and cropland productivity from increased dust on unpaved rural roads due to more intense drought conditions. WC-THS-03 Identify impacts of hot summers on rural transportation agency and contractor workforce health and safety; develop appropriate interventions and countermeasures. WC-THS-04 Identify lessons learned and recommended practices for relocation of vulnerable transit users (e.g., frail elderly) during disasters. WC-THS-05 Identify changes in rural roadway loss-of-control crash risks related to increased precipitation, freeze-thaw cycles, and cyclic thermal softening of asphalt pavements. WC-THS-06 Quantify health and safety trade-offs associated with moving rural roadwork to cooler nighttime hours. * Project Description is available Tribal ID # RESEARCH NEED STATUS WC-TR-01 Document best practices for transportation-related weather hazard mitigation and emergency management in tribal communities. Available Project Descriptions WC-EI-01 Description: Climatic hazards such as flooding, and drought can have considerable impacts on rural tourism and public lands. For example, flood damage can cut off highway access to scenic areas, resulting in economic hardship for tourism-dependent communities. Similarly, snow drought or early snowmelt can hamper skiing and other outdoor winter sports, resulting in reduced tourism traffic. This project will explore methods for evaluating and reducing natural hazards that affect roads and highways in public lands and tourism areas. The project will also consider methods for increasing the roadway system’s resilience to changes in temperature and precipitation, such as relocating flood-prone highway segments or constructing structures to prevent flood damage by storing excess meltwater. WC-IR-01 Description: This project will review and summarize the recent experiences of communities whose transportation access/infrastructure has been severely threatened or damaged by climate-related issues. The project will explore the processes used to make decisions about how much of the community’s infrastructure and other assets should be relocated, as well as decisions associated with selecting relocation sites and the process of reconstruction and relocation. Issues to be considered include infrastructure funding, social impacts, and relocation logistics. Summarize typical experiences and best practices.

Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap G-102 WC-IR-02 Description: Changing precipitation and temperature patterns are steadily increasing the likelihood that large numbers of people will be abruptly displaced by disasters. Examples could include U.S. residents whose communities are irreparably destroyed by climate disasters, or future humanitarian programs to repopulate rural America with displace people from regions that are experiencing chronic crop failures, flooding, desertification, or similar issues. These solutions to displacement are likely to proceed more smoothly if their impacts on transportation infrastructure are considered in advance. This project will identify the potential scope and timescale of population displacements and identify methods for planning and implementing the required transportation infrastructure in a well-organized manner. WC-IR-03 Description: In recent years, flood frequencies and stormwater volumes have increased in most parts of the U.S. (Mallakpour and Villarini 2015, EPA 2016). Many rural transportation agencies—particularly those at lower elevations near major rivers—have already experienced multiple bridge and culvert failures. The resulting repair and replacement costs are substantial. The objective of this research is to combine floodplain mapping and climate prediction models into a suite of tools that will allow state, county, and municipal agencies to identify and redesign vulnerable bridges, culverts, and other transportation infrastructure. This information is necessary to redesign riparian structures so that they will remain serviceable throughout their design life (which is typically 50 years or more). While existing maps provide floodplain information based on the existing land use and climate, the tool needs to incorporate information about expected changes in land use and precipitation to help agencies assess long-term changes in floodplain locations. WC-IR-04 Description: Secondary roads, which are often under county or local jurisdiction, comprise a substantial portion of the rural roadway mileage in the United States. Whether paved or unpaved, the structural strength of these roads is often limited, and it is common to encounter segments that adjoin unstable slopes or were built on floodplains or wetlands. In addition, secondary roads frequently include bridges or drainage structures with substandard hydraulic capacity. Their vulnerability to storm damage and their importance in providing access to rural communities were evident in press reports following Hurricane Maria in Puerto Rico. Additionally, due to changing temperature and precipitation patterns secondary roads may face increased heat and/or freeze-thaw cycles that could impact pavement longevity. This project will develop an overview of secondary road vulnerabilities related to the impacts of changing weather and precipitation patterns, along with actions that could be taken by various levels of government to reduce the associated risks. WC-IR-05 Description: In recent years FHWA has developed a series of publications that address methods for integrating climate/weather resilience upgrades into the project development process. Currently however, resilience upgrades are usually given serious consideration only for major transportation facilities or those located in highly vulnerable areas. This project will explore the current state of practice with regard to implementing resilience upgrades routinely as part of all rural and small-town transportation projects at the state, county, and local levels. This will include identifying best practices for planning, design, and construction, along with recommended procedures for addressing the cost and scheduling implications of resilience upgrades. WC-Ma-01 Description: In recent years, the eastern two-thirds of the United States has experienced large winter temperature fluctuations coupled with increased precipitation. For example, snowfall has become much more common in the South, and heavy snow followed by extreme cold has become common in the Midwest and Northeast. With temperatures often hovering around the freezing point for long durations, “wintry mix” precipitation (abruptly and randomly shifting between rain, sleet, snow, and fog) is becoming routine in many areas. Several areas have recently experienced “bomb cyclones” with sudden extreme snowfall that can surprise travelers and maintenance personnel and trigger multicar collisions or other traffic calamities. This project will

Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap G-103 review policies and best practices for handling these increasingly challenging conditions in rural areas. Examples include techniques for notifying the public about sudden changes in travel conditions, snow/ice removal methods suitable for rapidly-changing conditions, staffing/equipment strategies suitable for areas that experience occasional but potentially very heavy snowfall, and methods for coping with rapid melting of heavy snow. WC-Ma-02 Description: Transportation agency leaders, especially at the local level, often struggle to agree on how much funding to allocate for winter road maintenance. Higher expenditures allow agencies to boost staffing so that roads can be cleared more quickly and thoroughly after storm events, which can improve safety and reduce storm impacts on business activity and household earnings. Nevertheless, compared to the visible results of allocating money to capital improvements, these economic and safety benefits can seem rather nebulous to budget decision makers. A few years of mild weather can make winter maintenance a tempting target for budget cuts—potentially leading to a financial crisis in a year with severe weather. The objective of this project is to develop a decision support tool that can assist agencies with setting winter maintenance levels objectively based on weather and climate data, mileage, winter road safety history, and the sensitivity of the local economy to weather-related road closures and delays. WC-OR-01 Description: This project will develop a guidebook that identifies creative methods for providing temporary access to communities that have been cut off by bridge failures caused by flooding or similar disasters. Examples include temporary bridges, temporary low water crossings, temporary roads and bridges, temporary access from limited-access highways, and temporary passenger rail or water taxi service. The guide will also discuss rapid reconstruction techniques, including the adaptation of military bridge-building and road- building techniques to civilian applications. In addition, the guide will provide case examples of methods agencies have used expedite the environmental review and contracting processes for post-disaster reconstructions. Notes: Three related research ideas were combined into this item. WC-OR-02 Description: In 2009, FHWA published a primer titled Evacuating Populations with Special Needs which provides recommendations for planning evacuations of people without motor vehicles, people with disabilities, hospital and nursing home patients, prisoners, and similar groups. This project will review the experiences of transportation agencies and develop updated guidance on emergency evacuation of special needs populations, with emphasis on solutions suitable for rural areas. WC-OR-03 Description: Recovering from natural and manmade disasters requires a coordinated effort amongst numerous government agencies and private non-profit organizations, in collaboration with affected residents and businesses. This project will develop a guide on actions that rural public transportation agencies and rural highway agencies can take to support, facilitate, and expedite recovery from disasters. The guide will address coordination between transportation agencies and other groups, including coordinating recovery for transportation infrastructure across various levels of government. Notes: Two related research ideas were combined into this item. WC-OR-04 Description: Many rural areas lack mobile phone coverage or broadband, but the radios and GPS units in nearly all cars sold in the United States are equipped with the FM Radio Data System (RDS). This technology displays short text messages on the radio’s front panel, as described in ISO Standard 14819. In the U.S., RDS is used mainly for station identification and song titles, but the system also includes a Traffic Message Channel (TMC) that can display traffic alerts and related emergency information. These traffic alerts have been in widespread use in Europe for many years, but have seldom been implemented in the U.S. Wider use of the RDS Traffic Message Channel offers opportunities to improve traffic management in rural areas

Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap G-104 (including remote areas that lack cellular service) to support emergency evacuations and help travelers avoid routes affected by an adverse event. This project will investigate the barriers to wider use of RDS-TMC in rural America and examine opportunities for collaboration between state transportation agencies and broadcasters for possible RDS-TMC implementations. WC-Pl-01 Description: Many parts of the U.S. have experienced repeated cycles of natural disasters (such as flooding) followed by rebuilding at the original, disaster-prone sites. This research will explore the potential for pre-planning the relocation of rural highways and associated land uses in the event of a natural disaster, so that insurance payouts and other financial resources are directed toward rebuilding in a safer area instead of in-kind replacement at the original site. WC-Pl-02 Description: Decisions about the rural transportation system can strongly affect the weather and climate-related risk levels faced by states, counties, and local communities. For example, when a rural highway is rebuilt there may be a choice between remaining on the existing alignment or rebuilding on a new alignment that is less prone to flooding. Although the probability of a flood might be low, its consequences might include severe impacts to community health and safety as well as damage to the highway itself. While there is existing guidance to assist with these decisions at the project level, many local officials are unfamiliar with objective methods for addressing low-probability, high hazard situations at the strategic level. The purpose of this project is to develop tools and guidance to help local decision-makers identify climate-related risks and optimize expenditure decisions at the system-wide and program-wide levels. This will include methods for comparing the impacts of various risk-reduction strategies, such as relocating vulnerable road infrastructure, constructing flood protection structures, and constructing floodwater management systems. WC-THS-01 Description: Washouts and bridge/culvert failures on rural highways are not just an inconvenience: they can have important public health and public safety impacts. For example, most meat in the United States is now produced by concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs), which often house 300 to 1000 cattle, 750-2500 pigs, or 25,000 to 125,000 chickens. To prevent human and animal disease outbreaks, the waste from these animals must be promptly transported to disposal sites. This project will explore the broader health and safety impacts of storm-related rural road closures, such as the potential for disease outbreaks if CAFOs lose highway access. The project will also consider methods for including costs related to human and animal health in analyses of projects aimed at improving the resilience of the rural transportation system. WC-THS-02 Description: More than 40 medical studies have shown that road dust adversely affects human health (Khan & Strand 2018). Some of these effects are related to respiratory irritation caused by fine particulates; others are related to inhalation and ingestion of road dust components such as aluminum, arsenic, chromium, copper, lead, platinum, zinc, silica, and erionite (a carcinogenic fibrous mineral). Road dust has also been shown to affect livestock health, reduce crop yields, and affect the quality of fruit and vegetables grown near roadsides. Additionally, clouds of road dust from unpaved roads can obscure the visibility of oncoming vehicles, contributing to crashes. This project will conduct a holistic assessment of the effects of rural road dust on human, animal, and plant health and safety, along with trends such as possible increases in dust levels due to more frequent freeze-thaw cycles and more intense drought conditions. The project will explore methods for quantifying these impacts and comparing them to the costs of dust reduction strategies such as surfacing or seal coating unpaved roads, replacing crushed limestone with harder gravel, applying dust control agents/additives, and sweeping paved roads.

Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap G-105 Technical Capacity ID # RESEARCH NEED STATUS WD-TC-01 Identify the skills, training, and other workforce development activities necessary for rural transportation agencies to utilize and maintain emerging technologies effectively. WD-TC-02 Identify the training and employee development techniques and formats that are the most effective for various types of rural transportation agency workforce training. Evaluate trade-offs between cost, employee availability, and knowledge retention for various workforce development techniques. Develop guidance on recommended formats for various types of technical and vocational education relevant to rural transportation agencies. WD-TC-03 Identify the skills and knowledge needs for transportation workers involved in responses to natural disasters and long-term adaptations to climate change. WD-TC-04 Identify effective communication tools/methods for transportation agencies at the local level that could be used by agencies to effectively market/communicate transportation projects/programs to the community. WD-TC-05 Develop a reference guide and literature summary to assist transportation planners serving small communities with travel demand modeling and the application of geographic information systems (GIS) (ADA30). WD-TC-06 Document strategies to recruit and retain the rural emergency medical services (EMS) workforce. WD-TC-07 Evaluate the effectiveness of the Tribal Technical Assistance Program (TTAP). WD-TC-08 Develop training programs to provide law enforcement officers with up-to-date information on roadway safety strategies and techniques. WD-TC-09 Identify the technical and non-technical skills needed by elected officials, managers, and directors who oversee public works and transportation agencies, compare with available leadership development courses, and identify obstacles to course participation.

Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap G-106 Technical Capacity (cont.) ID # RESEARCH NEED STATUS WD-TC-10 Develop training programs to provide law enforcement officers with up-to-date information on pedestrian and bicyclist safety, such as techniques for enforcing laws intended to protect non- motorized road users from aggressive and inattentive drivers. WD-TC-11 TTAP program evaluation is needed from an outside source. Transportation Agency Recruitment/Retention ID # RESEARCH NEED STATUS WD-TAR-01 Analyze the long-term and near-term workforce requirements for rural public transportation providers, highway agencies, and public works departments, including emerging trends in the required skill sets (e.g., ability to maintain roadside electronic devices) and regional labor shortages. WD-TAR-02 Document the recruitment and retention strategies that have been successfully implemented within transportation agencies, including strategies for recruiting early career professionals and qualified staff for leadership programs to rural areas. WD-TAR-03 Evaluate the expectations and attitudes of younger members of the workforce who are potentially interested in employment at rural transit and roadway agencies. This should include identifying aspects of compensation, scheduling, working conditions, and organizational culture that are salient to younger workers and developing case examples of transportation employers who have modified their operations to attract and retain younger workers. WD-TAR-04 Survey younger workers to identify perceptions of the working conditions and organizational culture of rural transportation agencies and compare perceptions of potential employees with those of existing employees to identify misperceptions. WD-TAR-05 Evaluate the effects of modifying the standards for agency criminal background checks, for example reducing emphasis on minor crimes and convictions that occurred long ago. WD-TAR-06 Review agency outreach efforts to identify effective recruitment strategies. WD-TAR-07 Compare the outcomes of a transit operator recruitment strategy based on hiring employees with good customer service skills followed by training on driving--rather than recruiting CDL holders and training them on customer service. WD-TAR-08 Identify strategies for efficiently recruiting employees who are willing to comply with agency drug/alcohol policies. WD-TAR-09 Document best practices for recruitment and retention of volunteer drivers for healthcare-related transportation.

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Although only 19% of the population lives in rural areas, more than 70% of the U.S.’s four million miles of roadways are in rural areas. The rural transportation system also includes numerous airports; railways; inland and coastal waterways; rural and intercity buses; and bicycle, pedestrian, and multi-use paths and trails. In addition, approximately 47% of the nation’s motor vehicle fatalities occur in rural areas.

The TRB National Cooperative Highway Research Program's pre-publication draft of NCHRP Research Report 988: Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap is designed to assist state departments of transportation and other public agencies and help inform policy–driven investment decisions.

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