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Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap (2021)

Chapter: Appendix A Fourteen Fact Sheets

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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A Fourteen Fact Sheets." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26343.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A Fourteen Fact Sheets." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26343.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A Fourteen Fact Sheets." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26343.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A Fourteen Fact Sheets." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26343.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A Fourteen Fact Sheets." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26343.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A Fourteen Fact Sheets." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26343.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A Fourteen Fact Sheets." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26343.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A Fourteen Fact Sheets." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26343.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A Fourteen Fact Sheets." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26343.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A Fourteen Fact Sheets." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26343.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A Fourteen Fact Sheets." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26343.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A Fourteen Fact Sheets." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26343.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A Fourteen Fact Sheets." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26343.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A Fourteen Fact Sheets." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26343.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A Fourteen Fact Sheets." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26343.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A Fourteen Fact Sheets." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26343.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A Fourteen Fact Sheets." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26343.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A Fourteen Fact Sheets." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26343.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A Fourteen Fact Sheets." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26343.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A Fourteen Fact Sheets." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26343.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A Fourteen Fact Sheets." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26343.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A Fourteen Fact Sheets." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26343.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A Fourteen Fact Sheets." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26343.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A Fourteen Fact Sheets." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26343.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A Fourteen Fact Sheets." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26343.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A Fourteen Fact Sheets." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26343.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A Fourteen Fact Sheets." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26343.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A Fourteen Fact Sheets." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26343.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A Fourteen Fact Sheets." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26343.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A Fourteen Fact Sheets." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26343.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A Fourteen Fact Sheets." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26343.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A Fourteen Fact Sheets." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26343.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A Fourteen Fact Sheets." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26343.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A Fourteen Fact Sheets." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26343.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A Fourteen Fact Sheets." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26343.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A Fourteen Fact Sheets." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26343.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A Fourteen Fact Sheets." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26343.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A Fourteen Fact Sheets." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26343.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A Fourteen Fact Sheets." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26343.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A Fourteen Fact Sheets." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26343.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A Fourteen Fact Sheets." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26343.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A Fourteen Fact Sheets." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26343.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A Fourteen Fact Sheets." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26343.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A Fourteen Fact Sheets." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26343.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A Fourteen Fact Sheets." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26343.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A Fourteen Fact Sheets." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26343.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A Fourteen Fact Sheets." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26343.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A Fourteen Fact Sheets." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26343.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A Fourteen Fact Sheets." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26343.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A Fourteen Fact Sheets." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26343.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A Fourteen Fact Sheets." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26343.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A Fourteen Fact Sheets." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26343.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A Fourteen Fact Sheets." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26343.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A Fourteen Fact Sheets." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26343.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A Fourteen Fact Sheets." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26343.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A Fourteen Fact Sheets." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26343.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A Fourteen Fact Sheets." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26343.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A Fourteen Fact Sheets." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26343.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A Fourteen Fact Sheets." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26343.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A Fourteen Fact Sheets." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26343.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A Fourteen Fact Sheets." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26343.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A Fourteen Fact Sheets." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26343.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A Fourteen Fact Sheets." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26343.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A Fourteen Fact Sheets." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26343.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A Fourteen Fact Sheets." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26343.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A Fourteen Fact Sheets." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26343.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A Fourteen Fact Sheets." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26343.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A Fourteen Fact Sheets." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26343.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A Fourteen Fact Sheets." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26343.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A Fourteen Fact Sheets." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26343.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A Fourteen Fact Sheets." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26343.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A Fourteen Fact Sheets." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26343.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A Fourteen Fact Sheets." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26343.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A Fourteen Fact Sheets." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26343.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A Fourteen Fact Sheets." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26343.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A Fourteen Fact Sheets." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26343.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A Fourteen Fact Sheets." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26343.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A Fourteen Fact Sheets." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26343.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A Fourteen Fact Sheets." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26343.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A Fourteen Fact Sheets." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26343.
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Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap A-1 A P P E N D I X A Fourteen Fact Sheets

Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap A-2 These fact sheets are working drafts. Due to the breadth of the rural transportation topics, they are not intended to be exhaustive, comprehensive lists, but rather a starting point for facilitated discussions. • Theme 1: Active transportation • Theme 2: Workforce development • Theme 3: Transportation access and mobility • Theme 4: Intersection of health and transportation • Theme 5: Generational expectations, work & lifestyle • Theme 6: Transporting rural products to market • Theme 7: Weather, climate and resilience • Theme 8: Rural public & school transportation • Theme 9: Law enforcement, crime and drugs • Theme 10: Aviation • Theme 11: Connected and automated vehicles and emerging technologies • Theme 12: Tourism and the natural environment • Theme 13: Roadway infrastructure and balancing capacity with demand • Theme 14: Rural transportation safety

Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap A-3 T H E M E # 1 : A C T I V E T R A N S P O R T A T I O N Community Type and Mode The community types and modes that pertain to this theme are shown in the tables below. Community Type Mode  Beyond the “Lower 48” o (AK, HI, PR, VI, GU, AS, MP)  Aviation  Bicycle  Exurban Community  Bus  Frontier/Remote Community  Maritime  Resource-based Community  Pedestrian  Tourism-based Community  Rail  Tribal Lands and Alaska Native Communities  Roadway Theme Description The benefits of active transportation are widespread. In rural communities, providing safe and easily accessible active infrastructure can reduce congestion, improve access, improve public health, and spur economic development. Many trips in rural areas are less than three miles long; it may be possible to shift these trips to active transportation modes, but it may require safe and dedicated infrastructure, which can be challenging as rural communities face limited resources. Access to Active Transportation Opportunities in Rural Communities Active transportation has been promoted as a means to reduce automobile dependency while increasing physical activity, improving multimodal access, and spurring economic development (Loh, Walljasper et al. 2012). Dedicated active transportation infrastructure including sidewalks, bike lanes, and pedestrian crossings are critical to ensuring safe access to active transportation opportunities for rural residents. In rural areas, approximately 40 percent of all trips are less than three miles long and half of these trips are less than a mile – there is potential to increase active modes of transportation within these trips (Loh, Walljasper et al. 2012). Community density, infrastructure diversity, and design are built environment factors that are consistently linked to active transportation. However, little research has been conducted on the physical and social factors that are associated with active transportation levels in rural areas (Meyer, Moore et al. 2016). Though rural residents often support improvements to bicycle and pedestrian infrastructure, these communities continue to face many unique challenges when it comes to implementation. Challenges • Funding constraints • Misperception that rural residents don’t bike or walk • Low population density, few walkable destinations • Safety concerns of pedestrians and cyclists • Lack of safe infrastructure • Lack of recreational spaces (parks, trail networks, other recreational spaces) • Little understanding of who is utilizing active modes of transportation • Conflicts with car culture

Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap A-4 • Travel distance • Opposition to non-motorized transportation facilities from residents and businesses concerned about costs, winter maintenance, and perceived negative impacts. Solutions • Prioritizing investments in active transportation and recreational spaces • Identifying innovative funding opportunities • Implementing concurrency programs (a program to measure if the transportation network is adequate to accommodate anticipated growth) • Adopting Complete Streets approach to planning • Encouraging active transportation modes – “share the road campaigns”, training events, etc. • Engaging law enforcement in education campaigns and enforcement • Adopting a regionalization approach (share facilities with nearby communities to pool funding), such as community trail connections, agreements with schools, non-profits, businesses to create recreational areas Americans with Disabilities Act Compliance Supporting active transportation often requires bringing sidewalks and other transportation facilities into compliance with the requirements of Title II the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990. Although the intent of the law is to eliminate discrimination against people with disabilities, ADA-compliant infrastructure provides wider benefits such as supporting mobility for ambulatory elders, facilitating the use of small, wheeled devices (strollers, mail carts, hand trucks, wagons, etc.), and reducing pedestrian tripping hazards. Although communities with less than 50 employees are exempt from some administrative requirements of the ADA, the legislation requires barrier-free design principles to be applied in all U.S. communities (regardless of size). In 2000, the U.S. Department of Justice published an ADA Guide for Small Towns outlining steps smaller communities can take to bring their infrastructure into compliance with ADA requirements (U.S. Department of Justice 2000). Since 1999, the U.S. Department of Justice has reached settlement agreements with more than 200 municipal, county, and state governments of all sizes initially alleged to have deficient access to civic facilities (U.S. Department of Justice 2000). Nevertheless, nearly three decades after the ADA was enacted with bipartisan support, many rural facilities remain noncompliant. For example, in 2018 an disability rights group asserted that 97% of the curb ramps in the state of Oregon are noncompliant (Disability Rights Oregon 2018). Challenges • Misperception that ADA applies only to physical disabilities such as wheelchair use and visual impairment. • Misperception that ADA doesn’t apply to rural communities. • Funding constraints. • Risk of litigation from disability rights organizations. • ADA standards for pedestrian facilities in public right-of-way have not yet been officially adopted (Architectural and Transportation Barriers Compliance Board 2011). Opportunities • Setting priorities for ADA compliance efforts is often fairly straightforward in small communities.

Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap A-5 Health Impact of Active Transportation in Rural Communities There is growing evidence that adults in rural areas are more likely to be obese or overweight, compounding this concern, obesity rates in children are higher in rural areas when compared to urban areas (Loh, Walljasper et al. 2012). Improving opportunities to safely walk or bicycle for transportation is one strategy to integrate physical activity into the daily routines of rural residents. Challenges • Rising obesity rates in rural communities • Lack of physical activity opportunities • Lack of recreational facilities Solutions • Bringing public health officials to the table • Investing in active transportation • Investing in recreational facilities • Expanding education programs on the importance of physical activity • Implementing programs that support bicycling and walking among students • Applying for grant programs that fund active transportation modes, such as Safe Routes to School Safety Risks and Countermeasures for Active Transportation Users Approximately one quarter of U.S. pedestrian and bicycle fatal and injury crashes occur on rural highways (Carter and Council 2007). Providing a safe environment for bicyclists and pedestrians is critical in rural communities, but these efforts often face limited resources and auto-oriented development. Challenges • Higher speeds • Auto-oriented roads • Highway as a main street • Lack of dedicated active transportation infrastructure • Disproportionately high rate of pedestrian and bicycle fatal and injury crashes • Limited financial resources Solutions • Developing education programs for all road users, such as “Share the Road” campaigns • Installing safety improvements for pedestrians – roadway lighting, sidewalks, paved shoulders • Installing safety improvements for bicyclists – marked bicycle lanes, bicycle signage, paved shoulders, roadway lighting • Implementing traffic calming strategies • Conducting road diets Economic Development Opportunities for Trail-Based Communities Trail-oriented design is one strategy to improve quality of life and economic vitality for rural and small communities. Creating trail networks and installing bicycle infrastructure have been shown to improve

Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap A-6 business development, increase property values, attract visitors, and promote public health in rural communities (Moreno-Long 2017). Challenges • Limited opportunities and resources for transportation infrastructure • Declining economic vitality of rural communities Solutions • Developing or expanding trail networks • Installing bicycle infrastructure – bike racks, bike lanes, bike storage • Integrating trails into larger regional economic development efforts • Creating partnerships with local businesses and destinations to install strategically located trails/trailheads to make the trail a part of the community experience • Planning events and activities for trail use and promotion • Providing lodging accommodations for trail users Safe Routes to School The Safe Routes to School program was created to make it safe and easy for students to walk and bike to school. This program has benefited students at more than 14,000 schools across the entire U.S. (2018). Safe Routes to School was first federally funded in 2005, but since then has undergone significant legislative and policy changes. Rural communities tend to have higher injury and fatality rates from crashes, fewer resources, and higher rates of obesity among school age children. Safe Routes to School programs provide an opportunity to address these challenges. Challenges • Local match requirements that constrain small communities • Disproportionately high rates of childhood obesity in rural children • High levels of injury or death related to crashes • Limited resources • Limited staff to seek funding/implement/manage programs Solutions • Installing safe active infrastructure • Developing education programs • Employing crossing guards • Establishing remote drop-off locations or safe routes to bus stops where children can be dropped off and safely walk or bicycle • Adopting school district policies that support bicycling and walking • Assessing and mapping walking and bicycling routes to school • Enhancing school zone signage • Engaging state DOT support for rural communities, such as pre-application assistance and post-award assistance

Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap A-7 Bikeshare Programs Bikeshare programs provide affordable access to a bicycle on a short-term basis. These programs allow residents and tourists to travel through a community using an active transportation mode, which improves activity levels and helps to reduce congestion. Research has shown that bikeshare can be an important component of rural transportation and that bikeshare programs can encourage active transportation in rural communities (Community Transportation Association of America 2015). Rural communities are finding innovative ways to implement low cost bikeshare programs (e.g., using volunteer labor and donated bicycles), but these programs need investment in order to succeed in the long term. Challenges • Financial constraints • Misperception that bikeshares are an urban solution • Theft and vandalism • Lack of enforcement • Payment models that discourage use by tourists and low-income populations Solutions • Using a low-cost start up model that can be scaled up as usage and funding increase • Soliciting volunteers and donated time and materials • Coordinating bikeshare programs with public transportation • Installing bicycle racks – dockless bikeshare programs may not be the best option in a rural setting • Using pay-per-use bikeshare models or smart payment options • Partnering with local bicycle shops for maintenance Funding Active Transportation Funding for motorized transportation facilities is typically derived from federal, state, and local fuel taxes and motor vehicle registration fees, along with smaller local sources such as parking fees. In most jurisdictions funding for active transportation facilities has been less predictable. Funding for non- motorized transportation projects is often assembled by combining grants from state DOTs and natural resource agencies with local property tax revenue and donations from private foundations, businesses, and the public. Special property tax assessments are a traditional means of funding sidewalks in many areas, but this can be highly controversial due to equity issues. Challenges • Capital projects such as building a new bicycle facility can be attractive to donors, but ongoing operation and maintenance requires a more predictable revenue stream. • In new construction the cost of sidewalks can be amortized into the overall cost of a building, but this is impractical for retrofits. Solutions • Voters in some communities have approved local property tax levies that spread the cost of non- motorized facilities across the entire tax base. This avoids non-uniform financial impacts on abutting owners.

Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap A-8 • State and federal grant programs have successfully leveraged local and private funding for non- motorized transportation facilities, but uptake has been geographically uneven. • “Niche” funding opportunities such as the Federal Lands Access Program. Available Research Rural active transportation research has primarily focused on the public health benefits of active transportation and safety improvements for all road users. Potential Research Needs • Innovative methods to promote active transportation in rural communities. • Successful methods for creating public and government support for active transportation. • What perceived and actual barriers prevent rural residents from active transportation opportunities? Are these different than what we see among urban residents? • What active transportation policies have been implemented in rural areas, what has been successful? • Crash data that incorporates roadway and traffic characteristics to gain an understanding of the rural roadway factors that may be hazardous to bicyclists and pedestrians and to identify effective roadway treatments.

Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap A-9 T H E M E # 2 : W O R K F O R C E D E V E L O P M E N T Community Type and Mode The community types and modes that pertain to this theme are shown in the tables below. Community Type Mode  Beyond the “Lower 48” o (AK, HI, PR, VI, GU, AS, MP)  Aviation  Bicycle  Exurban Community  Bus  Frontier/Remote Community  Maritime  Resource-based Community  Pedestrian  Tourism-based Community  Rail  Tribal Lands and Alaska Native Communities  Roadway Theme Description Transportation agencies across the United States are facing issues with recruiting and retaining skilled employees. Especially due to the knowledge that within the next ten years, half of the current transportation workforce will be eligible to retire. While this is not just a rural issue, changing workforce demographics is an issue that will affect everyone, but may disproportionately impact rural areas. To assist with a strategic approach, partnership facilitation, and promotion of workforce activities and programs, the Federal Highway Administration created the National Network for the Transportation Workforce which is comprised of five regional transportation workforce centers (National Network for the Transportation Workforce 2018). Transportation Agency Workforce Recruitment and Retention A majority of the transportation workforce is reaching retirement age, and agencies across the U.S. are struggling to attract and retain skilled professionals who can fill these positions. Transportation agencies need to identify and implement strategies to educate, attract and retain young professionals to the transportation industry. While this issue will affect all transportation agencies, rural areas may be disproportionately impacted as the younger generations are increasingly moving to urban areas. This topic is also discussed in the Generational Expectations: Work & Lifestyle factsheet. Challenges • Aging transportation workforce • Recruitment and retention of skilled professionals • Lack of skilled applicants • Misperceptions of transportation career and advancement opportunities • Knowledge transfer and succession planning • Changing workforce demographics • Competing with other industries for skilled professionals • Lack of resources for training and workforce development opportunities • Reduced hiring pool due to marijuana legalization

Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap A-10 Solutions • Developing programs to spur interest in transportation careers within K-12 and higher education students • Expanding internship and fellowship opportunities • Developing clear career pathways for key transportation positions • Institutionalizing ongoing and long-term workforce development planning • Implementing benchmarking efforts • Increasing funding for employee training opportunities • Developing non-traditional work arrangements such as telework for administrative employees Available Research Research on workforce development is focused on recruitment and retention strategies within the transportation industry at large. Most research is not urban or rural focused, but instead discusses this overarching topic, which will influence transportation agencies in all communities. Potential Research Needs • What recruitment and retention strategies have been successfully implemented within transportation agencies? • Why are we seeing workforce shortages in the transportation industry? • How do we address the perception that the transportation industry is “old fashioned”? • How to incorporate human resources into long-term workforce development strategies? • Effective strategies for recruiting early career professionals to rural areas.

Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap A-11 T H E M E # 3 : T R A N S P O R T A T I O N A C C E S S A N D M O B I L I T Y Community Type and Mode The community types and modes that pertain to this theme are shown in the tables below. Community Type Mode  Beyond the “Lower 48” o (AK, HI, PR, VI, GU, AS, MP)  Aviation  Bicycle  Exurban Community  Bus  Frontier/Remote Community  Maritime  Resource-based Community  Pedestrian  Tourism-based Community  Rail  Tribal Lands and Alaska Native Communities  Roadway Theme Description Improving access and mobility in rural communities has social, cultural, and economic benefits, but meeting the needs of residents in rural areas can be challenging due to geographic challenges, limited funding, and demographic differences. Nearly 40 percent of rural residents live in a county with no public transportation service (Burkhardt 2004). A lack of viable transportation alternatives can leave many rural residents isolated, particularly transportation disadvantaged populations including seniors, people with disabilities, low-income individuals, and Veterans. Network Connectivity The physical layout of rural highways varies greatly across the United States. While rural networks in relatively flat areas often follow a precise one-mile grid, more organic patterns are typical in rugged terrain, near major lakes and rivers, and in parts of the U.S. where European settlement began before the establishment of the Public Land Survey System in 1785. As a result, many rural communities are not well connected to the broader roadway network, and some continue to have no highway access at all (especially in Alaska). A substantial portion of the U.S. rail system has been abandoned over the past 50 years. The Class I system of major intercity railroads declined from 207,334 miles in 1960 to 93,011 miles in 2016 (roughly 40% of this reduction occurred in the 1980s) (U.S. Bureau of Transportation Statistics 2018). As a result, rural connectivity to non-highway modes is has become increasingly uneven across the United States. Challenges • Communities with limited roadway connections are highly vulnerable to natural and manmade disasters. • Limited roadway connections can increase transportation costs and restrict economic opportunities for affected communities. • Many communities lack non-highway access.

Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap A-12 Aging in Place By 2030 there will be more than 72 million senior citizens age 65 and older in the United States, with almost 25 percent of all U.S. seniors living in a rural area (Grantmakers in Aging 2018). Many seniors are choosing to “age in place” or remain within their homes and communities. In rural areas many seniors must rely on a vehicle for trips; however, as seniors age and eventually cease driving, this population can become isolated due to few transportation alternatives. Challenges • Social isolation • Less access to necessary services • Increasing senior populations in rural areas • Limited funding to provide mobility options • People age 75 and older have the highest rate of driving fatalities of any age group Solutions • Providing mobility options in rural communities – public transportation, paratransit, taxis, ridesharing, etc. • Implementing volunteer driver programs • Continuing driver education programs for seniors • Improving walking infrastructure • Conducting strategic land use planning that encourages denser, mixed-use development in rural communities Mobility Choices of Millennials The Millennial generation is currently the largest generation in the United States. Understanding the transportation behaviors and preferences of this age group is necessary for transportation planning efforts. Studies have suggested that Millennials are increasingly moving to urban areas, prefer transportation alternatives, and like to stay informed through online services and mobile phones. Few studies have been conducted to gain an understanding of the preferences of Millennials living in rural communities. Challenges • Lack of understanding of Millennials’ transportation preferences in rural areas • Attracting and retaining Millennials in rural communities • Inconsistent cellular phone service in rural areas affects transportation agencies’ ability to deliver real- time information through wireless data networks Solutions • Conducting further analysis of the lifestyle preferences of rural Millennials • Providing affordable and feasible transportation alternatives Shared-Use Mobility Services The Shared-Use Mobility Center (SUMC) defines shared-use mobility as transportation services that are shared among users (Shared-Use Mobility Center 2018). These services include public transit, taxis,

Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap A-13 bikeshares, carshares, and rideshares. Currently shared-use mobility services like bikeshares, carshares, and rideshares have not expanded much into rural areas, but these services have the potential to cost-effectively improve access and provide mobility options for rural residents. Challenges • Long travel distances • Low population density • Competition with existing public transportation services • Limited funding and staff resources to effectively manage shared use services • Lack of mobile service in some rural areas, which restricts access to shared mobility options that rely on smartphones for payment and scheduling. • Providing service to seniors and people with disabilities Solutions • Addressing public transportation gaps • Implementing shared-use transportation services in communities where operation of public transportation is cost-prohibitive • Offering mobility services that allow for cash payments and/or prepayments, which are important for lower income rural residents • Implementing carshare programs targeted to specific communities – for example, providing carshare at university or college campuses or within retirement communities • Developing education programs for rural residents on how to use these services Coordinated Transportation Services Coordinating transportation services among multiple providers offers multiple benefits for rural communities including coordinating operations, enhancing customer service, eliminating redundant operations, and pooling resources. Improved technology like computer assisted dispatching and scheduling along with automated vehicle location has allowed transportation providers to effectively coordinate transportation services with ease while improving customer service for riders. Coordination of transportation services has been a successful strategy to meet the mobility needs of rural residents. Challenges • Limited funding/staff resources, inefficient or redundant services, underused services, and lack of service quality among rural transportation providers • Operational challenges related to coordination of services • Maintenance of coordination efforts over the long-term as staffing and resources change Solutions • Identifying mobility needs through data collection and outreach to transportation disadvantaged populations, human services agencies, and stakeholders • Pooling limited resources to provide better service options to rural residents • Maximizing productivity of rural transportation providers through coordinated trip assignments and central dispatching • Developing partnerships among transportation providers in a region (such as public and private transportation agencies, tribal agencies, human services, and nonprofit entities)

Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap A-14 • Ensuring that all agencies comply with ADA regulations in order to improve mobility for people with disabilities Available Research Research on access and mobility has largely focused on strategies to meet the needs of transportation disadvantaged groups. Trends like shared-use mobility services and generational mobility preferences are emerging research topics. Potential Research Needs • Effective senior driver education programs, what types are programs are being utilized in rural communities? • Does the availability of mobility options (public transportation, carsharing, ridesharing, etc.) attract or help retain Millennials in rural communities? • How are shared-use mobility services being implemented in rural communities? Have they been effective? • Best practice strategies for coordination of transportation services in rural communities – could improve knowledge of what steps to take when planning and implementing coordinated services lead to greater success? • Community and land use planning efforts to improve mobility and access in rural communities.

Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap A-15 T H E M E # 4 : I N T E R S E C T I O N O F H E A L T H A N D T R A N S P O R T A T I O N Community Type and Mode The community types and modes that pertain to this theme are shown in the tables below. Community Type Mode  Beyond the “Lower 48” o (AK, HI, PR, VI, GU, AS, MP)  Aviation  Bicycle  Exurban Community  Bus  Frontier/Remote Community  Maritime  Resource-based Community  Pedestrian  Tourism-based Community  Rail  Tribal Lands and Alaska Native Communities  Roadway Theme Description Rural residents face significant health disparities when compared to urban residents. They face several environmental, social, and economic factors that put them at a higher risks of public health concerns. Rural residents also tend to have lower physical activity levels, high rates of obesity, high blood pressure, and less access to healthcare providers (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 2017). Therefore, the intersection of public health and transportation has a significant impact on rural populations. Two policies often considered for improving public health in rural communities involve improving access to health care and increasing physical activity levels. Transportation Disadvantaged and Access to Healthcare Service Transportation barriers cause 3.6 million American people to miss or delay medical care each year (Hughes-Cromwick, Wallace, Mull, & Bologna 2005). Missing or delaying medical care occurs disproportionately more often among transportation disadvantaged populations including the elderly, low- income individuals, minority communities, Veterans, or mobility-impaired residents. In rural areas this problem is compounded because many do not have access to transportation alternatives beyond a personal vehicle. Challenges • Public transportation schedules that do not correspond to healthcare service hours • Higher operating costs of public transportation in rural areas • Recruitment of drivers for volunteer driver programs Solutions • Developing and implementing transportation alternatives • Coordinating transportation services with medical appointments • Expanding rural healthcare services to included mobile clinics and telemedicine

Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap A-16 EMS Service Area Challenges and Coordination of EMS Approximately 20 percent of the U.S. population lives within a rural area. These areas face longer travel distances to medical facilities, funding concerns within rural clinics, and hospital closures, all of which decrease healthcare access for rural residents. Emergency medical services (EMS) act as a safety net to ensure that people have access to health care. These services are critical for time-sensitive medical conditions, but in rural areas where there is less population density there tends to be less access to EMS as compared to urban areas. Challenges • Long EMS response times • High EMS costs • Recruiting and maintaining volunteer EMS workforce Solutions • Implementing EMS services (ambulance, etc.) in strategic locations across rural areas instead of in areas with higher population densities • Coordinating EMS services at the regional level (e.g., across multiple counties) to share resources or improve efficiency Communications Technology An effective communications system is critical for emergency operations, particularly in rural areas where response times tend to be longer. Improvements to communications technology are occurring across the U.S. including Next Generation 911, FirstNet, and smartphone applications for first responders. These improvements will allow the public to text 911, first responders to send medical information directly to the hospital to prepare for patient arrival, and 911 dispatchers to transfer a call to another Public Service Answering Point (PSAP) in times of excessive call volume. However, implementation of these communications improvements has been sluggish in rural areas. Challenges • High cost of communications technology improvements • Difficulties with coordinating multiple operational structures among different agencies • Spotty or non-existent mobile coverage Solutions • Implementing technology improvements to allow the public to better communicate with 911 • Coordinating 911 services at the regional level (e.g., across multiple counties) to share resources or improve efficiency • Deploying smartphone applications for first responders Incorporating Public Health into Transportation Planning The United States ranks 43rd in the world in life expectancy (Central Intelligence Agency 2018). Approximately half of all deaths in the U.S. are related to chronic diseases, many of which are preventable (National Research Council Committee on Health Impact Assessment 2011) and 70.7 percent of adults in

Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap A-17 the U.S. are either overweight or obese (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services 2017). There is a growing understanding that transportation policy and planning decisions have an impact on the health of a community. Challenges • Lack of health impact data • Insufficient engagement of stakeholders from multiple backgrounds Solutions • Conducting a Health Impact Assessment (HIA) • Coordinating with public health officials • Reducing motor vehicle traffic and congestion • Improve community access to health services and healthy lifestyle activities (health care, healthy food, recreation opportunities, etc.) • Implement improvements in non-motorized infrastructure • Prioritize roadway safety improvements for ALL road users Available Research Research on health and transportation has primarily focused on access to healthcare for transportation disadvantaged populations and improving public health in rural communities through active transportation promotion and investments. Potential Research Needs • Best practices/innovative methods to connect transportation disadvantaged populations to healthcare facilities in rural areas. • Incorporating EMS into future transportation research efforts – EMS performance from a transportation perspective, EMS data on safety/trends, etc. • Strategies/best practices to coordinate/regionalize EMS agencies and 911 public safety access points (PSAPs) • What communication technologies are in use in rural areas today? How widespread are newer communication technologies in rural areas? • Innovative methods to improve communication between PSAPs, responders, and hospitals

Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap A-18 T H E M E # 5 : G E N E R A T I O N A L E X P E C T A T I O N S , W O R K & L I F E S T Y L E Community Type and Mode The community types and modes that pertain to this theme are shown in the tables below. Community Type Mode  Beyond the “Lower 48” o (AK, HI, PR, VI, GU, AS, MP)  Aviation  Bicycle  Exurban Community  Bus  Frontier/Remote Community  Maritime  Resource-based Community  Pedestrian  Tourism-based Community  Rail  Tribal Lands and Alaska Native Communities  Roadway Theme Description Describing the American population in terms of generations helps to group them according to similar preferences in lifestyle and work expectations. Where a person lives impacts their transportation options. How a generation prefers to travel and how they obtain travel information impacts how that media may be tailored to provide information. Furthermore, work preferences or ideals may impact transportation needs, as work trips often require different levels of assurance for timely and dependable arrival when compared with leisure travel. Baby Boomers While the exact age ranges may vary by source, Baby Boomers are generally defined as those born between 1946 and 1964. A sub-set of the Baby Boomer generation, who has moved west to reside in natural resource-based communities upon retirement, has been called by some the “Silver Tsunami.” Challenges • The Baby Boomers became adults when congestion was just emerging as a more common discussion and vehicles were moving to maturity with novel offerings to make the driving experience more enjoyable. Therefore, this generation still prefers this mode of transportation, although the experience is not as pleasant as it once was. • The reality of aging (e.g., poorer eyesight, slower reflexes) and the preference for travel with a private vehicle will exponentially create more problems. Members of this generation are typically not required to make hard life choices regarding location of residence until “one day [they] find themselves no longer able to do things they once did” (AARP 2015). • There is a viewpoint that being physically present in an office holds greater merit, which may impact options such as “tele commuting” that can reduce congestion and save time.- • Medicinal marijuana use has been promoted to address significant health issues (e.g., cancer); however, how this impacts person travel is still emerging.

Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap A-19 Solutions • There is a need to better understand if and how Baby Boomers may be enticed to use modes besides the private vehicle. • “Telecommuting” and other technology have helped to create alternative working options; however, the infrastructure needed to support “telecommuting” is not always available in rural environments. Generation X While the exact age ranges may vary by source, Generation X are generally defined as those born between 1964 and 1982 (Pew Research Center 2018a). Challenges • Generation X may prefer bicycling more than Baby Boomers and Millennials; it is unclear if they can influence the post-Millennial generation (often their own children) to prefer this mode as well (Pew Research Center 2018b) • Due to their smaller size than the Baby Boomer and Millennial generations, their wants and needs are often overlooked Solutions • Developing feasibility studies for long-distance bicycle travel that can be connected to other motorized modes (e.g., train, intercity bus) could potentially address some interests of this generation. • In general, more research is needed to understand the work and lifestyle preferences of Generation X. Millennials While the exact age ranges may vary by source, Millennials (a.k.a. Generation Y) are generally defined as those born between 1983 and 2000. Challenges • Almost ninety percent of Millennials live in urban areas. • Transportation network companies (TNCs) (e.g., Lyft, Uber) seem to be preferred by this generation, although expansion of this type of service into rural areas is limited, and concerns of additional vehicle miles traveled (VMT) generated as a result of TNCs exist. • Cost has been reported by Millennials to significantly impact how they travel, although this contradicts their preference for TNCs. • Millennials seem to be more multi-modal – they are not loyal to one mode. • Graduated drivers licensing (GDL) may have impacted their preference for a private vehicle. • Many are saddled with significant student loan debt (particularly urban Millennials), which impacts disposable income, thereby potentially impacting mode choice. Patterns are still emerging regarding transportation preferences as loans are paid down and incomes increase. • Rural Millennials appear to have less options for higher education as compared with their urban peers. • Millennials seem to value family/friends above work commitments. • Millennials value staying connected to the internet often via their smartphones, yet there are concerns with the relationship between staying connected and distracted driving. • Inconsistent cellular phone service in rural areas can make it difficult for rural transportation agencies to provide service information using the technologies this demographic prefers.

Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap A-20 • Millennials are coming of age during legalization of recreational marijuana; the impacts of recreational marijuana use as it relates to operating a motor vehicle are still emerging. Solutions • Focusing on attracting Millennials and the younger generations to small urban areas (as compared with more rural frontier areas) (e.g., Bath, ME; Grand Marais, MN), potentially by fostering the expansion of TNCs, bicycle and pedestrian infrastructure, and infrastructure that can allow telecommuting and connectivity to one’s smartphone. • Investing in infrastructure in rural areas, and learning from entities that have already invested (e.g., Utah with their fiber network) to support greater technology in rural environments may make rural areas more enticing to Millennials • While driving under the influence of alcohol may still be a concern, there are implications that distracted driving may be more problematic for this generation; existing data collection methods to document this issue is still lacking • There is a need to understand the implications on recreational marijuana use on driving under the influence Post-Millennials While the exact age ranges may vary by source, the post-Millennial generation, whose name is yet to be defined, are born after 2000 (Pew Research Center 2018b). Challenges • The name for this group is still emerging, as are patterns of their preferences; therefore, it is difficult to address their needs with little background knowledge. • There are concerns that limitations of transportation options are creating a generation with a sedentary lifestyle and significant health implications Solutions • There is a need to consider what the post-Millennial generation desires in their transportation system, as new investments in infrastructure will last throughout their employment years (e.g., commuting for work) and beyond. Available Research In general, generational research has primarily focused on the wants and needs of those residing in urban areas. Of the limited research that is available on generational work and lifestyle preferences which impact their transportation needs, the Pew Research Center, AARP, the University of California at Davis, and the Western Transportation Institute have produced most of the existing body of knowledge. As a result, knowledge and research on Generation X, Millennials, and the post-Millennial generation is not well- understood across the nation. Potential Research Needs • Safe Routes to School (SRTS) became a prominent program around the post-Millennial age. SRTS was a particular asset to the smallest of rural communities because it did not require a funding match which is a significant hurdle for these small, rural communities. Did the presence of SRTS programs and

Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap A-21 implementation of infrastructure impact the transportation preferences of this post-Millennial generation? • Additional data is needed from the smallest of rural communities; projects that address these needs are often overlooked because collection of such data often requires more costly, on-site collection methods • Research to determine if small urban (15,000 people or less) areas that have big city offerings (active transportation options, carsharing/transportation network companies, higher education resources, access to internet) within the small community are able to maintain their vibrancy. How can this be translated to other struggling small communities? For example, Grand Marais, MN reported investing in making internet accessible to all within the community, have created a unique higher educational resource within the community, and are investing in making their community accessible to a multitude of modes. Bath, ME similarly is seeing significant investment in their community. Do these small urban communities and communities like them see different levels of representation by the younger generations than other similarly sizes small urban areas? • For rural communities that have invested a significant amount in creating a multi-modal transportation system offering, does the data show a difference in the use of a private vehicle? • How can we address the transportation needs of the next generation while building infrastructure today?

Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap A-22 T H E M E # 6 : T R A N S P O R T I N G R U R A L P R O D U C T S T O M A R K E T Community Type and Mode The community types and modes that pertain to this theme are shown in the tables below. Community Type Mode  Beyond the “Lower 48” (AK, HI, PR, VI, GU, AS, MP)  Aviation  Bicycle  Exurban Community  Bus  Frontier/Remote Community  Maritime  Resource-based Community  Pedestrian  Tourism-based Community  Rail  Tribal Lands and Alaska Native Communities  Roadway Theme Description Freight transportation plays a key role in rural economies. Outbound freight services allow rural industries and agricultural producers to sell their products in national and international markets, while inbound freight is used to obtain supplies, raw materials, and production equipment (Casavant et. al. 2010). In addition, rural wholesalers, retailers, and consumers rely on inbound freight services to obtain products produced in other areas. General Trends Affecting Rural Freight The U.S. freight transportation system includes trucking, railroads, the maritime sector (river barges, Great Lakes shipping, and coastal shipping), intermodal freight, and express delivery (small parcel) services. In addition to the carriers themselves, logistics firms and freight brokers play key roles in the industry. These companies consolidate shipments and coordinate freight movements to minimize empty cargo space and reduce deadheading (haulage of empty vehicles). This work indirectly influences freight carriers’ profitability, labor requirements, fuel consumption, and emissions. Approximately one-third of U.S. freight transportation is made up of agricultural products such as corn, wheat, and soybeans (Casavant et. al. 2010). Other major commodities include coal, iron ore, chemicals and fertilizers, crude and refined petroleum, and lumber. Products that do not lend themselves to bulk shipment are often transported by intermodal freight. For domestic shipments, this typically involves placing truck trailers on railroad cars for long-distance movements. For international shipments, it typically involves using large metal containers that can be easily transferred between trucks, trains, and ships. Challenges • Since each mode has its own mechanisms for funding major capital improvements, there is very little coordination to assure competitiveness and eliminate bottlenecks for the freight system as a whole.

Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap A-23 Additionally, the private companies in the freight industry seldom disclose details of their business operations, making it difficult for public agencies to forecast freight investment needs. • The freight industry was deregulated in the 1980s based on the assumption that various modes and carriers would compete with one another. One intent of deregulation was to make it easier to discontinue services on unprofitable rural rail lines, which occurred on a wide scale in the 1980s and 1990s (some corridors were later repurposed as biking or walking trails). An unexpected result was extensive corporate mergers in the rail industry. Consequently, many U.S. rural areas are now accessible only by truck, and if a community has rail service it is likely to be served by only one carrier. • While start-up companies can easily begin doing business in the trucking industry, the maritime and railroad industries have very high barriers to market entry: they are capital-intensive and exempt from most anti-trust regulations. As a result, rail and maritime carriers have considerable leverage in rate negotiations with shippers. Solutions • Relevant solutions are discussed in subsequent sections. Truck Freight The trucking industry includes truckload (TL) and less-than-truckload (LTL) carriers. The two sub- sectors often utilize distinctly different scheduling/routing patterns: TL services are mainly point-to-point, while LTL carriers typically set up routes with numerous stops to pick up and discharge cargo throughout a community or area. Some trucking services handle general freight in “dry vans” (standard trailers), while others provide specialized services such as refrigerated vans, grain trucks, petroleum tankers, and vehicles designed to carry hazardous cargo. Trucking terminals are important nodes in the truck freight system. Terminals allow long-distance carriers to exchange freight with local delivery (drayage) operations. Terminals also provide a place for LTL carriers to sort and organize their shipments. According to a USDA report, more than 80% of U.S. communities are served exclusively by truck (Casavant et. al. 2010). Half of all trucking companies own only one truck, driven by the owner. The industry is highly competitive, and profit margins are often very thin (Casavant et. al. 2010). Traffic congestion in urban areas has ripple effects on rural shippers and consignees. In addition to increasing trucking costs, it leads to uncertainties in delivery schedules. Since federal law limits the number of hours a driver can work each day, a few minutes of extra traffic delay can sometimes delay a shipment by an entire day. Larger trucking companies face ongoing difficulties with driver recruitment and retention, especially for long-distance routes. This puts pressure on highway agencies, local public works departments, and transit/paratransit operators, which are in general competition with the private sector for drivers with CDL certification. There is a longstanding dispute between the United States and Mexico regarding Mexican trucks entering the United States. American trade unions and industry groups allege that Mexican trucks are unsafe and violate U.S. emissions standards. Mexico counters that such allegations are unfounded and current restrictions violate the terms of the North American Free Trade Agreement (Carbaugh, R. J. 2011). Challenges • Many rural roads and bridges are unsuitable for heavy truck traffic, either seasonally or year-round, due to load limits or geometric deficiencies. In these areas, unauthorized truck traffic can damage infrastructure, while legitimate operators are forced to divide shipments into small units, resulting in additional costs to the shipper or consignee.

Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap A-24 • Small communities located in remote areas are often served mainly by small carriers that do not have the same economies of scale as major carriers. Where freight volumes are low and the distance to major trucking hubs is high, inefficient utilization and lack of competition can increase freight rates. Lack of specialized trucking options can be a disincentive to economic development. • Trucking firms serving rural areas often have difficulty balancing inbound and outbound loads to maximize productivity (and minimize wasted fuel and emissions). For example, grain shipments from farm communities to ports or railheads typically involve extensive deadheading since the trailers are unsuitable for backhauling other cargo. • Heavy seasonal fluctuations in agricultural outputs such as fresh vegetables affect rural carriers’ ability to invest in equipment and maintain appropriate staffing levels. • The development of ethanol refineries has increased truck traffic in many rural communities. While the ethanol is often shipped out by rail, trucking is frequently used for inbound grain shipments and outbound shipments of byproducts such as animal feed. • Many rural residents perceive truck traffic as undesirable. Trucks carrying cargos such as livestock and hazardous materials can be especially unpopular. Trucking terminals are sometimes perceived as a locally undesirable land use, especially in communities that are trying to promote tourism based on their scenic appeal. • Current federal regulations limit the weight of trucks used in interstate commerce to 80,000 pounds on five axles. Some industries would like this to be increased to 97,000 pounds on six axles. In many states, doing so would require significant public investment to strengthen bridges. Solutions • Low-cost methods for automated truck weight monitoring could help prevent damage on low-standard roadways and assure that weight limit violators are promptly intercepted. • Expansion of shipper associations and similar regional alliances that consolidate related shipments could increase the likelihood of obtaining competitive truck freight pricing. • Where freight volumes are too low for individual trucking companies to operate their own trucking terminals profitably, communities could explore development of shared-use terminal facilities. • Development of trucking vehicles with the flexibility to handle both general cargo and bulk commodities (such as grain) could benefit rural communities by making it more feasible for operators to carry full loads in both directions. Railroads Business and Operations The rail sector differs from the trucking and maritime industries in that most of its infrastructure is privately owned and maintained by the railroads. On a ton-mile basis, the industry is substantially more fuel-efficient than trucking, but not as efficient as maritime freight. The U.S. rail industry is comprised of “Class I” carriers that primarily operate long-haul mainline services, and “short line and regional” railroads that connect hubs on the Class I system with local shippers such as grain elevators and rural industries. As of 2016 the Class I railroad system comprised 93,011 miles, a reduction of more than 100,000 miles since 1970 (U.S. Bureau of Transportation Statistics 2018). In recent years there have been numerous corporate mergers. There are now only seven Class I railroad companies: Burlington Northern Santa Fe (BNSF), Canadian National (CN), Canadian Pacific (CP), CSX, Kansas City Southern (KCS), Norfolk Southern (NS), and Union Pacific (UP). Together these seven companies represent approximately 70% of the country’s railroad mileage and employ 90% of the

Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap A-25 industry’s workforce (Irani et. al. 2018). The remaining 31% of mileage is split amongst 560 short line and regional railroads, which employ 10% of the industry’s workforce (Irani et. al. 2018). Each Class I railroad has a fairly distinct geographic territory: BNSF, CN, CP, and UP operate mainly in the western states, CSX and NS operate mainly in the eastern states, and KCS operates north-south service from the U.S. to Mexico (Irani et. al. 2018). In some states, much of the infrastructure used by short line and regional railroads is publicly owned and leased to the operators. Figure 1: Historical and forecasted decline in U.S. coal production. (U.S. Energy Information Administration 2018) Rail freight rates have generally been increasing over the past several years. While coal still represents the largest single commodity carried by rail, coal tonnage has decreased steadily over the past 10 years (Association of American Railroads 2020). Other major product categories transported by rail include chemicals, grain, intermodal freight, lumber, metal products, metallic ores, motor vehicles, petroleum, pulp & paper, and aggregates (sand, gravel, and crushed stone) (Association of American Railroads 2020). In recent years the production of fuel-grade ethanol has become an important rural industry in several states. A few years ago, the EPA estimated that to achieve the ethanol targets outlined in the Renewable Fuel Standard, approximately 40 more railroad terminals capable of handling 50-car tanker trains would be required by 2022. Currently much of this need remains unmet: the ethanol is shipped out by train and then transferred to trucks for delivery to petroleum refineries where it is blended with gasoline. Safety and Security The Federal Railroad Administration (FRA) reports a steadily rising number of train-person collisions attributed to suicides and trespassing. While some of the incidents classified as trespassing involve pedestrians who used the track as a shortcut, others appear to involve those experiencing homelessness dwelling along railroad right-of-way. While physical measures such as fencing, surveillance cameras, and suicide hotline signage have been implemented on a pilot scale, these measures would be difficult to implement on the entire rail system. Comprehensive solutions potentially require broader mental health and substance abuse treatment initiatives. According to FRA there are approximately 130,000 public at-grade railroad crossings on U.S. streets and highways (U.S. Federal Railroad Administration 2020a). FRA reports that in 2017, a total of 2,124 reported

Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap A-26 incidents occurred at railroad crossings, resulting in 271 fatalities and 848 injuries (U.S. Federal Railroad Administration 2020b). The Federal Highway Administration and state DOTs administer a national program to improve safety at rail-highway crossings. Challenges • In spite of increasing exports, U.S. coal production has been declining for several years and further declines are forecasted (Figure 1) (EIA 2018). Reduced coal traffic could require railroads to increase other freight rates, potentially affecting agriculture and other rural industries. • There is potential for additional railroad industry mergers in both the Class 1 and Short Line/Regional sectors. There does not appear to be much recent research on the effects of these business consolidations on rail service availability and pricing in rural communities. • Relatively little is known about the effectiveness of countermeasures aimed at reducing suicides and trespassing collisions on freight railroads. Although several suicide prevention strategies have been developed for subway and rail transit stations, this environment differs considerably from the wide-open space along rural freight corridors. • Funding for rail-highway crossing safety improvements is small in relation to the number of unsignalized crossings. There is little recent U.S. research on methods to reduce the cost of signalization. There does not appear to be any existing research on methods to improve the crashworthiness of crossing signal hardware. Solutions • Rural shippers could consider forming local, regional, or industry-based alliances to increase their ability to negotiate favorable rail shipping rates. • Research on the past and future effects of rail industry consolidation could assist rural communities in making informed decisions regarding the rail industry. • Public-private partnerships are a potential mechanism for enticing the rail industry to invest in rural freight services, but communities may need more information about the benefits and risks of such partnerships. • The prevention of suicides and casualties involving trespassers and those experiencing homelessness probably requires holistic solutions involving the coordinated work of railroads, local officials, community organizations, and health care providers. • Low-cost methods for signalizing railroad crossings could allow states to provide active warning at more locations. Methods to reduce the severity of collisions between motor vehicles and railroad crossing signal hardware could be developed. Maritime Freight The maritime freight industry includes three main sectors: barges (mainly on the Mississippi River and its tributaries), Great Lakes vessels (including vessels that operate entirely within the lake areas and those connecting to ocean ports via the Saint Lawrence Seaway), and ocean freight (predominantly through major ports such as Los Angeles, Long Beach, New York, Seattle, and Savannah). Barge traffic on the Mississippi consists mainly of bulk commodities such as grain, soybeans, coal, crude oil, and petroleum products. Great Lakes shipping consists mainly of bulk commodities such as grain, iron ore, cement, and road salt. Ocean freight includes both bulk commodities and containerized cargo. Maritime shipments are also vital for freight moving between the U.S. mainland and its outlying areas such as Alaska, Hawaii, Puerto Rico, the U.S. Virgin Islands, American Samoa, Guam, and the Northern Mariana Islands (Saipan). The economics of the domestic maritime industry are strongly influenced by the Merchant Marine Act of 1920 (also known as the Jones Act), which requires goods shipped between U.S. ports to be transported

Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap A-27 on ships that are built, owned and operated by United States citizens or permanent residents. While intended to strengthen the domestic shipbuilding and maritime industries, the law is at odds with typical business practices in the maritime industry, which make extensive use of “flags of convenience” (registering the ship in a foreign country such as Panama, Liberia, or even landlocked Mongolia) to sidestep regulations and wage laws. By discouraging short-sea shipping between U.S. ports, the Jones Act is believed to benefit the trucking and railroad industries and protect certain maritime carriers and shipbuilders, while increasing freight costs for shippers and consumers (Transportation Institute 2021). The law appears to have some unintentional macroeconomic effects. For example, in some cases it is said to tip the balance to favor foreign goods over U.S. mainland products sold in Puerto Rico and Hawaii. Although there is currently relatively little, short-sea shipping for general freight between U.S. coastal ports or on the Great Lakes, the USDOT Maritime Administration has designated 25 potential “Marine Highway Routes,” and about 20 demonstration projects have been proposed (U.S. Maritime Administration 2020). The current U.S. situation can be contrasted with a European Union policy aimed at actively creating “Motorways of the Sea” to reduce truck traffic on major roads. Challenges • Although maritime freight is generally one of the cheapest and most energy-efficient shipping methods, relatively few rural communities have direct access to maritime services. • The impact of the Jones Act on the cost and availability of goods in Puerto Rico came to the forefront after the island was struck by Hurricane Maria in 2017. Nevertheless, the law remains controversial due to its mixed effects on various business and labor interests. Solutions • The feasibility of vessels utilizing modern methods for handling general freight could be explored to determine whether such ships could economically handle medium-distance traffic between domestic ports (Pacific Coast, Gulf Coast, Atlantic Coast, Great Lakes, etc.). • While the Congressional Budget Office produced a short summary of the economic arguments for and against the Jones Act in 2003, the Act’s overall impact on the modern economy appears to be unknown. Econometric modelling could potentially shed light on a policy that remains highly controversial nearly a century after its enactment. Intermodal Freight Much of the intermodal freight destined for the United States originates in Asia and consists of consumer goods such as electronics and clothing. Intermodal freight is also used for backhauls to Asian markets, including fresh fruits/vegetables and identity-preserved food products (e.g., non-GMO soybeans). The lynchpin of these operations is the intermodal container, a 20- or 40-foot-long metal box that can easily be transferred between truck, rail, and maritime modes. Domestic intermodal freight typically consists of truck trailers that are placed on train cars for long- distance movement. These services are typically integrated with the operations of major trucking and express delivery companies, and customers are often largely unaware that their shipment has moved partially by train. Most of the major intermodal terminals are located near major seaports and inland ports.

Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap A-28 Challenges • Shippers in inland rural communities often have difficulty obtaining competitive rates on outbound international intermodal freight. The availability of empty containers is a factor in this situation. Empty intermodal containers are often abundant near major seaports and warehousing centers, but trucking empties to rural sites adds cost. Solutions • Expansion of shipper alliances could be considered to resolve mismatches between inbound and outbound shipment volumes and improve availability of intermodal containers in rural areas. Express Delivery Services Although the U.S. express delivery business is dominated by FedEx and UPS, there are also a few regional carriers such as Spee-Dee in the upper Midwest. Some of the services offered by the U.S. Postal Service also fall into this category. Within each brand, various services are offered such as overnight, second day, and ground. The companies use proprietary combinations of local trucking, long-distance trucking, rail, and air transportation to provide these services. For small communities, the importance of express delivery appears to be increasing due to the rapid growth of internet retailing. It is often uneconomic for local retailers to carry specialty items. In the past, rural consumers often faced a choice between accepting a limited menu of locally available products or driving to a distant city to purchase specialty items. E-commerce has increased choice for rural consumers, while putting additional pressure on the economic viability of small-town retail outlets. Concurrently, e- commerce has allowed some rural businesses to compete in national markets, for example by providing direct-to-consumer agricultural products. While the scale of e-commerce is new, the underlying concept is not: mail order catalogs played a similar role in 19th and 20th Century retailing. In other examples, express delivery services support rural economies by providing rapid delivery of spare parts to repair equipment used in rural industries and agriculture. The services also make it possible for some professionals such as attorneys and accountants to work from rural locations instead of having offices in larger cities. The express delivery companies generally impose surcharges for deliveries to remote rural areas. Challenges • The express delivery market is effectively a nationwide duopoly. Although high-volume small parcel shippers can negotiate rates, the published rates charged to small shippers and the public are nearly identical for both companies. • In some tourist/recreational communities, express delivery vehicles contribute to traffic congestion. Solutions • The development of express parcel delivery plans could be considered for congested tourist/recreational communities, but this potentially requires consignees to forego the convenience of front-door delivery. Available Research Most of the published freight-related research is mode-specific. The majority of studies focus on the broad effects of policies such as deregulation, with limited exploration of impacts on rural communities. Many state DOTs have statewide plans for individual modes, but typically these plans focus on broad

Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap A-29 statewide commodity flows and major industrial generators. Holistic multimodal studies of freight issues and opportunities for individual rural communities are rare. Potential Research Needs • With many freight companies increasingly focused on long-distance shipments, a large number of rural communities live with the negative externalities of freight traffic (such as crash risks, noise, vibration, and emissions) while receiving only limited benefits. Research could be conducted to identify cost- effective strategies for improving local access to freight services and minimizing the quality-of-life impacts of freight operations. • Currently each freight mode has its own capital and operating funding mechanisms. Some decisions involve state and local government, some involve federal agencies such as the Army Corps of Engineers and Federal Aviation Administration, and others are made entirely in the private sector. Research could be conducted to identify practical methods to improve coordination across modes, holistically address bottlenecks, and optimize the effectiveness of the freight system as a whole. • In some parts of the U.S., shipper associations have been formed to improve access to freight services and identify freight cost reduction strategies aimed at making rural industries and agriculture more competitive in global markets. The effectiveness of these groups could be studied. Potentially, techniques that are relevant for other parts of the country could be identified. • In Europe there are active efforts to develop “Motorways of the Sea” aimed at reducing highway congestion. The intent is to reinvigorate short-sea shipping through modern shipbuilding and information technology. The U.S. Maritime administration has proposed system of “Marine Highways”, but implementation funding is limited. Research could be conducted to determine whether this approach has value for domestic U.S. freight in locations such as the Great Lakes, Pacific Coast, and Atlantic Coast. • Vehicle-train collisions and collisions between motor vehicles and railroad signal masts are an ongoing problem. Research could be conducted to identify low-cost methods for signalizing rural railroad crossings and improving the crashworthiness of railroad signals.

Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap A-30 T H E M E # 7 : W E A T H E R , C L I M A T E A N D R E S I L I E N C E Community Type and Mode The community types and modes that pertain to this theme are shown in the tables below. Community Type Mode  Beyond the “Lower 48” o (AK, HI, PR, VI, GU, AS, MP)  Aviation  Bicycle  Exurban Community  Bus  Frontier/Remote Community  Maritime  Resource-based Community  Pedestrian  Tourism-based Community  Rail  Tribal Lands and Alaska Native Communities  Roadway Theme Description Rural transportation is vulnerable to the impacts of changing weather patterns. Floods, severe storms, and other adverse events can damage rural infrastructure, disrupt travel, cut off small communities, and interfere with passenger services and freight deliveries. When these incidents occur, agencies incur substantial unplanned costs to repair damaged infrastructure. Concurrently, long-term increases in humidity, heat, and freeze-thaw cycles hasten the natural deterioration of transportation infrastructure. Since reliable travel is essential to the economic and social wellbeing of rural areas, agencies must find ways to adapt to change, increase resilience to extreme weather, minimize damage, and fund necessary repairs. “Resilience” refers to the transportation system’s ability to withstand the impacts of adverse events. A resilient system can recover from problems quickly: although operations might not be entirely normal, the basic needs of first responders, road users, and passenger/freight customers are accommodated reasonably well. The concept of resilience includes adapting infrastructure and services to minimize the likelihood of damage and disruption, preparing to respond quickly and efficiently when problems occur, and establishing fallback plans to assist personnel in focusing on the most critical priorities in case of widespread problems. Increasing Prevalence of Severe Storms, Floods, Forest Fires, and Related Events Comprehensive daily weather records have been collected throughout the United States since 1895, and records in some cities go back much further. Severe storms have been reported in newspapers since the 1700s and recorded in ship captains’ logbooks since the 1500s. These sources clearly indicate that severe weather is occurring more frequently than in the past. For example: • The National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) examined the frequency of flooding at 27 coastal weather stations and found that since the 1950s the number of flood days per year has increased at nearly all sites, with especially large increases in the mid-Atlantic region from Georgia to New Jersey (Sweet, Park et al. 2014, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 2016), • Data from stream gauge stations identifies long-term increases in the frequency and severity of flooding along most waterways in the central United States (Mallakpour and Villarini 2015). • Approximately twice as many extreme U.S. snowstorms occurred in the second half of the 20th century compared to the first half (NOAA c. 2016).

Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap A-31 • The spring snow melt in the Northern Hemisphere is occurring earlier in the year (Dahlman 2016). • From 1984 to 2015 the extent of area burned by wildfires increased in Georgia and nearly all western states including Alaska and Hawaii (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 2016). Especially large increases were recorded in Idaho and Oregon. • Precipitation is increasing in response to a long-term increase in ocean surface temperature and heat within the oceans. Challenges • While there is abundant evidence of changing weather patterns, there are many barriers to effective adaptation at the agency level. These include: – Lack of recognition of the need to adapt. – Insufficient human and financial resources. – Lack of clarity about the most technically feasible and cost-effective solutions. – Insufficient incentives to implement adaptations. – Unclear/overlapping institutional roles and responsibilities, such as how to share the costs and benefits of adaptation between agencies or levels of government. – Resistance to change. This combination provides ample opportunities for decision makers to sidestep difficult choices by downplaying the likelihood of problems or dismissing recent events as one-time anomalies. In the long run, these issues and attitudes can leave an area more vulnerable to weather-related problems, render it less economically competitive, and increase the long-term costs of implementing adaptations. • Several areas of the United States face unique challenges resulting from local conditions. For example, the Loess Hills region along the Missouri River Valley has friable soils that are easily eroded by flowing water. With the channel depth of the Missouri River increasing each year, special adaptations have been necessary to deter undermining of bridge footings and similar structures. Solutions Broadly speaking, adaptations to changing weather patterns include: • Improving facility redundancy. • Reconstructing, enlarging, and strengthening existing infrastructure. • Relocating of vulnerable infrastructure, residences, and businesses. • Abandoning underutilized facilities. • Accelerating repair and maintenance of existing infrastructure. For many organizations, vulnerability studies and risk assessments are the first step in an adaptation process. These studies help assist priority-setting and guide adaptation planning. Natural Disasters Almost every region in the United States is subject to at least one weather or environmental hazard. Examples include hurricanes along the Gulf of Mexico and Atlantic coast; tornadoes in the central and southeastern U.S.; floods in the Mississippi Valley, Great Lakes and Great Plains; extreme heat and dust storms in the Southwest; tsunami along the Pacific Rim, Hawaii and Puerto Rico; and wildfires in Alaska, California, and other forested areas. Human activities can contribute to disaster risks. For example, forest management practices influence fire risks, land development practices influence flood risks, and underground fluid injection for petroleum and natural gas extraction can magnify seismic risks.

Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap A-32 Challenges • Because natural disasters tend to be rare events in quasi-random locations, it can be difficult to get stakeholders and the public to devote adequate resources to plan for disasters and implement measures aimed at limiting damage. • Disaster rescue and recovery operations are often seen as exciting, heroic acts that receive intense publicity. Conversely, disaster preparation and prevention efforts are often perceived as tedious or unnecessary, and those involved typically receive very little recognition. • Rural transportation agencies often have very little influence over human activities that increase disaster risk, yet the activities increase the potential for damage to rural transportation infrastructure, and simultaneously increase the probability that the infrastructure will be needed for disaster response. • Rural low-volume roads and bridges that are damaged by natural disasters may be seen as low priorities for reopening, resulting in long-term loss of mobility for specific communities. Solutions • Collaboration between transportation agencies and first responders to prepare for future adverse events. • Planning detours, alternative routes, and alternative schedules to maintain essential services when adverse events occur. • Retrofitting existing rural transportation infrastructure to improve resistance to seismic loading, fire, and other locally relevant hazards. • Widening roadway clear zones in forested areas to reduce the potential for pavement damage caused by forest fires. • Planting deep-rooted vegetation on roadway embankments to reduce the potential for landslides and erosion. • Installing gated access points along limited-access highways to allow first responders to access the highway from minor rural roads without backtracking to an interchange. Climate Impacts on Rural Bridges & Culverts In recent years, flood frequencies and stormwater volumes have increased in many parts of the U.S., and many transportation agencies have experienced unplanned costs to repair bridge and culvert failures (Mallakpour and Villarini 2015, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 2016). Rural areas can be disproportionately impacted because existing bridges and culverts often were not designed based on reliable stormwater volume estimates. When bridges and culverts fail, rural residents and first responders may need to use long detours. Rural economies can experience prolonged impacts if alternate routes cannot accommodate truck traffic. In a few instances, bridge failures have cut off entire communities. For example, in 2017 the iconic California settlement of Big Sur was cut in half when winter storms triggered a landslide that undermined a Pacific Coast Highway bridge, severing the community’s only land access (Figure 2) (Held 2018). Big Sur’s fire station, post office, and tourist resorts were located south of the failed bridge, while its schools, stores, medical services, livestock supplies, and most residences were to the north. Repairing the damaged facilities required 1½ years at a cost of $54 million (Held 2018). Many parts of the U.S. are also experiencing increasingly severe freeze-thaw cycles that affect the structural integrity of Figure 2: In 2017, winter storms undermined the Pfeiffer Canon Bridge on Highway 1, severing the community of Big Sur, California. (Held 2018)

Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap A-33 bridge decks and other structural elements. It is anticipated that the combined effect of thermal stresses and ice crystal damage will shorten the useful life of many rural bridges. Challenges • While most county and municipal transportation agencies have good information about the location, condition, and hydraulic capacity of their bridges, the documentation of culverts, storm drains, fords, and low-water-crossings is often incomplete. Many agencies have not yet completed a comprehensive comparison of the hydraulic capacity of their structures with expected future stormwater flows. • Land development adjacent to streets and highways usually increases runoff. In jurisdictions where land use regulation is lenient, roadway agencies may be unaware of situations where the potential peak stormwater flow has grown to exceed the capacity of existing structures downstream. • Unauthorized drainage culverts are sometimes installed in roadway right-of-way by local residents or businesses, and in many cases, they are improperly sized or built at the wrong elevation. Conversely, some landowners intentionally block roadway drains to prevent water from flowing onto their property. Both situations can interfere with stormwater management. Solutions • New technology such as lidar can make it easier for agencies to scan and measure drainage structures and drainage basins to assess hydraulic capacity and estimate stormwater elevations. • Rebuilding bridges and culverts to increase hydraulic capacity is often expensive and disruptive. In some cases, it is more cost-effective to construct side channels that provide additional stormwater capacity during peak flows. • The development of stormwater retention basins is sometimes a viable alternative to enlarging a bridge. These facilities store stormwater upstream of the bridge and discharge it slowly to prevent downstream structural damage. • Bridge replacement typically requires several months of work. In areas where there is no alternate route (or the alternate route requires a long detour), local residents and businesses are subject to considerable hardship while a replacement is built. In some cases, temporary bridges have been used to reduce these hardships, if the required span is not too long. In other cases, it might be possible to provide a temporary bypass that combines a short segment of gravel road with a low-water-crossing. Climate Impacts on Rural Pavements and Unpaved Roads Pavement longevity and overall performance are influenced by several factors, including traffic, materials, climate, and the structural design of the pavement system. Changing weather patterns can have several effects on pavement such as: • Softening of asphaltic pavements in hot conditions. • Vertical slab failures or “blow ups” in concrete pavements in hot conditions. • Weakening of the subgrade due to increased moisture. • Accelerated deterioration and delamination due to an increasing number of freeze-thaw cycles. In 2008, TRB Special Report 290 recommended that state and local governments and private infrastructure providers consider the effects of changing weather in their long-term capital improvement plans, facility designs, maintenance practices, operations, and emergency response plans (Committee on Climate Change and U.S. Transportation 2008). To address this issue in the specific context of pavements, several studies have begun to explore the effects of temperature and precipitation trends on asphaltic and concrete pavements. For example, a recent study combined several climate prediction models with the AASHTOWare Pavement ME software to estimate the effects of temperature and precipitation changes on pavements in various regions of the United

Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap A-34 States (Gudipudi, Underwood et al. 2017). It concluded that the impacts on pavement distress are substantial, and rising temperatures will make premature pavement failure more common throughout the country. The greatest effects were predicted to occur in the Northeast and Upper Midwest regions. Many rural areas include extensive mileages of unpaved roads (surfaced with dirt, sand, gravel, or similar materials). These roads are very sensitive to temperature and precipitation, with conditions potentially ranging from very firm to very soft on different days of the year. It appears that to date almost no research has been conducted to assess the effects of changing temperature and precipitation on unpaved roads. As a result, very little is known about potential budgetary impacts for rural roadway agencies. Numerous stabilization techniques have been developed to provide firmer, more pavement-like running surfaces on unpaved roads. Examples include spraying the road surface with calcium chloride or acrylic binder, blending the road aggregate with portland cement or lime, and applying asphaltic coatings such as chip seal or Otta seal. Very little research was found regarding the effects of long-term temperature and precipitation changes on the integrity of roads treated with these materials. Challenges • Every pavement needs to be designed for the prevailing weather conditions in the area where it will be placed. Considerable additional work is required to determine appropriate future adjustments for each region. • Identifying appropriate pavement design modifications is made more difficult by the uncertainty in estimates of future temperature and precipitation. With high-level policymakers evidently unable to agree on long-term interventions, researchers and practitioners appear to be increasingly erring on the high side of forecasted ranges. Solutions • The “cool road” concept—increasing pavement reflectivity through the use of light-color surface coatings or infrared-reflective granules—has been proposed as a possible method to reduce pavement deterioration caused by heat from the sun. • The economics of more widespread use of pavement stabilization techniques could be explored to identify situations where these techniques are cost-effective alternatives to unsurfaced roads and full- depth paving. • A working group of state and local agencies could be formed to develop a consensus on temperature and precipitation estimates used in pavement design. Winter Roadway Maintenance Winter maintenance profoundly affects the safety of rural road users and influences the level of economic activity in rural communities, but many rural jurisdictions struggle with the budgetary impacts of controlling snow and ice across large mileages. Over the past three decades, an increasing percentage of precipitation has come in the form of intense single-day events (Figure 3).

Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap A-35 A possibly related phenomenon is winter storms that affect portions of the southern U.S. that were not traditionally thought to be susceptible to snowfall. For example, in January 2018 two large winter storms merged, resulting in icy road conditions as far south as Florida. Such events have prompted transportation agencies in the South to invest in snow removal equipment, yet crews there have only limited opportunities to gain experience with snow removal techniques. The increasing prevalence of single-day storms can also affect winter road maintenance planning in areas of the country where wintry weather is routine. More intense precipitation requires adjustments in snow and ice control techniques. To respond quickly, more winter maintenance personnel and equipment are required. Many of the econometric studies of winter roadway maintenance focus on the costs and benefits of specific tools, equipment, or chemicals compared to a baseline case of maintaining the roads without the use of these items. These approaches typically compare expected cost of the proposed item with the labor, fuel, or material cost savings that are expected to occur if it is used. A handful of studies have attempted to explore the larger question of what level of winter maintenance investment is optimal for public safety and economic wellbeing. These studies explore winter maintenance benefits such as casualties avoided, travel time savings, and the avoidance of business losses that occur when customers forego non-essential travel. Ideally, such studies can assist decision makers in determining whether increases or decreases in overall winter maintenance expenditures will yield a net economic benefit to the community. In recent years a considerable body of knowledge has been developed to assist agencies in selecting appropriate snow/ice control materials, application rates, and timing. For example, techniques such as pre- storm treatment with saltwater brine are gradually becoming standard practice in some areas. Dissemination of this information is uneven, and some agencies lack the equipment and manpower required to implement newer techniques optimally. An area of ongoing concern is the long-term effect of standard deicing chemicals (salt and calcium chloride) on vehicles, roadway infrastructure, and the natural environment. There are several less damaging alternatives, but they are considerably more expensive than salt. Policies and procedures for winter maintenance of unpaved rural roads appear to be based mainly on field experience, with wide variations among agencies: • In several areas unpaved roads are considered low priorities for winter maintenance, and in some areas, they receive no winter maintenance at all. • Agency policies differ as to whether “frost service” should be provided (this term refers to applying salt or abrasives when surface frost is expected, but not snow). • When frozen precipitation occurs, some sources recommend applying sand or other abrasives without mechanical snow/ice removal, while others discuss a need for plowing/blading unpaved roads. • Maintaining sight distance by cutting down snowbanks and removing excess snow from ditches are discussed in the European literature, but do not appear to be mentioned in the context of unpaved roads in U.S. sources. • Calcium chloride (and to a lesser extent sodium chloride) are routinely used on unpaved roads for stabilization and summer dust control, yet many practitioners caution against using these chemicals for winter deicing. The stated concern is that they will exacerbate spring rutting. Further research appears to be required to develop a deeper understanding of the effects of these chemicals on unpaved road Figure 3 This figure shows the percentage of land area in the contiguous 48 states where a much greater than normal portion of total annual precipitation has come from extreme single-day precipitation events. The bars represent individual years. (EPA 2021)

Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap A-36 performance under various temperature and moisture conditions. Large amounts of deicer often accumulate in the gravel shoulders of paved roads, but it is unclear whether this situation differs from a completely unpaved surface. Perhaps these variations in unpaved road winter maintenance recommendations reflect differences in climate, materials, and roadway design. It also possible that they reflect limited scientific investigation of the practices that are optimal in terms of life-cycle cost and road user safety. A notable overseas winter roadway accommodation is the “vetrarvegur” in Iceland. These are short gravel roads that branch off from two-lane highways to allow winter traffic to bypass areas prone to large snow drifts (Norem et. al. 2001). Challenges • Optimizing the timing and techniques for winter maintenance is complicated due to the wide range of temperatures, precipitation conditions, and storm timing that can occur. In addition, the duration of post- storm sunlight influences deicing effectiveness. Although considerable knowledge has been obtained in recent years, dissemination and implementation of that information appears to be incomplete. • Normal year-to-year fluctuations in temperature and precipitation can make it difficult for agencies to maintain consistent staffing and equipment levels in the face of budgetary pressures. Changing temperature and precipitation patterns could require winter maintenance adaptations to assure the ongoing safety of rural road users. • The selection of deicing chemicals has long been regarded as a trade-off between cost and the chemicals’ adverse effects on equipment, vehicles, roadside vegetation, and downstream aquatic ecosystems. Many agencies would like to find low-cost deicers or ice removal systems that are non-corrosive and environmentally benign. • There are considerable differences in the practices recommended for winter maintenance of rural unpaved roads. These inconsistencies hint at a likely need for additional scientific research. Solutions • Although a few studies have explored the safety, social, and economic benefits of winter maintenance expenditures, it appears that road user expectations and prior year expenditures are the main influencing factors in community-level winter maintenance budgeting decisions. Additional investigation could help policy makers better understand how to optimize winter maintenance expenditure levels based on their climate and safety goals. • While the use of salt, brine, and physical removal remain the mainstays of most winter maintenance operations, there is significant interest in expended research efforts to identify alternative deicing agents that are less corrosive to vehicles, pavements, and bridges and less damaging to roadside vegetation and downstream lakes and rivers. • Most of the existing guidance on maintenance practices for unpaved roads appears to be based on field experience. Additional scientific investigation could help practitioners better integrate their summer and winter maintenance practices for unpaved roads and develop a better understanding of the interactions between summer and winter maintenance chemicals. Available Research While rural transportation agencies appear to be disproportionately impacted by flooding and other damage resulting from increasing precipitation levels and rising temperatures, most of the existing resilience research tends to focus on state highway departments and national policy. Site-specific

Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap A-37 applications typically require extracting, interpreting, and integrating highly complicated data from high- level studies. Changes in temperature and precipitation affect pavement design and longevity. Current research oriented toward state highway departments can be expected to benefit rural, county and local agencies. Very little work appears to have been completed regarding the effects of long-term temperature and precipitation changes on stabilized/sealed roadways and unpaved roads. Much of the existing winter maintenance research is tactical rather than strategic in nature. For example, several studies explore the cost-effectiveness of specific winter maintenance equipment and chemicals, but there does not appear to be much research to help rural agencies set budget levels that minimize crashes and maximize overall local/regional economic productivity. Although unpaved roads comprise a large portion of the rural highway system in several states, research on winter maintenance for these roadways is very limited. Potential Research Needs • Many rural transportation agencies—particularly those at lower elevations near major rivers—have already experienced multiple bridge and culvert failures attributable to increasing storm intensity. These communities have an immediate need for an integrated low-cost tool that can rapidly measure the hydraulic capacity of existing structures (perhaps using lidar scanning), leverage existing terrain mapping and climate models to estimate future stormwater flows (including future increases in precipitation intensity), identify vulnerable structures at countywide scale, and model stormwater management scenarios such as the construction of retention basins and overflow structures. • Bridge and culvert failures can cause considerable social and economic hardships for rural communities during the lengthy time required for infrastructure repair. Research on rapid reconstruction techniques and methods for providing alternative access (such as temporary roads combined with low-water- crossings) could help communities minimize these hardships and avoid long-term economic impacts such as business relocations and loss of population. • A few studies have explored the safety, social, and economic benefits of winter maintenance expenditures, but it appears that road user expectations and prior-year expenditures are currently the main factors influencing most agencies’ winter maintenance budgeting decisions. Research leading to simplified analytical tools that incorporate weather and climate data could help rural decision makers optimize winter maintenance expenditure levels based on their safety and economic development goals. • Most of the existing guidance on maintenance practices for unpaved roads appears to be based on field experience. Additional scientific investigation could help practitioners better integrate their summer and winter maintenance practices and develop a better understanding of the effects of summer and winter maintenance chemicals on unpaved road performance.

Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap A-38 T H E M E # 8 : R U R A L P U B L I C & S C H O O L T R A N S P O R T A T I O N Community Type and Mode The community types and modes that pertain to this theme are shown in the tables below. Community Type Mode  Beyond the “Lower 48” o (AK, HI, PR, VI, GU, AS, MP)  Aviation  Bicycle  Exurban Community  Bus  Frontier/Remote Community  Maritime  Resource-based Community  Pedestrian  Tourism-based Community  Rail  Tribal Lands and Alaska Native Communities  Roadway Theme Description Rural public (including those on public lands) and school transportation includes transit, paratransit, school transportation, passenger rail, and shared-use mobility. Federal Transit Administration (FTA) regulations, feasibility and cost/benefits of the systems, and the economic implications of such systems are discussed within this fact sheet. Long distances and potentially less dense ridership are some of the most common differences between urban and rural public and school transportation. Transit Transit in the rural environment can take different forms, including fixed route, deviated fixed route, and demand response. Additional examples may be informal rideshare provided by a friend or family member to an elderly adult, and vanpool programs. Small urban areas have begun to consider implementation of a public transportation system as changing demographics are increasing demand for services that often outstrip the capabilities of on-demand service. Furthermore, some rural counties are also providing public transportation. Transit in tourist/recreational areas can be an important link from gateway communities to attractions such as public lands; transit service can address congestion issues and strengthen economic links between the attraction and the broader community. Challenges • Ensuring safety of public transportation users (Knapp 2018, Martinez 2018) • Designing cost-effective routes that serve long distances between origins and destinations and between users • Providing traveler information and assistance to users with cognitive ability limitations (due to disabilities, age, etc.) • Communicating user and service information to clients in areas that have experienced scams targeting rural residents • Providing fully accessible websites and applications for individuals with disabilities in rural regions with limited technological infrastructure

Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap A-39 Solutions • Facilitating the coordination of trips • Innovative funding strategies • Improved transit marketing, trip planning information, and quality of service Paratransit Paratransit service typically operates on a demand response basis and provides origin to destination service, either door-to-door or curb-to-curb, which may require additional drivers or vehicles. A public transportation system that provides fixed route service must also provide complementary paratransit service for anyone who is unable to use the fixed route service under Section 223 of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) (U.S. Federal Transit Administration 2015). Eligibility categories are as follows: • A person with a disability who cannot navigate that transit system without assistance. • A person with a disability who requires an accessible vehicle when one is not available. • A person with a disability who is unable to reach the transit stop. Eligibility for paratransit is typically determined through an application process. Paratransit service must be provided within three-fourths of a mile on either side of a fixed route system. Challenges • In many locations, need seems to be outstripping demand. • Not as convenient as other service models, as advanced notice is often required, which does not always accommodate immediate needs (e.g., a doctor’s appointment). • With higher per passenger costs, the relatively smaller number of eligible paratransit riders in rural areas may mean that successful cost-saving methods employed in urban areas (travel training, eligibility testing, etc.) will produce less savings for rural providers and will be harder to implement with available staff. Solutions • Coordinating with transportation network companies (TNCs) could be a potential solution, although such examples are typically only found in urban areas. • Coordinating transportation with specialized service providers. School Transportation School transportation in rural areas often involves picking up children along rural roadways that may not always have desirable sight distance. Furthermore, compliance with school transportation signs does not always occur. Challenges • School buses and passengers face safety risks during stops on rural roadways. • Long distances traveled bring additional wear and tear on buses, resulting in more frequent maintenance and replacement. • Long bus trip durations can have health implications for rural students (Cornwall 2018). • School transportation is being eliminated in some rural areas. • Reduced driver hiring pool due to marijuana legalization

Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap A-40 Solutions • Reduced speed sections to accommodate school bus stops • Providing WIFI on buses • Ridesharing for school transportation (Cornwall 2018) • Electronic “bulletin” board to allow families in the same neighborhood to coordinate rides to and from school • Trip Tracker Program (Cornwall 2018) • Safe Routes to School’s Kid Carpool (San Francisco Safe Routes to School 2017) Passenger Rail Passenger rail that has stops which connect rural areas to urban areas can enable rural residents to access employment, education and healthcare (Bruhaker 2011). Intercity rail services such as Amtrak can also connect large urban populations (especially those who do not drive or have a driver’s license) to rural natural areas. Rural passenger rail service in the United States is operated mainly by Amtrak, a Federally owned corporation that operates passenger trains mainly on track owned by private railroads. As of 2016 (Figure 4), Amtrak operated over about 23,000 miles of rail and served over 500 communities in 46 states, including 15 long-distance (over 750 mile) routes (Amtrak 2016). Figure 4: Amtrak national route map as of January 2017. (Amtrak 2016). Amtrak’s long-distance services have been controversial since their inception in 1971, with rural communities arguing that the service is essential to their economic and social wellbeing, and fiscally conservative groups arguing that the Federal government should not subsidize trains. With the same policy

Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap A-41 arguments for and against Amtrak reappearing almost annually, there has been ongoing lack of clarity about the long-term vision for passenger rail in the United States. Services in the densely populated Northeast Corridor (Boston-New York-Philadelphia-Washington) require less subsidy and have been less controversial. Although wholly owned by the Federal government, Amtrak is structured as a corporation (not a government agency). Its nine-member board of directors is appointed by the President and confirmed by the U.S. Senate. As a result, the company’s leadership and business strategies can change based on election cycles. Amtrak has been searching for alternative revenue sources. For example, since 2014 the company has begun to explore the revenue potential of its real estate holdings (Levitt 2014, Amtrak 2017). This echoes the funding strategy for private passenger railroads in Japan, which typically earn a sizeable share of their revenue from developing real estate around stations (Calimente 2012). Challenges • Some of the facilities that are available for rural, intercity travel require significant infrastructure repair. • Passenger rail services operate mainly on track owned by private freight railroads. On busy corridors finding time slots that meet the business and operational requirements of both types of services can be difficult. • Expanded rail services should also provide connectivity with the larger transportation network. • Providers must plan for an expanded range of safety and security issues (e.g., terrorism and cybersecurity precautions) for systems like Amtrak. • Providers should consider whether passenger rail routes will connect major rural employers to their potential out-of-state/country customers. Solutions • Employers in rural areas can improve connections with potential out-of-state/country consumers by using rail for connectivity to the urban airline network (Bruhaker 2011). • Ridership growth, revenue from real estate development, and providing value-added services might help Amtrak expand and stabilize its funding sources. Intercity Bus The intercity bus (motorcoach) industry has experienced many significant changes in recent years. Following deregulation in the 1980s the industry experienced a series of strikes, lawsuits, bankruptcies, mergers, and corporate spin-offs that affected customer relations and employee morale. To recover from these difficulties, the early 2000s the industry’s largest carrier, Greyhound, adopted a business strategy that discontinued many rural services and focused on the company’s value proposition for low-income customers traveling between major metropolitan areas (Schwieterman 2016). In 2007, Greyhound was sold to a British company that invested heavily in new equipment and passenger facility upgrades (Schwieterman 2016). The company also introduced web-based ticketing and intensified marketing to young adults and Hispanics. Starting in the mid-2000s, independent curbside bus entrepreneurs identified profitable market niches for services between major cities along the U.S. east coast, characterized by ultra-low prices, high load factors, and word-of-mouth marketing (Schwieterman 2016). At around the same time, “curbside” intercity operators such as Megabus and Flixbus began operating point-to-point express services oriented mainly toward major cities and college towns. A key element of the curbside operators’ marketing strategy was the introduction of airline-style pricing (yield management);

Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap A-42 for example, on Megabus the first seat on each bus run is typically sold for $1.00, with prices gradually rising as the bus fills (Schwieterman 2016). While some curbside bus operators have focused primarily on Asian-American customers, other operators have emphasized Latin-American customers. For example, Dallas-based Tornado Bus operates linehaul services connecting large and small cities in the Midwest, Southeast, and Southwest U.S. with one another and with destinations in Mexico (Schwieterman 2016). The emergence of these new services and operators suggests that intercity bus services can potentially be profitable in additional markets. These services operate in a multifaceted competition with other modes including aviation, passenger rail, rental cars, and personal motor vehicles. Challenges • Most of the recent service expansions are point-to-point services between metropolitan areas. Newer rural services are marketed mainly to ethnic minority customers, with low awareness among mainstream consumers. • Although there is some cross-marketing of services between traditional intercity bus operators, the lack of a unified portal for obtaining service information and pricing makes it difficult for customers to identify and compare service offerings from traditional, curbside, and independent operators. Although there are specialty websites that provide bus information, they do not yet encompass all carriers. Information about bus services has not been integrated into popular travel websites. • Low barriers to market entry and a focus on low-profile marketing to niche consumers can make it difficult for government agencies to identify new intercity bus services and monitor their safety and security. Solutions • Have states conduct analysis of their intercity bus services to identify gaps in service (connections to smaller rural communities). • Work toward having tribal and rural transit systems connect with intercity carries to the maximum extent possible. • Ensure that connections between tribal, rural and intercity transit systems are noted in ticketing/scheduling systems. • Adequately market intercity bus options in rural communities. • Review public and private sector roles related to intercity bus services, for example increasing public investment in joint-use passenger facilities to stimulate connectivity between intercity bus operators and local transit systems. Shared-Use Mobility Shared-use mobility is defined as “Transportation services and resources that are shared among users, either concurrently or one after another.” (Shared-Use Mobility Center 2018) Examples may include: bikesharing/scooter-sharing, carsharing, ridesharing/ridehailing, public transit, and microtransit/shuttles. While shared-use services (e.g., Uber and Lyft) are now common in urban areas, they face implementation challenges in rural areas. Challenges • Safety – long distances with an unknown driver in very unpopulated areas brings concerns for personal safety of users. • Lack of Smartphone Connectivity may limit usage in certain areas.

Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap A-43 • Many rural residents believe that there is “not enough density” for such services. • Supply and demand are more likely to be unbalanced Solutions • Shared-use services often fail in rural environments due to a limited number of drivers providing service for an entity (e.g., Lyft, Uber). Therefore, additional marketing or incentives could be used to ensure that drivers are available, particularly at times where less service is found to be provided (e.g., to pick up individuals from the airport late at night or drop them off early in the morning). FTA Regulation Impacts The following are examples of Federal Transit Administration (FTA) Program funding that have been used to provide rural public transportation: • FTA Section 5310 – Enhanced Mobility for Seniors and Individuals with Disabilities • FTA Section 5311 (f) Private Match, Formula Grants for Rural Areas • FTA Section 5339, Grants for Buses and Bus Facilities Formula Program Challenges • It can be burdensome to small rural areas who have limited, often already overworked staff to apply for funds and manage the program requirements. • Lack of resources to meet local match requirements Solutions • Technical assistance provided by state departments of transportation to local agencies to identify, apply for and administer funding resources. Feasibility & Cost/Benefit The feasibility of public transportation systems for rural environments has been traditionally evaluated on a case-by-case basis. Rural agencies need a better understanding of the costs and benefits of public transportation, including analysis that takes into account those costs and benefits that may be more challenging to monetize. Challenges • Rural practitioners typically have little experience with implementing or managing public transportation, which may inhibit implementation. • Costs are high as a result of the long distances traveled and associated fuel costs. • Public transportation systems are often viewed negatively by the public, even if need (low-income, elderly population) exists. • Funding for public transportation systems is often lacking; when asked about their support, many rural residents often suggest that the money can be better spent on repairing roadways • More information is needed regarding cost-benefits of integrating services with regional locations. • While consultants and researchers have worked with some small communities to look at the feasibility of public transportation for their community, in many cases the system is not implemented, often due to political concerns.

Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap A-44 Solutions • Public outreach, education and engagement: providing the public with avenues to provide input, feedback, and to generally learn about effective public transportation in rural settings, such as partnering with a nearby community to let the public see and experience a vehicle and to ask questions of staff. Rural Public Transportation Investments to Stimulate Economic Development There have been examples of rural public transportation investments that have been quantified in terms of their economic impact (HLB Decision Engineers Inc. 2003). However, these studies are limited. In many cases, however, findings to date imply a relationship between the availability of rural public transportation and a positive economic outlook for the rural or small urban economy. Challenges • Transportation (in some cases inconsistent transportation) can be a barrier to some Americans getting to work or to schools that prepare them better for jobs. • Some Americans have the financial means to purchase goods or participate in activities but lack transportation due to physical limitations to operate a private vehicle to access the goods or activities. • As the populations in small rural communities decrease, so does the tax base, which has implications for investment in the community’s infrastructure, including transportation. Solutions • The facilitation of connections between those who need transportation and individuals who may be willing to provide transportation if they are reimbursed for the cost of gas can assist with some transportation gaps. • Short-term programs have been created to address transportation gaps that would enable potential employees to pursue employment. • Investing in public transportation in a rural environment provides options to residents (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 2011) Available Research The body of knowledge related to rural public and school transportation is growing. Public and school transportation is a very large topic. Many entities (e.g., National Rural Transit Assistance Program (RTAP), Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP), The Community Transportation Association of America (CTAA)) are performing research or advancing the state of practice related to this fact sheet; however, there is still significantly more research and guidance provided with a focus on urban and to a lesser degree suburban environments. Therefore, while the body of knowledge is growing, there is a need for further focus in the rural environment in order to address topics such as changing mobility preferences and serving an aging population. Potential Research Needs • A better understanding of alternative fuels sources that are effective in rural applications is needed (e.g., which ones may work better in mountainous areas, how does the fuel type impact where the vehicle needs to be refueled, etc.). • There is a need to better understand characteristics, benefits and drawbacks, and design considerations for deviated fixed route systems that have been implemented in rural areas.

Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap A-45 • Rural Public Transportation Feasibility Studies are becoming more common. It would be worthwhile to understand: 1) the number of systems studied, 2) the topics discussed or considered in the study and 3) the characteristics of systems that were implemented. • Research is needed to identify security measures for Rural Transit Systems and cost-effective deployment options. • While limited technological infrastructure is typically available in rural areas, the less complex nature of the rural environment could make implementation of autonomous vehicles more feasible. Public transportation systems could, in particular, benefit from autonomous vehicles, as often the need for a driver limits the ability to serve rural residents who need transportation the most. However, much of the focus on autonomous vehicles has been in the urban environment. Therefore, there is a need to focus on the feasibility of implementing autonomous public transportation systems in rural areas.

Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap A-46 T H E M E # 9 : L A W E N F O R C E M E N T , C R I M E , A N D D R U G S Community Type and Mode The community types and modes that pertain to this theme are shown in the tables below. Community Type Mode  Beyond the “Lower 48” o (AK, HI, PR, VI, GU, AS, MP)  Aviation  Bicycle  Exurban Community  Bus  Frontier/Remote Community  Maritime  Resource-based Community  Pedestrian  Tourism-based Community  Rail  Tribal Lands and Alaska Native Communities  Roadway Theme Description Rural communities often have only a small number of law enforcement officers to cover a large geographical area. Due to the sparse enforcement, violations of traffic laws, vandalism of transportation infrastructure, and crimes such as human trafficking and the sale of illicit drugs can go undetected for long periods of time. Illicit drug use in rural areas is a large and evidently growing problem, which currently differs from urban drug use in terms of user demographics, greater preference for intravenous drugs, and wider use of opioids and methamphetamine. Drug treatment programs, particularly for opioid use disorder, are often limited in rural areas and medical practitioners report difficulty sustaining treatment due to lack of public transportation. Marijuana legalization raises numerous difficult technical and policy issues for transportation agencies. Traffic Enforcement in Sparsely Populated Areas Traffic enforcement serves as both a punishment and a deterrent for offenses such as speeding, failure to use seatbelts and child restraints, and driving under the influence (DUI) of alcohol or other drugs. Rural officers also respond to crashes and traffic incidents, provide roadside assistance to travelers with disabled vehicles, and perform numerous law enforcement duties unrelated to traffic safety. Due to budget constraints, many rural counties, municipalities, and tribal governments only have a small number of law enforcement officers to cover substantial roadway mileages. For example, Lake County, California has just five deputies to patrol an area the size of Rhode Island, while Amador County usually deploys three or four deputies over 612 square miles (Chabria et al 2018). In Iowa it is not unusual for a rural county to have only two deputy sheriffs on duty at night to cover traffic enforcement on more than 1000 miles of rural roads, along with numerous non-traffic law enforcement responsibilities; small municipalities often have only one part-time police officer (Russell 2018). Due to limited staffing and the large amount of terrain to be covered, law enforcement officers are spread very thinly in many rural jurisdictions. As a result, some motorists believe they are very unlikely to be intercepted for offenses such as speeding, driving while intoxicated, non-use of seatbelts, defective equipment, and expired license plates. Research indicates that in areas where there is no traffic enforcement, motorists drive faster, exceed speed limits more frequently, drive while intoxicated more often, commit aggressive and ordinary violations more

Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap A-47 frequently, and report being involved in more near misses compared to similar areas with enforcement (Stanojević, Jovanović et al. 2013). Additionally, the long-term absence of enforcement appears to foster pro-speeding attitudes and general distain for traffic laws. Since drivers do not need to self-monitor their speeds, they are less likely to be aware of speed violations. Challenges • In many communities, only a small number of patrol officers are available to cover a large amount of terrain. This problem appears to be worsening in some areas due to budget constraints. • Institutional barriers can affect coordination between first responders. Coordination issues can arise between different disciplines (law enforcement, fire, EMS, towing, etc.), between neighboring and geographically overlapping jurisdictions, and between levels of government (e.g., police agencies and public land management officers). • Law enforcement in rural areas of the United States involves thousands of separate state, county, and local agencies. In contrast, front-line law enforcement in most of rural Canada is under the jurisdiction of a single federal agency (RCMP 2018, Statistics Canada 2018). Solutions • Implementing an “anytime, anywhere” law enforcement approach can deter traffic violations throughout the roadway network (Howard, Mooren et al. 2008). The central idea is that if policing patterns are too predictable, motorists will only comply with traffic laws in places where they expect to encounter the police. Conversely, if the location and timing of traffic patrols are highly unpredictable, drivers will find it necessary to behave legally throughout the entire network. Operating a mix of highly visible and stealthy patrols is thought to maximize the effectiveness of this strategy. • Using traffic calming techniques, rural roadways can be made more “self-enforcing” by adjusting the appearance and geometric design to coincide with the desired function and speed (Hallmark, Peterson et al. 2007). • A Finnish study found that posting speed limits on rural roads that previously had no posted limit helped reduce the 85th percentile speed if the new speed limit was lower than the previous mean speed. In those cases, injury crashes were reduced. • On unpaved rural roads the physical condition of the driving surface often varies significantly depending on weather and other factors, resulting in difficulty regulating safe speeds (Howard, Mooren et al. 2008). Signage displaying fixed speed limits can give false impressions about the speeds that are safe at the time of use. One solution is to provide advisory signage with information about situationally appropriate speeds. • A pilot program in Thailand explored citizen involvement in traffic enforcement in 35 small communities located along arterial highways (Howard, Mooren et al. 2008). Citizen volunteers identified speeders and people suspected of drunk or drugged driving. Serious violators were reported to the police, and volunteers reminded minor violators (mainly teens) about the need to behave responsibly. There has reportedly been a 50% reduction in injuries and fatalities. • The use of automated speed enforcement has become a standard practice for rural high-speed roadways in Europe. With compliance rates now approaching 100% in many areas, there is an expectation that everyone is required to observe the speed limit, and clarity that the purpose of the cameras is to prevent death and injury (not to generate revenue). • Multi-jurisdictional data management systems can reduce cost and improve collaboration for rural law enforcement and emergency response agencies. For example, the National Model Program is coalition of 16 states and provinces that that share information, resources, and technologies to improve roadway safety (Technology Enterprise Group 2018). The National Model led the development of TraCS (an electronic records management tool for crash reports and case investigations) and MACH (a command-

Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap A-48 and-control software for managing 911 calls; dispatching law enforcement, fire, and EMS units; and confidential messaging between first responders. • Cooperative agreements can be developed to share law enforcement and other emergency response resources across jurisdictional boundaries. Vandalism and Theft of Rural Transportation Infrastructure Vandalism and theft of signs and other transportation infrastructure are longstanding problems in many rural areas. Sign vandalism has potentially serious traffic safety consequences. Detection and replacement drain agency resources. A Utah study found that traffic sign vandalism occurred more frequently in rural areas than in urban areas (Boggs, Heaslip et al. 2013). A second Utah study found that vandalism rates were highest in counties with low income and educational levels (Khalilikh, Heaslip et al. 2016). According to a 1992 study, 80% of sign vandalism in Iowa occurred on unpaved roads (Harris 1992). Challenges • Due to remoteness, it is often difficult to identify perpetrators and obtain evidence sufficient for conviction. Solutions • The use of portable time-lapse cameras might be helpful in identifying perpetrators and gathering evidence that can be used in court. • Metal signs have value as scrap metal. Plastic or wood sign substrates are possibly less likely to be stolen but have vandalism potential. Human Trafficking Human trafficking includes forced or coerced labor in a wide range of legal and illicit industries, including commercial sex, hospitality, traveling sales crews, agriculture, janitorial services, construction, restaurants, care for people with disabilities, salon services, massage parlors, fairs and carnivals, peddling and begging, drug smuggling and distribution, and child care and domestic work (U.S. Department of State 2018). Currently most U.S. trafficking victims originate in the U.S., Mexico, and Honduras. High- risk populations include children in the child welfare and juvenile justice systems; runaway youth and youth experiencing homelessness; American Indians and Alaska Natives; migrant laborers and undocumented workers; people with low literacy or disabilities; lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and intersex (LGBTI) individuals; and people with substance abuse disorders. Trafficking in rural areas is fueled by lack of job opportunities, stigmatization of minorities and LGBTI youth, and other social factors (Love146 2015). Truck stops, rest areas, and welcome centers are common sites where trafficking and exploitation for commercial sex occur. Labor trafficking can potentially occur in connection with contracted roadway and public works projects. Challenges • There are currently few benchmarks for measuring and monitoring the effectiveness of anti-trafficking initiatives.

Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap A-49 • Currently the roles of state DOTs, county highway agencies, and municipal street departments in addressing this issue are not clearly defined. Solutions • In recent months the U.S. Department of Transportation has launched several initiatives aimed at helping public transportation employees (such as bus operators) identify potential trafficking victims and connect them with assistance programs. • Programs could be developed to assist agencies in identifying labor trafficking associated with road construction and public works projects. Illicit Drugs Rising rates of prescription medication abuse, especially opioids, and a related increase in heroin overdoses are contributing to an unprecedented rise in mortality rates for rural adults in the 20-24 and 30- 54 age ranges (U.S. Department of Agriculture 2017). The popularity of methamphetamine also appears to be increasing in rural areas. In many rural communities, users prefer injectable forms of methamphetamine and opioids. Sterile needles are often scarcer than the drugs, leading to outbreaks of Hepatitis C and HIV that put the entire population at risk. Driving under the influence of opioids is an increasing problem. Using data from 6 states, a comparison of toxicology reports for drivers killed in fatal crashes indicates that the prevalence of prescription opioids increased from 1.0% in 1995 to 7.2% in 2015 (Chihuri and Li 2017). Among those testing positive for opioids, 30% also had elevated blood alcohol concentrations, and 67% tested positive for other drugs. Other recent trends related to the drug trade include increasing rates of polysubstance use (taking two or more drugs simultaneously), a sharp increase in availability of extremely potent synthetic opioids (fentanyl and carfentanil), the presence of fentanyl/carfentanil in common street drugs such as marijuana and cocaine, an emerging market in hundreds of obscure drugs with unknown effects marketed as “research chemicals,” and quasi-legal sale of kratom (a smokable leaf with opioid-type effects). Substance abuse can be especially hard to combat in rural communities due to limited treatment and prevention resources. In many rural areas there is a shortage of medical practitioners who are certified to administer Medication Assisted Therapy (MAT) for Opioid Use Disorder (OUD) (Macy 2018). As a result, the available OUD treatment options are often limited to methods with high relapse rates, such as group therapy and faith-based programs. Challenges • Substance abuse counsellors report that transportation difficulties—especially lack of public transportation—are a significant barrier to individuals seeking treatment for substance abuse (Pullen and Oser 2014). • To obtain rides, people with substance abuse disorders who live in rural communities are often dependent on friends or family members who also have a substance abuse disorder. • The shortage of medical practitioners who are credentialed to administer MAT is believed to increase the number of opioid users who do not seek treatment, or who attempt treatment using methods with high relapse rates. Among other issues such as overdose and suicide, this increases the number of people who operate motor vehicles while under the influence of opioids, resulting in traffic safety risks for all road users. • Rising illicit drug use increases the risk of employee substance abuse and the sale of illicit substances on transportation agency premises.

Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap A-50 Solutions • Medication Assisted Therapy is increasingly recognized as the most effective treatment for OUD. Compared to other treatment options, MAT reduces the number of required healthcare practitioner visits. As a result, compared to other treatment options it is probably more compatible with volunteer ride sharing programs and rural paratransit systems. Existing group therapy and faith-based programs can support MAT by providing resources to assist recovering addicts with obtaining housing and employment and developing interpersonal relationships with non-users. Marijuana/Cannabis As of June 2018, adult recreational use of marijuana was legal in Alaska, California, Colorado, the District of Columbia, Massachusetts, Nevada, Oregon, Vermont, and the State of Washington (Robinson, Berke et al. 2018). Voters in Maine approved a ballot initiative to legalize recreational marijuana in 2016, but the state has not yet adopted licensing procedures for growers and retailers (Governing Magazine 2018). No state currently allows recreational marijuana for people under 21. Thirty states have laws authorizing medical use of marijuana, with widely varying definitions of medical use. Public opinion research indicates a steady increase in the proportion of Americans who favor marijuana legalization: in 2000, 31% of Americans favored legalization; in 2017, 61% supported it (Geiger 2018). Marijuana use is increasing (SAMSHA 2014), and several smokeless forms of marijuana are now widely available through dispensaries and illicit channels. Potency is also increasing: in 1995 the delta-9- tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) content of street marijuana averaged 4%, but reached 12% in 2014 (ElSohly, Mehmedic et al. 2016). Enthusiast publications describe products with more than 30% THC available through dispensaries. Long-term use of high-THC marijuana is linked to increased rates of anxiety and psychosis in susceptible individuals (Morgan, Schafer et al. 2010). A second active ingredient, cannabinol (CBD) appears to counteract some of effects of THC. While the CBD content of most street marijuana has fallen, many dispensaries promote CBD-rich marijuana as a “daytime” product, with the implication that users can continue their ordinary activities (including working and driving) while under its influence. An in-depth meta-analysis indicates that compared to unimpaired driving, driving under the influence of marijuana doubles the risk of a fatal or injury crash (Asbridge, Hayden et al. 2012). These results are consistent with laboratory, simulator, and forensic studies indicating that cannabis impairs performance of the cognitive and motor tasks necessary for safe driving, increasing the risk of collision. Challenges • Post-legalization traffic safety information from Colorado and Washington State identifies a doubling in the percentage of crash-involved drivers who had a detectable concentration of THC in their blood. About two-thirds of THC-positive fatally injured drivers were also under the influence of alcohol or other drugs, including more than 10% who were simultaneously using three or more drugs. • Reliably determining cannabis intoxication for legal purposes has proven difficult. Although Colorado, Montana, and Washington State have attempted to define cannabis intoxication based on a blood THC level of 5 ng/mL, blood THC levels were subsequently shown to be an unreliable indicator of cannabis intoxication (Logan, Kacinko et al. 2016). Although 80% of drivers who demonstrated impairment on the physical tests (walk-and-turn test, one leg-stand test, and finger-to-nose test) had THC concentrations of 1 ng/mL or greater, 30 percent of drivers who did not demonstrate impairment on the physical tests also had THC concentrations of 1 ng/mL or greater. Drivers detained by law enforcement for suspected drugged driving averaged 4 ng/mL of THC. • Determining blood THC levels requires a blood draw. A study of crashes involving suspected marijuana use in Washington State found that the median time to draw blood was 165 minutes (Banta-Green,

Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap A-51 Rowhani-Rahbar et al. 2016). In most cases the delay provided ample time for the driver’s blood THC level to drop below the state’s 5 ng/mL per se limit. • The widespread availability of smokeless marijuana products makes it more difficult for transportation agencies to identify on-duty violations of employee drug use policies. • Many transportation agencies currently have zero-tolerance policies for employee use of marijuana, and federal regulations require a zero-tolerance policy for public transit employees. Nevertheless, some states currently prohibit employers from firing employees based on their off duty use of legal substances or medical marijuana. So far, Maine is the only state that explicitly protects off-duty recreational marijuana use. The practicality and effectiveness of zero-tolerance policies also require consideration, particularly if employees and their supervisors do not have daily face-to-face contact. Available Research It is well established that compared to their urban counterparts, rural drivers are more likely to be killed or injured in a motor vehicle crash, more likely to speed, more likely to drive while intoxicated, and less likely to use seatbelts. It is also clear that emergency response times for all types of traffic and non-traffic incidents are adversely impacted by the sparse distribution of rural law enforcement officers. There appears to be a shortage of research that could assist rural decision makers with setting a law enforcement/public security staffing level/budget that is optimal from the standpoint of safety and the community’s economic wellbeing. There are a few studies that describe the nature and scope of sign vandalism in rural areas, and a handful that explore the characteristics of offenders. While there are numerous guidebooks and reports on techniques for preventing urban vandalism (exemplified by the 1985 transformation of the New York City subway system), very little research exploring the effectiveness of rural vandalism prevention techniques was found. The vast majority of existing research related to substance abuse and the illicit drug trade is based on information gathered in major metropolitan areas. Although information reported by rural healthcare practitioners and journalists indicates that the characteristics and demographics of rural drug use differ significantly from the urban situation, the available research is very limited. There does not appear to be much research regarding the transportation needs of rural residents who are attempting to complete substance abuse treatment programs. Additional research is clearly needed to establish reliable cannabis intoxication tests that can be administered expeditiously in the field. The increasing availability of CBD-rich marijuana products appears to raise the possibility of an alert-but-high condition, possibly including chronic use by professional drivers. Potential Research Needs • Are there vandal- and theft-resistant materials that are cost-effective and meet the optical and crashworthiness requirements for traffic signs? • Are portable time-lapse cameras or similar surveillance techniques effective in identifying perpetrators of rural infrastructure vandalism/theft? Is the evidence generated by these devices sufficient to result in conviction? • What are the appropriate roles and responsibilities of state DOTs, county highway agencies, and small municipal street departments in addressing rural human trafficking issues? • What interventions are successful in reducing trafficking-related activities at rest areas and other transportation facilities? • How can transportation agencies measure and monitor the effectiveness of their rural anti-trafficking interventions?

Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap A-52 T H E M E # 1 0 : A V I A T I O N Community Type and Mode The community types and modes that pertain to this theme are shown in the tables below. Community Type Mode  Beyond the “Lower 48” o (AK, HI, PR, VI, GU, AS, MP)  Aviation  Bicycle  Exurban Community  Bus  Frontier/Remote Community  Maritime  Resource-based Community  Pedestrian  Tourism-based Community  Rail  Tribal Lands and Alaska Native Communities  Roadway Theme Description The availability of general aviation airports and scheduled passenger services is often said to be crucial to the economic and social wellbeing of rural areas but quantifying the benefits of aviation to local economies is often difficult. Federal subsidy programs for commercial passenger service to small airports are highly controversial. Outcome-focused studies indicate that aviation investments do not consistently achieve the hoped-for economic benefits, but specific success/failure factors are not well documented. Essential Air Service Program In the early days of commercial aviation, frequent refueling stops were necessary (EAA c. 2015), leading to the establishment of scheduled passenger service in many smaller communities. For example, a 1939 route map indicates that the United Airlines service between Chicago and San Francisco made 13 intermediate stops, some in cities with populations as small as 4000 (United Airlines 1939, U.S. Census Bureau c. 1952). Prior to airline deregulation in 1978, passenger airfares in the United States were regulated by the Federal government (airlines competed on service, but not price). The pre-deregulation fare structure provided a guaranteed rate of return to the air carriers, with profits on high-volume routes offsetting losses on low- volume routes. Deregulation raised concerns that smaller communities would lose service as carriers shifted their focus to larger, presumably more lucrative markets. In response, the Essential Air Service (EAS) program was established to assure that numerous small communities would continue to receive a minimal level of scheduled air service. EAS-subsidized carriers generally utilize aircraft with 9 to 50 seats and operate routes that connect with other carriers at hub airports (Congressional Research Service 2017). Under current legislation, communities in the “lower 48” states are limited to a maximum subsidy of $200 per passenger if they are less than 210 miles from the nearest large- or medium-hub airport. The subsidy cap for communities more than 210 miles from a hub is $1000. Communities located more than 175 driving miles from the nearest large- or medium-hub airport lose EAS eligibility if average passenger traffic falls below 10 enplanements per service day (Congressional Research Service 2017). In 1978, a total of 620 cities were eligible for the EAS program. Due to the program’s cost, Congress tightened the EAS eligibility rules over time; by 1995 it served only 95 communities. The number has rebounded in recent years: the program currently subsidizes service to 173 cities (112 in the lower 48 states

Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap A-53 and 61 in Alaska). Among the lower 48 states, Michigan had the most EAS-subsidized destinations (9 cities as of 2015) (U.S. Department of Transportation 2017a, U.S. Department of Transportation 2017b). EAS program expenditures have increased sharply over time. In constant 2016 dollars, spending has increased 600% since 1996 and 132% since 2008 (Congressional Research Service 2017). In FFY 2018, the program budget was $283 million. As of February 2017, the most heavily subsidized airport was Presque Isle, Maine which received $5.1 million for service connecting to Boston (Congressional Research Service 2017). FAA also administers two related programs: • The Small Community Air Service Development Program (SCASDP) provides funding to address air service deficiencies in smaller communities through revenue guarantees, marketing programs, and start- up cost subsidies (U.S. Department of Transportation 2017c). • The Air Transportation to Noneligible Places (ATNEP) program provides funding for air service to a small number of communities that were not served by commercial aviation in 1978, subject to a 50% local cost share (Congressional Research Service 2017). Challenges • The EAS program has been controversial since its inception. Its cost has been a perennial concern to Congress and has been increasing rapidly in recent years. Although opponents emphasize the program's inefficiency, its supporters claim that the program is crucial to accessing small and remote communities, which helps them develop economically and socially. • The complex interaction of air fares, EAS subsidies, and operating costs has the potential to result in markets where there is a perverse financial disincentive to increase passenger volumes beyond the capacity of existing aircraft. At some airports, this could make it difficult to grow passenger traffic to a level that supports unsubsidized service. Solutions • While some EAS airports are in very remote communities, others are less than an hour’s drive from a major airport. Rationalization of EAS city locations based on proximity to other airports and better integration of air and ground services could potentially offset some of the need for the program. Air Taxis The term “air taxi” generally refers to unscheduled passenger service utilizing small aircraft; planes are typically booked one to several days in advance. On an air taxi, various individuals and groups might share the available seats and cargo space. In contrast, the term “air charter” generally means that the entire plane is contracted to one person or group. Many air taxi services are oriented toward business travel to destinations that are inconvenient to reach via scheduled airline services. In Alaska, Hawaii and the outlying U.S. territories, air taxis provide services to remote and frontier communities that are not accessible by ground transportation, and also serve tourism markets. Pricing is generally determined by negotiation. Occasionally operators develop city pairs with enough demand to operate fixed-price, quasi-scheduled service. Challenges • Historically the economics of air taxi services have been challenging in most markets: although the per- passenger costs are high, due to limited traffic many operators struggle to earn an acceptable return on investment.

Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap A-54 Solutions • Recent research focuses on aircraft automation as a possible means of transforming air taxis into a profitable mass-market service. General Aviation General aviation (GA) includes all civil aviation operations other than scheduled air services. GA thus includes a wide range of activities such as personal flights by aviation enthusiasts, flight school training sessions, business/corporate travel, aerial surveying, medical flights, aerial pesticide application, and sightseeing. Some of these uses are clearly recreational in nature, while others serve an economic purpose. The level of use for individual general aviation airports can fluctuate considerably over time. For example, GA flight counts can be affected by fuel costs, the overall condition of the local economy, and the marketing success of local flight schools and flying clubs. ACRP Report 77 (Aviation Management Consulting Group Inc., Kramer Aerotek Inc. et al. 2012) provides guidance on the process of developing a business plan for a general aviation airport, and ACRP Report 113 (Sander, Chapman et al. 2014) provides information about the physical planning of general aviation facilities. Challenges • Public investments in general aviation facilities can be controversial in rural communities. For example, there is a long-running disagreement about proposed airport improvements in Mahaska County, Iowa. Supporters argue that the project will support the community’s economic development efforts by helping attract and retain businesses. Opponents argue that the project disproportionately benefits a handful of company executives, who could easily make use of a neighboring GA airport or use commercial flights at a primary service airport located about an hour’s drive away. Solutions • Additional guidance could be developed to help local aviation planners and administrators objectively assess the feasibility of general aviation investments. This could include information on how to establish a realistic range of potential investment outcomes, identify factors that influence the success/failure of local GA investments, and determine whether a project’s life-cycle costs are proportionate to its benefits. Rural Aviation, Tourism, and Economic Development Although economic development is often cited as a primary factor in local decisions to invest in rural airports, it is often difficult to separate the economic effects of rural airports from other aspects of the rural economy. Some local airports clearly play a role in supporting tourism or business expansion, while others mainly provide services for aviation enthusiasts. A 2005 study compared the 1980-2000 population, income, and employment trends in 90 rural Nebraska counties with their proximity to a major airport and the size and type of local airport (if any) available in the community (Blair, Diechert et al. 2005). The results indicated that being located relatively close to a major airport was more important to county economic development outcomes than having an airport, even of larger size, within the county. The findings suggest that many counties would benefit by relying mainly on nearby major airports and limiting local airport investment to a level sufficient for basic services such as emergency medical transportation and agricultural spray planes. A possible corollary is that rural communities located far from a major airport might achieve the greatest benefit by pooling their resources to develop a market large enough to support scheduled passenger service.

Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap A-55 Challenges • Many local airport investments are intended to support a combination of business and recreational users. Although fees charged to recreational users often help the airport authority recover part of the cost of developing the facility, it is difficult to quantify the overall benefit of recreational aviation. • Since a wide range of factors can affect economic success at the local level, relationships between rural airport investments and local economic development outcomes are difficult to analyze. Solutions • Small rural airports are one of several public investments that provide a mixture of economic development and recreational benefits. For example, rural biking and walking trails serve a recreational and public health function in addition to possible utilitarian functions. Mode-neutral guidance could be developed to assist local decision makers in objectively analyzing the costs and benefits of all types of facilities with these characteristics. • Where it is anticipated that an airport can serve as a driver of economic activity, the airport can be tightly integrated into the area’s economic development and land use plans. Available Research The Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) reports are one of the main repositories of objective research on aviation topics. Much of the remaining aviation-related research reflects the perspectives of interest groups seeking to either increase or curtail public investment in aviation. Potential Research Needs • To augment the existing ACRP handbooks, a guide for objectively evaluating general aviation investments could be developed. In addition to providing information about investment analysis techniques, the guidebook could compile the results of previous GA investments to provide basis for predicting the probability that a proposed investment will achieve its intended outcomes. Given the mixed record of rural aviation in promoting tourism and economic development at the local level, such a guide would very likely need to incorporate risk analysis techniques such as Monte Carlo simulation to allow practitioners to estimate the range of possible investment outcomes and determine the most- likely outcome. • Forty years after its launch, the FAA Essential Air Service program remains one of the most controversial federal transportation programs. To allow the program to become more sustainable, a mode-neutral methodology could be developed for assessing the most effective means of connecting rural communities to hub airports. The methodology would likely need to take into consideration the distance to hub airports, the catchment areas for rural service points, travel times to the hub via various modes (air, shuttle bus, rail, etc.), expected passenger volumes, and similar factors.

Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap A-56 T H E M E # 1 1 : C O N N E C T E D A N D A U T O M A T E D V E H I C L E S A N D E M E R G I N G T E C H N O L O G I E S Community Type and Mode The community types and modes that pertain to this theme are shown in the tables below. Community Type Mode  Beyond the “Lower 48” o (AK, HI, PR, VI, GU, AS, MP)  Aviation  Bicycle  Exurban Community  Bus  Frontier/Remote Community  Maritime  Resource-based Community  Pedestrian  Tourism-based Community  Rail  Tribal Lands and Alaska Native Communities  Roadway Theme Description For many years, driverless cars and connected vehicles were viewed as concepts for the distant future, but this emerging trend is fast picking up pace. Both automated vehicles (AV) (driverless) and connected vehicles (CV) (improved vehicle safety and efficiency regardless of operator) are currently being researched and deployed in parallel, so these technologies may be widespread in urban and suburban areas in the near future. While rural areas will see benefit from AV/CV deployments (safety, mobility, efficiencies), the unique challenges in rural areas may be a barrier to their deployments. Technology Infrastructure in Rural Areas There are significantly fewer intelligent transportation system (ITS) technology deployments in rural areas than in urban areas. Along with fewer ITS systems in place, rural areas also have limited power and communications systems to support the needs of automated and connected technologies and limited staff with the appropriate training for installing and maintaining the technology and supporting systems. This limited foundation for advanced technologies will slow the spread of AV/CV systems to rural areas. Challenges • Rural areas lack backhaul communications to support advanced technology deployment. • It is difficult to justify deployment of CV and AV technologies in areas with limited funding and lack of skilled workers (Eddy, Davidson et al. 2017). • Terrain and extreme weather in rural areas pose additional technology challenges. • Cellular signals in rural areas are generally lacking and therefore cannot be used as a back-up for communications. • Urban residents traveling to rural areas for tourism (including Tribal and Federal Lands) will expect AV/CV technologies (e.g., mapping technology) to work. This could become a safety issue when the technology they have come to rely on no longer works upon arrival to a rural area.

Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap A-57 Solutions • Create Fiber Public-Private Partnerships and Smart Mobility Plans (similar to Colorado DOT) for AV/CV deployment prioritizations. Road Infrastructure Considerations Roads in rural areas have longer travel distance, rugged terrain, and alternate surface types. They may also lack pavement markings and cross multiple jurisdictions. These characteristics create challenges for implementing AV/CV use in rural areas. However, in some cases, like the rural areas in the central part of the country, relatively flat, unobstructed roadways could potentially make it easier to implement AV/CV technologies as compared with a very complex urban environment. Challenges • Unpaved roads will be difficult for AV/CV technologies. • Many rural roads lack edgelines and/or centerlines, which AV/CV technologies use for positioning and roadway departure warnings. • Rural areas often have an existing backlog of maintenance, and lack funding, resources, and personnel for new deployments. • Implementing AV/CV technologies in Tribal and Federal Lands may face additional barriers. The design guidance for road infrastructure in these areas is different to accommodate the balance of cultural/historical/environmental resource preservation, visitor experience, and accessibility/safety. Solutions • Identify additional options for AV/CV technologies that will accommodate rural terrain and infrastructure conditions. • Provide additional funding for pilot deployments (e.g., Wyoming Connected Vehicle Pilot Deployment) in rural areas. AV/CV Effects on Vehicle Ownership, Freight, Transit, and Shared Mobility In rural areas, it generally takes much longer for individual users and transportation agencies to upgrade to new vehicles and deploy new technologies. This may have a large impact on how long it will take rural areas to be fully connected to AV/CV systems. Long-haul freight makes up a large portion of vehicle traffic in rural areas. Connected and automated vehicle technologies can benefit freight operations, via ideas such as smart truck parking and platooning. AV/CV technologies can create safer and more efficient transit systems. AV/CV technologies can enhance transit services through partnership with a transportation network company (TNC) to provide first and last mile service to public transportation users (known as “mobility on-demand”) (Gettman, Lott et al. 2017). Challenges • There may be older vehicles (less turnover) without technology (and unable to connect to other vehicles/infrastructure) for significantly longer time periods than in an urban area. • Repairing modern safety technology on a car can be cost prohibitive in the case of not only a malfunction, but also a car crash. In addition, rural areas may not have the personnel with the correct skillset to take on these repairs.

Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap A-58 • Existing laws and regulations for transit will need to be updated to accommodate AV/CV technologies (Gettman, Lott et al. 2017). For example, ADA mandated laws will be difficult to adhere to with use of AV/CV technologies (Gettman, Lott et al. 2017) • AV/CV technologies for transit will need to be adjusted, because the response time of a transit vehicle is different than that for a private vehicle (Gettman, Lott et al. 2017) Solutions • AV/CV technologies can address rural freight movement challenges by improving communication, increasing coordination, and optimizing supply chain and logistics management (Gettman, Lott et al. 2017). • AV/CV technologies for freight can improve safety systems needed in rural areas, including blind spot warning, weather related alerts, and oversize vehicle restriction information. • AV/CV technologies and TNC can solve the first/last mile challenge for many transit agencies. Available Research Much of the research for connected and automated vehicles has centered on urban and suburban areas. However, a Rural Connected Vehicle Gap Analysis was completed in 2017 and several pilot deployments have also been conducted in rural areas, including a rural freight corridor in Wyoming as part of the USDOT Connected Vehicle Deployment Pilot (Eddy et. al. 2017). With the large number of rural technology challenges, and the small amount of rural AV/CV research, more is needed. Anticipated research project NCHRP 08-120: Initiating the Systems Engineering Process for Rural Connected Vehicle Corridors will assist in answering more of the rural questions (although it is focused on rural freeways). Recently, NCHRP 20-24 was completed creating a CV/AV Research Roadmap, which documented more than 100 research questions (Shladover and Gettman 2015). While none of these problem statements was specific to only rural areas, most of the statements included rural in the description. Potential Research Needs • Identify the types of workforce development (training, education, certifications, and recruitment) that will be needed in rural areas to support emerging AV/CV technologies. • Identify additional options for AV/CV technologies that will accommodate rural terrain and infrastructure conditions (unpaved roads, lack of center/edgelines). • Study the impact that AV/CV will have on Tribal and Federal Lands. Identify the barriers and benefits and create recommendations for how to begin planning. • Work with the ITS JPO’s Response, Emergency Staging and Communications, Uniform Management and Evacuation (R.E.S.C.U.M.E.) to identify and pilot technologies that can be used by rural emergency responders to decrease the response time (“golden hour”). • Create a marketing and outreach strategy for rural connected and automated vehicles. These strategies should educate rural users on the need for and benefit of AV/CV technologies and educate urban users about the difference when driving in a rural vs urban area.

Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap A-59 T H E M E # 1 2 : T O U R I S M A N D T H E N A T U R A L E N V I R O N M E N T Community Type and Mode The community types and modes that pertain to this theme are shown in the tables below. Community Type Mode  Beyond the “Lower 48” o (AK, HI, PR, VI, GU, AS, MP)  Aviation  Bicycle  Exurban Community  Bus  Frontier/Remote Community  Maritime  Resource-based Community  Pedestrian  Tourism-based Community  Rail  Tribal Lands and Alaska Native Communities  Roadway Theme Description The U.S. Travel Association, an industry trade group, estimates that from 2008-17 spending by domestic and inbound international travelers in the U.S. averaged $897 billion per year (U.S. Travel Association 2018). For 2017, about 30% was for business travel and the remainder for leisure. The U.S. Travel Association also asserts that in 2017 the travel industry directly employed 8.8 million people, which is 6% of the U.S. non-farm employment reported by the Bureau of Labor Statistics ( U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics 2018). No information about the urban/rural split was found, and such a number would be difficult to determine since trips to rural destinations often pass-through urban areas and vice-versa. There are several types of rural tourism areas, such as ski areas, small beach towns, gateway communities, resort/themed areas (e.g., Branson, MO; Wisconsin Dells, WI; Pigeon Forge, TN), and natural recreation areas such as public lands (e.g., National Park Service, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Refuges, U.S. Forest Service Lands, Bureau of Land Management Lands, state parks, etc.). Transportation has a critical role in the tourism value chain (Figure 5). Individual destinations differ considerably in terms of their predominant trip purposes and durations. This results in considerable variation in travel modes, trip generation, and traveler spending patterns. For example, an exurban community noted for its antique shops might primarily generate day trips from the adjoining urban area, while a wilderness kayaking site might generate long-distance, multi-night stays.

Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap A-60 Figure 5: Transportation has a critical role in the tourism value chain (UNWTO 2013). While tourism is often viewed as an economic engine, it has a number of negative aspects (UNWTO 2013):

Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap A-61 • Tourism is a significant and growing contributor to climate change, currently accounting for around 5% of global CO2 emissions, mainly generated by transportation but also by the operation of tourism facilities such as lodging and restaurants. • Local pollution of land and water from poor treatment of solid and liquid waste by tourism businesses and from the activities of tourists can be a problem in some areas. • Accommodation businesses are often major users of non-renewable and precious resources, such as land, energy and water. In some areas a resort may consume many times more water per person than the local community with which it competes for supply. • Poorly sited tourism development and inappropriate activities can be very damaging to biodiversity in sensitive areas. Negative impacts to cultural heritage sites can occur where there is poor visitor management. • Tourism can have negative impacts on local society, through restricting access to land and resources and leading to an increase in crime, sexual exploitation, and threats to social and cultural traditions and values. • While tourism is well placed to generate jobs, in many cases a high proportion of the jobs are seasonal. Poor working conditions, irregular hours, low wages, and low job security are sometimes found in the sector. • The economic performance of the sector is susceptible to influences such as economic conditions, natural disasters, and security concerns. Managing these externalities is a critical issue for public agencies and the private sector. Context Sensitive Solutions A context sensitive solutions (CSS) approach to planning and design takes into account the land types that the transportation facility passes through. CSS is a collaborative, multidisciplinary approach that provides a balance for resource preservation, enhances the community, and is safe for all users. Challenges • Many public land transportation facilities are already designed and implemented and are constrained by the surrounding topography. • Many times, representatives of public lands are not brought to the table as stakeholders. • The key goal or mission of tourism destinations and natural environment areas is either as an economic generator or to preserve resources. Transportation is an integrated piece within these goals/missions; however, these agencies typically do not have a lot (or any) transportation staff. Solutions • Providing multi-modal access can help agencies balance expanded visitation with their resource protection mission. • Alternative fuels and electric transit vehicles can assist natural environments in achieving CSS goals • The Public Lands Transportation Fellow Program places a transportation fellow (expert) at a public land for 11 months of dedicated transportation planning and assistance. First Mile/Last Mile One of the most challenging barriers to improving public transportation access in tourism and natural environments is providing service for the first mile/last mile. Many times, the attraction’s visitation is not

Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap A-62 high enough to accommodate a public transportation stop/hub at the entrance, or the visitation is too high, and the parking lot fills, requiring a park and ride. Challenges • Many destinations need solutions to close the first/last mile gap so visitors (especially the underserved) can arrive at a tourism/natural environment area via public transportation. Solutions • Transportation Network Companies (TNCs) (e.g., Uber and Lyft) are beginning to provide this service. Select refuges at the USFWS are piloting the use of discounted TNCs to fill this gap. • Automated Vehicles (AV)/Connected Vehicles (CV) are expected to help close the first/last mile gap. • Public land agencies and tourism destinations are partnering with community organizations and businesses to provide transportation access. • Pilot projects are an effective way to learn how a system may work in a tourism area without having significant buy-in up front. • Initiatives such as the CAR-LESS CA project and the USFWS Urban Wildlife Refuge program are working to provide last mile access to underrepresented groups to increase their visitation to the natural environment. These initiatives may provide new models for other areas. Discrete Congestion Rural areas also encounter congestion; however, it is generally non-recurring (work zone, incident, weather event). Tourism and natural environment areas also have seasonal congestion primarily during peak vacation seasons for Americans, such as during the summer and other holidays (e.g., President’s Day weekend, Labor Day weekend, Memorial Day weekend) or on weekends when commuter congestion is nonexistent. Unique natural events also cause non-recurring congestion such as the 2017 eclipse. Challenges • Agencies need solutions to accommodate the seasonal congestion demands of a tourism area or natural environment when transportation facilities are designed for daily traffic of commuters or when facilities are limited by the constraints of the terrain. • Severe weather events can cause major discrete congestion and have destructive impacts on the infrastructure (e.g., parking lot washing away at Chincoteague NWR due to erosion and storms). • Public transit systems that can assist with congestion challenges require funding, operators, and knowledgeable staff for maintenance. Lack of funding and resources make this challenging especially with the discontinuation of programs like the Paul S. Sarbanes Transit in Parks Program, which funded alternative transportation system pilot deployments. • Capacity challenges include providing return public transportation service for all visitors leaving an area on the final bus of the day or in the event of severe weather. • Due to a lack of alternative routes in rural areas, congestion on corridors that access these tourism and natural environment areas can have a significant impact on emergency response time. • Congestion in tourism and natural environment areas can also have secondary safety and mobility impacts (e.g., backups on a mountain for a congested ski area can leave vehicles vulnerable to an avalanche in the area). • Agencies must address safety concerns for non-motorized users in recreational areas, such as pedestrians and cyclists (e.g., when a main road becomes a main street/visitor center entrance, during “bear jams” and trailhead congestion, etc.).

Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap A-63 Solutions • Utilizing congestion management system techniques such as park and ride lots, reservation systems, and traveler information via Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS). • Conducting research on climate change and the impacts to the natural environment (e.g., Hurricane Sandy). • Expanding deployment of data collection systems (e.g., USFWS mobile application for sign asset management) • Preparing Long Range Transportation Plans and using data collection systems to facilitate planning efforts. Balance Improving transportation to tourist destinations and natural environment areas requires a delicate balance of the three-legged stool of resource protection, accessibility, and visitor experience. For example, public land agencies strive to make the lands accessible without creating overcrowding issues that degrade the experience. Agencies must also balance the safety for all users (private automobile, public transit, and nonmotorized), who often share facilities in these locations. Challenges • Public transportation services that drop visitors at a trailhead can inadvertently cause carrying capacity issues (i.e., visitor congestion) on trails and degrade the visitor experience. These services also face capacity issues during severe weather events when return service for all visitors is needed quickly. • Congestion and visitors who park on roadway edges cause impacts to natural resources. • Agencies need solutions that support the competing demands of natural areas: access and preservation. Solutions • Implement park and ride systems or reservation systems to address parking and capacity issues during peak periods. when parking lots fill or reservation systems. • Expand access to tour guides or resource information on public transportation. • Provide visitors with opportunities for alternative modes including bike share systems and bike rentals. Economic Development Opportunities According to the U.S. Travel Association, 2.7% of the gross domestic product (GDP) is attributed to travel and tourism, with rural sightseeing ranking in the top 5 leisure travel activities (U.S. Travel Association 2018). While tourist areas greatly benefit from the economic stimulation of increased tourism, these small communities face the double edge sword of how to accommodate this increase without the appropriate infrastructure in place. Increasing the availability of alternative transportation systems to access these areas provides economic benefits (new businesses, employment opportunities, increased revenues) both within a public land and to the surrounding gateway communities. Challenges • Climate change is affecting the economic impacts of winter recreation such as skiing (Burakowski and Hill 2018)

Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap A-64 • Public agencies and gateway communities often lack funding, resources, and infrastructure to accommodate the seasonal demand. • Will the lack of technology in many rural areas have an impact on tourism (i.e., economic impact) as connected vehicles and automated vehicles become more common place? Solutions • Expand rural tourism economic impact studies to compare and contrast the different types of rural tourism destinations (e.g., ski areas vs National Parks vs theme/resort areas). Environmental Regulatory Issues and Impacts Most rural tourism occurs in areas where resource protection is the main goal of the public agencies that manage them. This adds additional requirements for infrastructure development (e.g., historical regulations, NEPA regulations, endangered species, etc.), as well as managing, visitor access and use (e.g., permits for backpacking/hiking, areas closed to vehicles/humans, etc.). Challenges • Allowing visitors to access tourism and recreation areas can have adverse impacts on the resources that are being protected. Examples include air quality, noise, and vehicle emissions (e.g., level of noise cause by helicopter tours in Grand Canyon NP). • Agencies need to close some tourist hot spots seasonally for wildlife or resource protection reasons (e.g., closing a beach for piping plover during nesting season) • Agencies must plan for the transportation needs of extracting people during an emergency (e.g., helicopter extraction for hikers in Rainier NP). • NEPA process causes significant delays to implementing systems that address critical needs. Solutions • Mitigation strategies for air, noise, and vehicle pollution. Tourism Data A characteristic of the tourism sector is the wide range of factors that influence tourists’ decisions to travel and their choice of destination, coupled with the range of options available to them (UNWTO 2013). Tourist areas face completion not only from each other but also from other forms of discretionary leisure and recreation spending. This means that an individual destination can be very susceptible to demand fluctuations caused by external factors such as fuel prices; foreign currency exchange rates; and health, crime, and security issues. Robust tourism data is a fundamental requirement for all aspects of tourism planning (UNWTO 2013). In order to respond appropriately to changes in travel demand it is essential to track the growth or decline in visitor arrivals, expenditures, and the main purposes that visitors have for visiting the area. Visitor surveys help provide information about trip length and performance with respect to different source markets. Supply-side information such as the total number of hotel rooms in the area is also desirable. Such data helps public agencies and private businesses identify opportunities to balance capacity with demand, for example by adding services and raising prices to prevent overcrowding when demand is excessive or lowering prices to attract visitors and fill unsold space when demand is soft. Information about daily and hourly traffic flows—rather than just annual average rates—can be particularly useful in understanding seasonal and time-of-day variations in traffic flows for tourism areas.

Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap A-65 Although most data collection efforts have traditionally focused on motor vehicle traffic, there is often a need for hard information on use by bicycles and pedestrians, along with passenger counts for the area’s aviation, intercity bus, maritime, transit, and rail services. Challenges • Transportation data in many tourism areas is still scarce, which limits the ability of agencies to make informed decisions regarding investment in transportation improvements. • Land management agencies and resort operators are often unaware of relevant traffic data collected by transportation agencies. Solutions • Installation of continuous traffic counting devices can assist transportation agencies and other stakeholders in monitoring the number of vehicles, bicycles, and pedestrians in and around tourism areas. • Electronic data portals can be developed to facilitate data sharing between public agencies and other stakeholders such as resort operators. Available Research Much of the research dedicated to tourism and natural environments in rural areas addresses best practices, pilot studies, or planning documents. Many of the techniques known to solve challenges in these areas have not had widespread deployment (i.e., proven countermeasures) across the many agencies and regions where tourism and natural environments are located (some are further along than others for example NPS vs BLM). While there is a need to continue the push for deployment of known techniques in this area, there is also a need for overarching, innovative research that can identify the future for these areas. Potential Research Needs • How will CV/AV affect tourism and natural environment areas? What barriers will be faced, what will be the benefits, how can the agencies that manage these lands begin preparing for the advent of these technologies (deployment, education, hiring)? What will be the differences and similarities between these areas, urban/suburban, and rural deployments? • Investigate the potential impacts that the lack of technology in rural areas will have on tourism (i.e., economic impact) as connected vehicles and automated vehicles become more common place. • Expand rural tourism economic impact studies to compare and contrast the different types of rural tourism destinations (e.g., ski areas vs National Parks vs theme/resort areas). • A synthesis project detailing best practices, lessons learned, and case studies for traffic management within the different types of rural tourism areas (e.g., ski areas vs National Parks vs theme/resort areas). • Additional research on the generational preferences for alternative transportation systems in tourist areas (e.g., drilling down to determine if provisions like point-to-point shuttle services might attract different generations).

Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap A-66 T H E M E # 1 3 : R O A D W A Y I N F R A S T R U C T U R E A N D B A L A N C I N G C A P A C I T Y W I T H D E M A N D Community Type and Mode The community types and modes that pertain to this theme are shown in the tables below. Community Type Mode  Beyond the “Lower 48” o (AK, HI, PR, VI, GU, AS, MP)  Aviation  Bicycle  Exurban Community  Bus  Frontier/Remote Community  Maritime  Resource-based Community  Pedestrian  Tourism-based Community  Rail  Tribal Lands and Alaska Native Communities  Roadway Theme Description Economic and population growth in the United States is uneven, with many rural areas losing jobs and population, while most cities, suburbs, and exurban areas have been experiencing growth. As a result, some rural communities find themselves with more infrastructure than they can afford to maintain, while not-so- distant neighbors struggle to keep up with increasing traffic and rising citizen expectations for airports, transit, bikeways, and pedestrian facilities. Several parts of the rural U.S. have recently experienced sudden surges in roadway demand resulting from natural resource utilization projects. The intensification of agriculture has resulted in increasingly large and heavy ag vehicles, sometimes exceeding the design parameters of rural roads and bridges. Meanwhile, decision makers at all levels of government struggle to determine which rural roadway projects will succeed in stimulating long-term growth in rural economies, and which will simply redistribute traffic or undermine the viability of existing businesses. Effectiveness of Rural Highway Investments in Stimulating Economic Development Although economic development is often cited as a primary factor in decisions to invest in rural highway improvements, it is often difficult to separate the economic effects of highway projects from other aspects of the rural economy. Lack of clarity about the macroeconomic effects of highway investments affects decisions at the state, county, and local levels. For example, in the 1990s and 2000s several Midwestern states invested heavily in building new four-lane divided highways parallel to existing two-lane highway corridors. Often, the stated intent of these projects was to “open up” rural and remote areas to economic growth. While the projects resulted in jobs during construction, in many cases long-term employment growth has been slow in the adjacent communities. Some industrial businesses appear to have benefited from reduced travel times and more efficient truck access, but in several cases small-town retailers appear to have been negatively impacted by reductions in travel times to reach competing suburban stores. Additionally, the old highway was often devolved to county or local jurisdiction, resulting in additional costs to local taxpayers.

Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap A-67 Challenges • Since many factors affect economic success at the local level, relationships between rural highway investments and local economic outcomes are difficult to analyze. For example, while a rural highway upgrade can reduce travel time, the monetary value of travel time savings is often small in comparison to the economic effects of fluctuating commodity and fuel prices. • It is often difficult for decision makers to determine which transportation investments are likely to have the greatest value to the local economy. Solutions • Mode-neutral guidance could be developed to assist local decision makers in objectively analyzing the costs and benefits of all types of transportation facilities. Sustaining Rural Infrastructure When Economic Activity Declines According to the U.S. Census Bureau, from 2010-17 the total population of the United States grew by 5.5%, but this growth is far from uniform (U.S. Census Bureau 2018). Some rural states experienced strong population growth including North Dakota (+12.3%) and Utah (+12.2%), while others experienced losses including Vermont (-0.3%) and West Virginia (-2.0%). Population losses in the outlying U.S. territories were heavy: -2.4% in American Samoa, -3.3% in the U.S. Virgin Islands, and -10.4% in Puerto Rico. Among individual counties the differences were even more pronounced. For example, the state of Minnesota experienced an overall population gain of 5.1%, but this ranged from +12.3% in suburban Scott County to -7.9% in rural Lac qui Parle County. One of the hardest-hit counties in the country was McDowell County, West Virginia, -16.5% (U.S. Census Bureau 2018). Overall, these trends reflect population loss in rural communities, accompanied by growth in cities and suburbs. Challenges • Transportation infrastructure originally built to support a larger population does not go away when communities experience population loss. Often the infrastructure is in degraded condition, with a shrinking tax base to fund its upkeep. • In some cases, communities have sacrificed existing roadway safety features such as pavement markings to meet budgetary constraints. Solutions • The visual appearance of community infrastructure can contribute to a vicious cycle of business and residential disinvestment. The use of low-cost surfacing materials such as chip seal and Otta seal sometimes makes it possible to improve the appearance of roadway infrastructure without the cost of a full repaving. Some communities put unemployed youth to work as painters to freshen the appearance of signal posts and other roadside hardware. These treatments potentially help convey the message that a community is resolute in spite of its economic problems. • Occasionally there are opportunities to rationalize a community’s infrastructure, for example by reducing the number of lanes on overbuilt roadways, converting signalized intersections to stop control, removing minor roadways, or reverting paved roads to gravel. Occasionally, disused roads can be “mothballed” by closing them off with barriers or shrubbery to limit maintenance costs until conditions improve. A more aggressive strategy is the planned abandonment of portions of the community’s infrastructure by buying out properties when the cost of providing public services exceeds the value of the property.

Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap A-68 Rural and Exurban Development Impacts on Roadways Growing exurban communities often face the onset of suburban-style development and the accompanying traffic congestion, along with rising expectations for transit service, pedestrian accommodations, and bikeways. In these situations, rising traffic usually reflects increasing economic activity, accompanied by growth in revenue sources to fund improvements. Another familiar development pattern in rural areas is the construction of big-box retail stores on the periphery of established communities. In contrast to older downtowns, these establishments often lack walkability both in location and in physical design. They often generate significant traffic volumes and are frequently inefficient to serve through public transit. Studies indicate that many of these establishments draw business away from incumbent small retailers, potentially leading to an increase in transportation infrastructure and maintenance costs without a proportionate increase in tax revenue. Challenges • It is often difficult to forecast growth in rural communities accurately. Optimism biases in traffic forecasts can lead to overbuilding of roadway infrastructure. • The revenue recovered from new developments does not always cover the full cost of providing the transportation infrastructure and services required to support them. • In many cases the transportation impacts of new development spill across jurisdictional boundaries. This can make it difficult to assure that the costs of providing transportation infrastructure are distributed in proportion to the tax revenue the development generates. Solutions • Various land use, regulatory, taxation, and regional governance strategies have been used or proposed to manage the rate and location of growth. Related efforts focus on promoting redevelopment and infill development in areas with ample transportation infrastructure. Nevertheless, such measures can be controversial, particularly among citizens who do not acknowledge the imperfect nature of rural real estate markets. Energy Projects and Rural Roadways Energy projects such as petroleum and natural gas extraction and the construction of wind farms can result in substantial short-term increases in traffic volume and axle loading on rural roadways and bridges. Typically, much of the additional volume diminishes after construction is complete. Challenges • It can be difficult for rural communities to anticipate the locations where these projects will occur and recover the cost of necessary road improvements or repairs. Solutions • As part of the permitting process for energy projects, some states have implemented road upgrade fees or required escrow of funds to repair damage caused by energy project construction.

Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap A-69 Agricultural Vehicle Impacts on Rural Roadways & Bridges Modern agriculture is based around the use of large vehicles such as tractors, crop sprayers, and combine harvesters. Many states exempt these vehicles from the size restrictions that apply to other motorized traffic. Additionally, a number of states periodically declare “emergencies” that temporarily override truck weight limits for agricultural products transported during the fall harvest season. The growth of intensive animal farming (also called industrial livestock production or factory farms) has resulted in the need for specialized vehicles to haul animal sewage. These vehicles have size and weight characteristics that differ from the load distributions for highway vehicles. Challenges • Agricultural vehicles, especially combines, are often so wide that they interfere with traffic flow on rural highways. • The axle loading characteristics of animal waste handling vehicles often differ substantially from those of typical road/bridge design vehicles. In some cases, pavements and bridges must be strengthened to accommodate these loads. • Overweight trucks authorized by “harvest emergencies” can damage roads and bridges. • Very little data is available to assist designers in determining the frequency of large agricultural vehicle loads on rural roads and bridges. Solutions • A methodology could be developed to predict the number and weight of large/heavy agricultural vehicles for engineering design purposes. • Additional engineering guidance could be developed to assist in analyzing the structural impacts of large/heavy agricultural vehicles. • The overall impact of large/heavy agricultural vehicles on the longevity of pavements and bridges could be analyzed to guide local, state, and national policy decisions. Animal-Drawn Vehicles Animal-drawn vehicles are often perceived as quaint or old-fashioned, yet their use on rural highways appears to be increasing in the United States. The use of horse-drawn vehicles is closely associated with members of two religious groups: the Amish and the Old Order Mennonites. The groups have settlements in at least 31 U.S. states and 3 Canadian provinces, with the highest concentration in the Midwestern U.S. (Young Center for Anabaptist and Pietist Studies 2018). Rejection of automobile ownership is one of the most visible and symbolic practices of the Amish community (Anderson 2014). As the Young Center for Anabaptist and Pietist Studies explains, “The Amish think that ownership of cars would encourage people to drive away from home more often and give youth easier access to cities. In short, they fear that the car would pull their community apart. The horse and buggy is also a symbol of their separation from the larger world” (Young Center for Anabaptist and Pietist Studies Circa 2017). In general, the vehicles operate mainly on paved and unpaved two-lane rural highways, which they share with high-speed motor vehicle traffic, motorized farm equipment, pedestrians, and sometimes bicycles (Hawkins, Kinzenbau et al. 2009). On rural high-speed roadways, crashes between motor vehicles and animal-drawn vehicles are often severe due to high-speed differentials. Although the available data is limited, research indicates that most crashes involve a motor vehicle rear-ending the animal-drawn vehicle (usually because the motorist misjudges closing speed). Angle crashes involving turning vehicles are the second-most common type of

Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap A-70 crash. An analysis of 76 crashes involving Amish Buggies in Pennsylvania asserted that contrary to popular belief, lack of buggy visibility was rarely a factor (Anderson 2014). Challenges • Many states lack reliable data about the prevalence of crashes involving animal-drawn vehicles. • Animal-drawn vehicles often lack safety features that have long been standard on motor vehicles and motorized agricultural equipment, such as brake lights, rear-view mirrors, and rollover protection systems. • Many transportation practitioners have limited understanding of the cultural perspectives of the Amish and Mennonite communities. • On many rural roadways, the complexity of identifying culturally appropriate design solutions is compounded by limited lateral road space. Solutions • Various geometric features can be developed to make it easier for animal-drawn and motorized traffic to share the road. • Traffic laws can be clarified to assure that left turns and similar interactions between animal-drawn and motorized traffic follow predictable patterns. • Animal-drawn vehicles could be redesigned to improve rearward visibility and reduce the risk of catastrophic structural failure in the event of a crash. Available Research Some research has been conducted to assess the macroeconomic effects of rural highway expansion projects, but there is limited information about the characteristics of successful and unsuccessful efforts. A few studies have explored the structural and traffic impacts of modern agricultural equipment. Very little research has been conducted on the characteristics of animal-drawn vehicle crashes and potential mitigation options. Potential Research Needs • Additional research could be conducted to better understand the positive and negative effects of roadway expansion on rural employment and economic output. Information on the characteristics of successful and unsuccessful economic development projects could be developed. • Guidance could be developed to assist communities that have experienced population losses with rationalizing their transportation infrastructure and managing infrastructure maintenance costs. • Additional research could be conducted on the impacts of large/heavy agricultural equipment on rural traffic safety, traffic flow, pavements, and bridges. • Guidance could be developed to assist rural roadway designers in forecasting the volume of heavy/wide agricultural loads for the purposes of pavement and bridge design. • Guidance could be developed to assist rural communities in modifying roadway geometric design to more safely accommodate mixed animal-drawn and motorized traffic.

Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap A-71 T H E M E # 1 4 : R U R A L T R A N S P O R T A T I O N S A F E T Y Community Type and Mode The community types and modes that pertain to this theme are shown in the tables below. Community Type Mode  Beyond the “Lower 48” o (AK, HI, PR, VI, GU, AS, MP)  Aviation  Bicycle  Exurban Community  Bus  Frontier/Remote Community  Maritime  Resource-based Community  Pedestrian  Tourism-based Community  Rail  Tribal Lands and Alaska Native Communities  Roadway Theme Description There are more than four million miles of roads in the U.S. and more than 70% of them are in rural areas. Rural road fatalities account for 48% of all road fatalities, when only 19% of Americans live in rural areas (NHTSA 2018a). This fatality rate has been referred to as an “epidemic on wheels” by the Center for Disease Control (Sullivan 2017). Several national initiatives have been created with the goal of improving safety and attaining zero fatalities, including Road to Zero, Vision Zero, and Towards Zero Deaths. In order to accomplish this, more attention will need to be focused on safety in rural areas, as captured by an emerging theme: “On the road to zero, we cannot ignore rural.” Geometric Design Rural areas have unique road features in comparison to their urban counterparts, including low volume roads, unpaved roadways, larger numbers of unsignalized intersections, roadway-rail grade crossings, and constraints of natural features and terrain. Therefore, the geometric design of a rural roadway takes this into account. Specific geometric design guidelines area provided by functional class of roadway. Challenges • Number of horizontal curves • Roadside design due to high roadway departure crash numbers • Direct correlation between geometric design, speed, and safety • Large number of roadway-rail grade crossings Solutions • Systemic safety practices • Speed management techniques • Roadside design countermeasures

Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap A-72 Crash Types and Countermeasures Common crash types in rural areas include animal-vehicle crashes, head-on crashes, crashes on horizontal curves, roadway departure crashes, and unsignalized intersections. Many proven countermeasures and guidance documents specific to rural areas exist to assist with these challenges. Challenges • Lack of funding, personnel, and resources to implement countermeasures • Lack of data to identify frequency and location of crashes Solutions • EDC-5 Rural Roadway Departure Innovation to highlight proven countermeasures • Systemic Safety Practices • FHWA/NHTSA Proven Safety Countermeasures • Local Road Safety Plans • NCHRP Report 500 Series Safety Culture In order to reach zero road fatalities, the safety culture in rural areas needs to change. Safety Culture is defined as “the values and beliefs shared among groups of road users and stakeholders that influence their decisions to behave and act in ways that affect road safety” (Center for Health and Safety Culture 2018). The change in safety culture will need to be among all road users (the public), and also within transportation agencies (called Organizational Safety Culture). This includes identifying safety champions from the top- down and making sure that safety is at the forefront of all transportation decisions made (planning, design, public awareness, etc.). Challenges • Safety culture is a relatively new concept; bot the public and many agencies need education on what safety culture is and how to apply it. Solutions • Transportation agencies model safety culture behaviors by creating internal policies (e.g., seatbelt and texting policies for agency vehicles). • Agencies can incorporate safety culture training into their workforce development programs • ITE’s Safety Certificate Program, NLTAPA’s road scholar program, and the upcoming NACE/Safety Center Local Road Safety Scholar Certificate provide opportunities to incorporate traffic safety culture components. Speed Management Speeding is not just driving over the posted speed limit, but also driving too fast for conditions (e.g., rain). Speeding-related crashes account for 27% of rural road fatalities; these fatal crashes occurred on roads where speed limit was 55 mph or higher (70%), at night (50%), and over weekend (46%) (NHTSA 2018a).

Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap A-73 Challenges • Law enforcement officers have too much area to realistically and effectively patrol • Culture in rural areas perceives speeding as acceptable. • Some residents have the perception that automated enforcement (e.g., red light cameras) technologies are invasive (“big brother”) • Weather conditions (e.g., snow, fog, etc.) have adverse effects on speed. • When a rural highway becomes a main street, drivers fail to reduce their speed. This is especially dangerous for nonmotorized users. Solutions • Comprehensive speed management program for rural areas • Variable speed limits to account for weather conditions • Public awareness campaigns • Roadway design challenges (e.g., road diets) Behavioral Interventions Many safety challenges in rural areas are due to road user behavior. This can include distracted driving, impaired driving, seat belt use, fatigue, road rage, and aggressive driving. Challenges • Difficult to design countermeasures for driver behavior • Difficult to change human perceptions and opinions Solutions • Change in safety culture policies • Public awareness campaigns • Enforcement • Automated vehicles/Connected vehicles • Roadway departure design solutions (e.g., rumble strips) • Ridesharing services Teen Drivers Historically, teen drivers have accounted for a high percentage of licensed drivers. Recently, however, more and more teen drivers are opting to not get a driver’s license. Nonetheless, crashes are the leading cause of teen deaths and 32% of teen driver fatalities included speed as a factor (NHTSA 2018b). Challenges • Teen inexperience and risk-taking nature (e.g., speeding) • Distracted driving (talking, texting, passengers) • Speeding • Seat belt use is lowest among teen drivers (NHTSA 2018b)

Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap A-74 Solutions • Graduated driver’s license programs • Public awareness campaigns Older Drivers In 2016, almost one in five drivers was 65 years and older with this age group continuing to grow (U.S. Department of Transportation 2017d). While driving assists older drivers with staying independent and the ability to age in place, the risk of death or injury from a crash increase with age. Challenges • Designing infrastructure for the older driver • Policies on relicensing for older drivers • Transportation needs for healthcare and aging in place • Declines in vision, physical abilities, and cognitive functions all have an effect on the driving ability of older drivers. Solutions • Public transit and ridesharing services • Using information from the Clearinghouse for Older Road User Safety and the Older Driver Design Handbook to account for this growing number of users • Older drivers self-regulate their driving (e.g., familiar routes, daylight, low volumes, etc.) Tribal Transportation Safety The fatality and injury rates for Native Americans and Alaska Natives are higher than those for the nation as a whole. To improve safety on tribal lands, the diversity of these lands must be considered. For example, tribal characteristics can vary considerably with regard to rural vs. remote (many tribes are very isolated, especially those in Alaska, South Dakota, Montana and North Dakota), cold vs. warm climate, energy producing region vs. non-energy impacted region, size of tribe, road characteristics (paved vs. gravel), staff resources (one vs. a team), budget resources, etc. It is also important to incorporate culturally informed and sensitive approaches. Challenges • Occupant protection and impaired driving • High occurrence of animal-vehicle crashes • Off-road transportation • Lack of data or low-quality data • Lack of workforce training specific to transportation • Pedestrian safety • Roadway departure crashes Solutions • New Tribal Transportation Strategic Plan outlining the needs, emphasis areas, and strategies for implementing solutions in tribal areas

Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap A-75 • Tribal Technical Assistance Program launching new classroom and online training • Transportation Safety Plans • Improving data collection efforts • Road safety audits Additional Safety Subtopics Additional safety subtopics that are of equal importance and will be further explored include: • Motorcycles • ATVs • Child Passenger Safety • Human Factors • Enforcement Laws and Policies • Cross Jurisdictional Planning • Retro-reflectivity and Nighttime Visibility • Safety Performance Measures and Monitoring • Systemic Safety • Safety Data/Crash Records • Incident Management • Animal Vehicle Countermeasures Available Research With the rate of fatalities higher on rural roads, safety is a topic that has been greatly studied. However, as noted above there are a lot of subtopics for safety and not all of these topics have been researched in depth. There is also a need to continue rural safety research until the fatality rate begins to decrease. Potential Research Needs • Evaluate the effectiveness and create updated amendments for the NCHRP 500 Report Series which were created between 2003 and 2009. • Evaluate the effects of the new trend for teen drivers to wait until later in life to get their license. Does this have an effect of safety? • Investigate opportunities to provide a partnership between driver’s education students driving for practice and the needs of non-driving elderly who are aging in place. Can students serve as volunteers to deliver meals or medicine while earning their driving time? • Create performance measures directly related to rural areas rather than using urban performance measures in rural areas.

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Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap A-78 Mallakpour, I. and G. Villarini. 2015. "The Changing Nature of Flooding Across the Central United States." Nature Climate Change 5: 250-254. Martinez, A. 2018. "8 Killed in Bus Crash Involving Semi on I-40 Near Thoreau." Retrieved 25-Sept-2018, from https://www.krqe.com/news/new-mexico/crash-closes-i-40-westbound-east-of-grants/1407268598. Meyer, M.R.U., Moore et al. 2016. "Rural Active Living: A Call to Action." Journal of Public Health Management and Practice: JPHMP 22(5): E11. Moreno-Long, A. 2017. "Riding the Trail to Revitalization: Rural and Small Town Trail-Oriented Development." Retrieved 16-Sept-2018, from https://www.rural-design.org/blog/riding-trail-revitalization-rural-and-small-town-trail-oriented- development. Morgan, C., Schafer et al. 2010. "Impact of Cannabidiol on the Acute Memory and Psychotomimetic Effects of Smoked Cannabis: Naturalistic Study." British Journal of Psychiatry 197(4): 285-290. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. 2018a. Traffic Safety Facts: Rural/Urban Comparison of Traffic Fatalities. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration National Center for Statistics and Analysis, Washington, DC. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. 2018b. “Teen Driving Website.” Retrieved 01-Aug-2018 from https://www.nhtsa.gov/road-safety/teen-driving. National Network for the Transportation Workforce. 2018. “NNTW Website.” Retrieved 01-Aug-2018 from https://www.nntw.org/ National Research Council Committee on Health Impact Assessment. 2011. “Improving Health in the United States: The Role of Health Impact Assessment.” National Academies Press, Washington, DC. NOAA. c. 2016. "Climate Change and Extreme Snow in the U.S.". Retrieved 14-Aug-2017 from https://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/news/climate-change-and-extreme-snow-us. Norem, H. and S. Thordarson. 2001. “Winter Maintenance Practice in the Northern Periphery.” Roadex Pew Research Center. 2018a. “Defining generations where millennials end and post millennials begin.” Retrieved 1-August- 2018 from http://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2018/03/01/defining-generations-where-millennials-end-and-post- millennials-begin/ Pew Research Center. 2018b. “How millennials compare with their grandparents.” Retrieved 1-Aug-2018 from: http://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2018/03/16/how-millennials-compare-with-their-grandparents/ Pullen, E. and C. Oser. 2014. "Barriers to Substance Abuse Treatment in Rural and Urban Communities: A Counselor Perspective." Substance Use and Misuse 49(7): 891-901. RCMP. 2018. "About the RCMP." Retrieved 16-Oct-2018, from http://www.rcmp-grc.gc.ca/about-ausujet/index-eng.htm. Robinson, M., Berke et al. 2018. “This Map Shows Every State That has Legalized Marijuana.” Business Insider. New York, NY, Insider, Inc. Russell, K. 2018. “Rural sheriff’s departments struggle with low staffing levels, tightening budgets.” Retrieved 20-Dec- 2018, from https://www.thegazette.com/IowaIdeas/stories/rural-sheriffs-departments-struggle-with-low-staffing-levels- tightening-budgets-20181220 SAMSHA. 2014. Behavioral Health Trends in the United States: Results from the 2014 National Survey on Drug Use and Health. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services - Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Rockville, MD. Sander, D.E., Chapman et al. 2014. ACRP Report 113: Guidebook on General Aviation Facility Planning. Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, Washington, DC. San Francisco Safe Routes to School. 2017. "Carpool." Retrieved 25-Sept-2018, from http://www.sfsaferoutes.org/carpool/. Schwieterman, J. 2016. “The Decline and Revival of Intercity Bus Service.” TR News 303, Washington, DC. Shared-Use Mobility Center. 2018. "What is Shared Mobility?". Retrieved 25-Sept-2018, from http://sharedusemobilitycenter.org/what-is-shared-mobility/. Shladover, S. and D. Gettman. 2015. NCHRP 20-24(98) Connected/Automated Vehicle Research Roadmap for AASHTO. National Academy of Sciences, Washington, DC. Stanojević, P., Jovanović et al. 2013. "Influence of Traffic Enforcement on the Attitudes and Behavior of Drivers." Accident Analysis & Prevention 52: 29-38. Statistics Canada. 2018. "Police Resources in Canada 2017." Retrieved 16-Oct-2018, from https://www150.statcan.gc.ca/n1/pub/85-002-x/2018001/article/54912-eng.htm. Sullivan, J. 2017. “On the Road to Zero, We Cannot Ignore Rural.” In Conference Proceedings: Transportation Research Board 2018 Annual Meeting, Washington, DC.

Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap A-79 Sweet, W., Park et al. 2014. “Sea Level Rise and Nuisance Flood Frequency Changes around the United States.” National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration - National Ocean Service, Silver Spring, MD. Technology Enterprise Group. 2018. "About the National Model Program." Retrieved 16-Oct-2018, from http://www.teginc.com/nationalmodel/nm_about.html#Membership. Transportation Institute. 2021. “Jone’s Act.” Retrieved 19-Feb-2021 from https://transportationinstitute.org/jones-act/ United Air Lines. 1939. “United Air Lines Route Map.” United Air Lines, Chicago, IL. UNWTO. 2013. “Sustainable Tourism for Development Guidebook.” United Nations World Tourism Organization, Madrid, Spain. U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. 2018. “Employment, Hours, and Earnings from the Current Employment Statistics Survey - National.” U.S. Department of Labor - Bureau of Labor Statistics, Washington, DC. U.S. Bureau of Transportation Statistics. 2018. "System Mileage Within the United States." Retrieved 16-Oct-2018, from https://www.bts.gov/content/system-mileage-within-united-states. U.S. Census Bureau. c. 1952. “Number of Inhabitants: Nevada.” 28-6, United States Census Bureau, Washington, DC. U.S. Census Bureau. 2018. “State Population Totals and Components of Change 2010-2017.” United States Census Bureau, Washington, DC. U.S. Department of Agriculture. 2017. “Rural America At a Glance - 2017 Edition.” Economic Information Bulletin. United States Department of Agriculture - Economic Research Service, Washington, DC. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. 2017. Health, United States, 2016: With Chartbook on Long-Term Trends in Health. US Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics. Hyattsville, MD U.S. Department of Justice. 2000. ADA Guide for Small Towns. United States Department of Justice, Washington, DC. U.S. Department of Justice. 2000. "Project Civic Access Fact Sheet." Retrieved 15-Oct-2018, from https://www.ada.gov/civicfac.htm. U.S. Department of State. 2018. Trafficking in Persons Report. U.S. Department of State, Washington, DC. U.S. Department of Transportation. 2017a. “Subsidized EAS Report for Communities in Alaska February 2017.” Retrieved 19-Feb-2021 from https://www.transportation.gov/office-policy/aviation-policy/subsidized-eas-report-communities- alaska-february-2017 U.S. Department of Transportation. 2017b. “Subsidized EAS Report for non-Alaska Communities February 2017.” Retrieved 19-Feb- 2021 from https://www.transportation.gov/office-policy/aviation-policy/subsidized-eas-report-non- alaska-communities-february-2017 U.S. Department of Transportation. 2017c. “Essential Air Service.” Retrieved 19-Feb-2021 from https://www.transportation.gov/policy/aviation-policy/small-community-rural-air-service/essential-air-service. U.S. Department of Transportation. 2017d. “Older Drivers Set Record for Second Year.” Retrieved 01-Aug-2018 from https://www.transportation.gov/briefing-room/fhwa2017 U.S. Energy Information Administration. 2018. “Short-Term Energy Outlook (STEO) September 2018.” U.S. Energy Information Administration. Washington, DC. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. 2011. Supporting Sustainable Rural Communities: 52. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. 2016. "Climate Change Indicators: Coastal Flooding." 14-Aug-2017, from https://www.epa.gov/climate-indicators/climate-change-indicators-coastal-flooding#ref3. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. 2016. "Climate Change Indicators: Wildfires." 14-Aug-2017, from https://www.epa.gov/climate-indicators/climate-change-indicators-wildfires. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. 2021. Climate Change Indicators: Heavy Precipitation. 19-February-2021 Retrieved from h ttps://www.epa.gov/climate-indicators/climate-change-indicators-heavy-precipitation. U.S. Federal Railroad Administration. 2021a. “Accident and Incident Report System.” Retrieved 19-Feb-2021 from https://railroads.dot.gov/program-areas/highway-rail-grade-crossing/highway-rail-grade-crossings-overview. U.S. Federal Railroad Administration. 2021b. “Accident and Incident Report System.” Retrieved 19-Feb-2021 from https://railroads.dot.gov/safety-data/fra-safety-data-reporting/accident-and-incident-reporting. U.S. Federal Transit Administration. 2015. “Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA): Guidance.” FTA Circular 4710.1: 306, U.S. Federal Transit Administration, Washington, DC. U.S. Maritime Administration. 2021. “America’s Marine Highway.” Retrieved 19-Feb-2021 from https://www.maritime.dot.gov/grants/marine-highways/marine-highway. U.S. Travel Association. 2018. ”U.S. Travel and Tourism Overview - 2017.” U.S. Travel Association, Washington, DC. U.S. Travel Association. 2018. "US Travel Answer Sheet." Retrieved 26-Sept-2018, from https://www.ustravel.org/answersheet.

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Although only 19% of the population lives in rural areas, more than 70% of the U.S.’s four million miles of roadways are in rural areas. The rural transportation system also includes numerous airports; railways; inland and coastal waterways; rural and intercity buses; and bicycle, pedestrian, and multi-use paths and trails. In addition, approximately 47% of the nation’s motor vehicle fatalities occur in rural areas.

The TRB National Cooperative Highway Research Program's pre-publication draft of NCHRP Research Report 988: Rural Transportation Issues: Research Roadmap is designed to assist state departments of transportation and other public agencies and help inform policy–driven investment decisions.

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