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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Offshore Situation Room: Enhancing Resilience to Offshore Oil Disasters in the Gulf of Mexico: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26347.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Offshore Situation Room: Enhancing Resilience to Offshore Oil Disasters in the Gulf of Mexico: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26347.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Offshore Situation Room: Enhancing Resilience to Offshore Oil Disasters in the Gulf of Mexico: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26347.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Offshore Situation Room: Enhancing Resilience to Offshore Oil Disasters in the Gulf of Mexico: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26347.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Offshore Situation Room: Enhancing Resilience to Offshore Oil Disasters in the Gulf of Mexico: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26347.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Offshore Situation Room: Enhancing Resilience to Offshore Oil Disasters in the Gulf of Mexico: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26347.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Offshore Situation Room: Enhancing Resilience to Offshore Oil Disasters in the Gulf of Mexico: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26347.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Offshore Situation Room: Enhancing Resilience to Offshore Oil Disasters in the Gulf of Mexico: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26347.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Offshore Situation Room: Enhancing Resilience to Offshore Oil Disasters in the Gulf of Mexico: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26347.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Offshore Situation Room: Enhancing Resilience to Offshore Oil Disasters in the Gulf of Mexico: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26347.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Offshore Situation Room: Enhancing Resilience to Offshore Oil Disasters in the Gulf of Mexico: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26347.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Offshore Situation Room: Enhancing Resilience to Offshore Oil Disasters in the Gulf of Mexico: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26347.
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Page xiii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Offshore Situation Room: Enhancing Resilience to Offshore Oil Disasters in the Gulf of Mexico: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26347.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Offshore Situation Room: Enhancing Resilience to Offshore Oil Disasters in the Gulf of Mexico: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26347.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Offshore Situation Room: Enhancing Resilience to Offshore Oil Disasters in the Gulf of Mexico: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26347.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Offshore Situation Room: Enhancing Resilience to Offshore Oil Disasters in the Gulf of Mexico: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26347.
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Below is the uncorrected machine-read text of this chapter, intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text of each book. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

ENHANCING RESILIENCE TO OFFSHORE OIL DISASTERS IN THE GULF OF MEXICO PROCEEDINGS OF A WORKSHOP Yee San Su, Kate Fisher, Joel Silverman, Jamie Biglow, Riddhi Suva, Sydney Steward, and Karina Khazmutdinova, Rapporteurs Gulf Offshore Energy Safety Board Gulf Research Program PREPUBLICATION COPY—Uncorrected Proofs A00622 Offshore Situation Room_interior6thfinal_prepub.indd 1 11/12/21 12:29 PM

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS  500 Fifth Street, NW  Washington, DC 20001 This activity was supported by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine’s Gulf Research Program Fund. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or rec- ommendations expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect the views of any organization or agency that provided support for the project. International Standard Book Number-13: 978-0-309-XXXXX-X International Standard Book Number-10: 0-309-XXXXX-X Digital Object Identifier: https://doi.org/10.17226/26347 Additional copies of this publication are available from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, NW, Keck 360, Washington, DC 20001; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313; http://www.nap.edu. Copyright 2021 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America Suggested citation: National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Offshore Situation Room: Enhancing Resilience to Offshore Oil Disasters in the Gulf of Mexico: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. https://doi.org/10.17226/26347. PREPUBLICATION COPY—Uncorrected Proofs A00622 Offshore Situation Room_interior6thfinal_prepub.indd 2 11/12/21 12:29 PM

The National Academy of Sciences was established in 1863 by an Act of Congress, signed by President Lincoln, as a private, nongovernmental institution to advise the nation on issues related to science and technology. Members are elected by their peers for outstanding contributions to research. Dr. Marcia McNutt is president. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to bring the practices of engineering to advising the nation. Members are elected by their peers for extraordinary contributions to engineering. Dr. John L. Anderson is president. The National Academy of Medicine (formerly the Institute of Medicine) was established in 1970 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to advise the nation on medical and health issues. Members are elected by their peers for distinguished contributions to medicine and health. Dr. Victor J. Dzau is president. The three Academies work together as the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine to provide independent, objective analysis and advice to the nation and conduct other activities to solve complex problems and inform public policy decisions. The National Academies also encourage education and research, recognize outstanding contributions to knowledge, and increase public understanding in matters of science, engineering, and medicine. Learn more about the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine at www.nationalacademies.org. The Gulf Research Program (GRP) is one of seven major divisions of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. The GRP’s mission is to develop, translate, and apply science, engineering, and medical knowledge to enhance offshore energy safety, environmental protection and stewardship, and human health and community resilience in the Gulf region in ways that empower its citizens. It supports innovative science, guides data design and monitoring, and builds and sustains networks that transform results to action. PREPUBLICATION COPY—Uncorrected Proofs A00622 Offshore Situation Room_interior6thfinal_prepub.indd 3 11/12/21 12:29 PM

Consensus Study Reports published by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine document the evidence-based consensus on the study’s statement of task by an authoring committee of experts. Reports typically include findings, conclusions, and recommendations based on information gathered by the committee and the committee’s deliberations. Each report has been subjected to a rigorous and independent peer-review process and it represents the position of the National Academies on the statement of task. Proceedings published by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine chronicle the presentations and discussions at a workshop, symposium, or other event convened by the National Academies. The statements and opinions contained in proceedings are those of the participants and are not endorsed by other participants, the planning committee, or the National Academies. For information about other products and activities of the National Academies, please visit www.nationalacademies.org/about/whatwedo. PREPUBLICATION COPY—Uncorrected Proofs A00622 Offshore Situation Room_interior6thfinal_prepub.indd 4 11/12/21 12:29 PM

PLANNING COMMITTEE ON OFFSHORE SITUATION ROOM: ENHANCING RESILIENCE TO OFFSHORE OIL DISASTERS IN THE GULF OF MEXICO1 RICHARD SEARS (Chair starting January 29, 2021; Co-Chair until January 28, 2021), Stanford University PATRICK A. BARNES, BFA Environmental and Limitless Vistas PAUL G. GAFFNEY II (NAE) (until October 2019) DAVID J. HAYES (Co-Chair until January 2021) SHIRLEY LASKA (until August 2020) JANE LUBCHENCO (until February 2021) BRIAN M. SALERNO, Cruise Lines International Association FRANCIS WIESE, Stantec CHARLES R. WILLIAMS, Independent Consultant and Center for Offshore Safety (Retired) MONICA WILSON, Florida Sea Grant Project Staff LAUREN ALEXANDER AUGUSTINE, Executive Director, Gulf Research Program ELLEN BANNON, Research Assistant, Gulf Offshore Energy Safety (until June 2021) ALEXIS BHADHA, Senior Program Assistant, Gulf Offshore Energy Safety KIERRA CHINN, Communications Specialist, Gulf Research Program LAUREN EVERETT, Senior Program Officer, Division on Earth and Life Studies (until March 2020) NIKAELA FLOURNOY, Mirzayan Fellow, Gulf Research Program (until March 2020) KARINA KHAZMUTDINOVA, Senior Program Officer, Gulf Offshore Energy Safety JAMES PETTIGREW, Board Director, Gulf Offshore Energy Safety 1 The National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine’s planning committees are solely responsible for organizing the workshop, identifying topics, and choosing speakers or participants. The responsibility for the published Proceedings of a Workshop rests with the workshop rapporteurs and the institution. v PREPUBLICATION COPY—Uncorrected Proofs A00622 Offshore Situation Room_interior6thfinal_prepub.indd 5 11/12/21 12:29 PM

Consultants PALU ABADIA, MediaTank SEBASTIAN BAE, Research Analyst, Center for Naval Analyses JAMIE BIGLOW, Senior Research Specialist, Center for Naval Analyses KATE FISHER, Senior Research Scientist, Center for Naval Analyses NISHA MEHLING GALIONE, Senior Consultant and Facilitator, Compass Consulting MISCHA HEDGES, MediaTank MICHAEL KLEIMAN, MediaTank ERIN MOHRES, Director, Homeland Security Center, Center for Naval Analyses JEREMY SEPINSKY, Lead Wargame Designer, Center for Naval Analyses JOEL SILVERMAN, Senior Research Scientist, Center for Naval Analyses CHRIS STEINITZ, Senior Research Scientist, Center for Naval Analyses SYDNEY STEWART, Research Specialist, Center for Naval Analyses YEE SAN SU, Principal Research Scientist, Center for Naval Analyses RIDDHI SUVA, Research Specialist, Center for Naval Analyses RACHEL THOMPSON, Senior Consultant and Facilitator, Compass Consulting REBEKAH YANG, Systems Engineer III, Center for Naval Analyses vi PREPUBLICATION COPY—Uncorrected Proofs A00622 Offshore Situation Room_interior6thfinal_prepub.indd 6 11/12/21 12:29 PM

GULF OFFSHORE ENERGY SAFETY BOARD1 RICHARD SEARS (Chair), Stanford University SAN BURNETT (Vice Chair), BHP KENNETH ARNOLD (NAE), K. Arnold Consulting Inc./ Worley Parsons NAJMEDIN MESHKATI, University of Southern California ROLAND MOREAU, MacroSys MONICA PHILIPPART, Ergonomic Human Factors Solutions TERRANCE SOOKDEO, Baker Hughes DUSTIN TORKAY, Seadrill Management SYLVIE TRAN, Suncor Energy LATONIA VIVERETTE BATISTE, WSP USA MICHAEL WILL, MRW Operations Consulting, LLC CHARLES WILLIAMS, Independent Consultant DING ZHU, Texas A&M University LYNDON ARSCOTT (NAE), Ex-Officio, International Association of Oil and Gas Producers (Retired) Board Staff JAMES PETTIGREW, Director ALEXIS BHADHA, Senior Program Assistant JENNIFER SUMMERS, Program Officer KARINA KHAZMUTDINOVA, Senior Program Officer 1 The National Academes of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine’s boards, forums, and roundtables do not issue, review, or approve individual documents. The responsibility for the published Proceedings of a Workshop rests with the workshop rapporteurs and the institution. vii PREPUBLICATION COPY—Uncorrected Proofs A00622 Offshore Situation Room_interior6thfinal_prepub.indd 7 11/12/21 12:29 PM

PREPUBLICATION COPY—Uncorrected Proofs A00622 Offshore Situation Room_interior6thfinal_prepub.indd 8 11/12/21 12:29 PM

Reviewers This Proceedings of a Workshop was reviewed in draft form by indi- viduals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise. The purpose of this independent review was to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the National Academies in making each published proceedings as sound as possible and to ensure that it meets the institutional standards for quality, objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their review of this proceedings: WILLIAM BURNETT, United States Navy CRAIG CASTILLE, HWCG LLC DAVIN HOLEN, Alaska Sea Grant LIESEL RITCHIE, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University ANN HAYWARD WALKER, SEA Consulting Group Although the reviewers listed above provided many constructive com- ments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the content of the ix PREPUBLICATION COPY—Uncorrected Proofs

x REVIEWERS proceedings nor did they see the final draft before its release. The review of this proceedings was overseen by SANDRO GALEA, Boston University. He was responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this proceedings was carried out in accordance with the standards of the National Academies and that all review comments were carefully consid- ered. Responsibility for the final content rests entirely with the rapporteurs and the National Academies. PREPUBLICATION COPY—Uncorrected Proofs A00622 Offshore Situation Room_interior6thfinal_prepub.indd 10 11/12/21 12:29 PM

Acknowledgments The Offshore Situation Room (OSR) was a collaborative effort; the successful execution of the event would not have been possible without the invaluable contributions of the speakers, moderators, and participants who actively participated in discussions and shared their experience, time, and forward-looking ideas. We wish to extend sincere thanks to all of the members of the planning committee for their contributions in scoping, developing, and carrying out this project. On behalf of the planning com- mittee and the Gulf Offshore Energy Safety Board (GOES), we would also like to thank GOES Senior Program Officer Karina Khazmutdinova and Research Assistant Ellen Bannon for ably shepherding this activity through many changes and challenges during the COVID-19 pandemic. The Gulf Research Program (GRP) and the planning committee would also like to give a special thanks to Admiral Thad Allen (U.S. Coast Guard, retired) for his continued support of the event and his opening and closing remarks. The GRP also wishes to thank the Center for Naval Analyses for its expertise and insights in developing a set of serious games and seamlessly converting a highly complex, in-person event into a virtual environment after the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic. Compass Consulting’s assis- tance and help with executing OSR is very much appreciated. Addition- ally, thank you to MediaTank for producing a set of videos that convey the importance of events such as OSR. xi PREPUBLICATION COPY—Uncorrected Proofs A00622 Offshore Situation Room_interior6thfinal_prepub.indd 11 11/12/21 12:29 PM

PREPUBLICATION COPY—Uncorrected Proofs A00622 Offshore Situation Room_interior6thfinal_prepub.indd 12 11/12/21 12:29 PM

Preface More than a decade after the Deepwater Horizon disaster, the Gulf Research Program (GRP) convened a virtual event on consecutive half- days—the Offshore Situation Room (OSR)—to stimulate and enhance understanding of the current collective ability to address an offshore oil disaster in the Gulf of Mexico region, develop new insights, and identify a collective agenda to help catalyze solutions before any future disaster. Designed uniquely around a set of four serious games,1 OSR represented an ambitious use of gameplay and virtual tools to allow 60 participants—from industry, academia, the community, various levels of government, and non- governmental organizations—to share their experiences and perspectives and work toward building a shared agenda for moving forward. In doing so, the event aligns and contributes to the GRP’s broader vision of “a more safe, resilient, and sustainable future for the Gulf and all those who call the region home” or rely on its abundant resources.2 James Pettigrew, Director Gulf Offshore Energy Safety Board 1 Serious games are games built for an analytic, educational, and contextual purpose, not games that are designed simply to be played for fun. 2 The Gulf Research Program: 2020–2024 Strategic Plan is available at https://www. nationalacademies.org/_cache_32b6/content/4885770000227383.pdf. xiii PREPUBLICATION COPY—Uncorrected Proofs A00622 Offshore Situation Room_interior6thfinal_prepub.indd 13 11/12/21 12:29 PM

PREPUBLICATION COPY—Uncorrected Proofs A00622 Offshore Situation Room_interior6thfinal_prepub.indd 14 11/12/21 12:29 PM

Contents SUMMARY 1 1 INTRODUCTION 7 2 OPENING PLENARY: “A DECADE LATER, WHERE WE ARE AT AND WHERE WE ARE GOING: A NATIONAL INCIDENT COMMANDER PERSPECTIVE” 17 3 INCIDENT-PHASE GAME OBSERVATIONS 23 4 NEEDS AND PLANNING GAME ACTIONS 29 5 CLOSING PLENARY: “WHAT JUST HAPPENED?” 39 6 NEXT STEPS 43 APPENDIXES A IDENTIFIED ACTIONS 47 B EVENT AGENDA 57 C BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES OF KEYNOTE SPEAKER AND PLANNING COMMITTEE MEMBERS 61 D REGISTERED EVENT PARTICIPANTS 67 xv PREPUBLICATION COPY—Uncorrected Proofs A00622 Offshore Situation Room_interior6thfinal_prepub.indd 15 11/12/21 12:29 PM

PREPUBLICATION COPY—Uncorrected Proofs A00622 Offshore Situation Room_interior6thfinal_prepub.indd 16 11/12/21 12:29 PM

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More than a decade after the Deepwater Horizon disaster, the Gulf Research Program convened a diverse group of 60 experts in a virtual event to inform its efforts to enhance resilience to future offshore oil disasters in the Gulf of Mexico region. The event, Offshore Situation Room, took place over three half-days during June 15-17, 2021, and had four main objectives: 1) develop a concise, prioritized list of questions that need to be addressed to support successful prevention, response, and recovery that would minimize the impacts of an offshore oil disaster; 2) provide a collaborative atmosphere where participants can share ideas, capabilities, and information, and build a community dedicated to the successful prevention of, response to, and recovery from an offshore oil spill disaster; 3) explore capabilities for and impediments to prevention, response, recovery, and understanding impacts of an offshore oil disaster in the Gulf of Mexico; and 4) highlight how changes in policy, response, resilience, and restoration efforts may affect outcomes of a major offshore incident. This publication summarizes the presentations and discussion of the event.

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